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1 Meaning of hierarchyThe word hierarchy comes from the Greek word "hieros" identifying with that term to sacred orders.
Speaking of hierarchy we allude to a qualitative or quantitative order, different values, beings or things above and below. Ordered in hierarchy is staggered by differential degrees a series of animate or inanimate things, where that is a step above is considered to be better, stronger, more suitable, with leadership etc., as the case may be of the nature of the thing in question, with respect to the positioned below. Be in the same hierarchy means having all the same degree of importance.
The animals in the natural order established hierarchies according to its power of domination. In this way, we can say that the lion would occupy the top of the hierarchy, considered the King of the jungle, which exercised full control over others, located in lower hierarchies.
In the solar system we can say that the Sun occupies the higher hierarchy as to its revolve around all planets.
In human societies, the social hierarchy was one constant among the peoples of antiquity, the middle ages and modernity, where certain classes enjoyed privileges with respect to each other, were considered and evaluated as best by its activity (as the clergy) or by its birth (such as the nobility). The feudal order established a clear hierarchical distinction in the chain of vassalage, where the vassals owed obedience to their feudal lords and pledge of allegiance were to pay through a ritual ceremony called tribute.
With the French Revolution was abolished the feudal order and privileges, establishing the legal equality of all persons. Currently maintains the concept of hierarchies in certain areas for organizational reasons, where it is needed to maintain the relationship command for purposes of control and efficiency. Thus we see that there are hierarchies in (managerial, administrative, operational categories) job charts in the military sphere, in the Catholic Church (maximum hierarchy, Pope), in schools, etc.
2. Definition of hierarchyThe hierarchy is the form of organization that will be assigned to different elements of the same system, that persons, animals or things, ascending or descending, by criteria of class, can be either power, Office, authority, category, or any other type that can think of us, still the more arbitrary, but shop and meet a classification criterion. This implies that each element will be subordinate to whoever is above yours, with the exception, obviously, of he who occupies the first place in the hierarchy.
For example, in the animal Kingdom it is where better established and whites seem to acknowledge hierarchies; a bird, never (really ever...) would try to override the power of a cat, his immediate predecessor in the chain of hierarchy that is defined in the food pyramid. This simple example of relationship between species is also perceived at the intraspecific level. This means, in simplified terms, characterizing the conduct of the gregarious animals hierarchies. In this way, the social insects are organized in a structure whereby only a couple is ready to reproduce, with a Queen that spawns hundreds of sterile individuals who play the role of workers and soldiers. On the other hand, the gregarious mammals, such as wolves, are also surrounded by a hierarchical structure in which there are defined leaders. Unlike insects, which are rigid and very asymmetrical societies social groups of mammals are characterized by their mobility, that is, by the substitution in the event of disability or physical deficiency of the leaders.
The term hierarchy, is also for a few years, widely common and used in the jargon of management of organizations to make reference to the chain of command who usually observe these and going in descending order from the more hierarchical, or high posts in which we find the President, directors and managers, following by the intermediate, as it may be any qualified professional employees but that is not a decision level as high as the newly appointed leaders. Finally to subordinates or employees who do not have any possibility of management. In enterprises, then, will be the hierarchy which will establish the relations of authority between managers and employees and which is determined the organizational structure.
Military structures, in which the hierarchy is part of the daily agenda are defined in a similar format. The possibility of scale positions in these organizations depends on multiple factors, but, one way or another, is mobile hierarchies with the possibility of growth on the scale. The church hierarchies are organized in a comparable way, in which the possibility of growing depends on many variables.
Topic of debate among sociologists is the definition of the existence of innate hierarchies in human societies, since most of hierarchical structures are based on elaborate models. It is postulated that part of the behavior of human beings has biological basis, by which presumed tendency to the organization in hierarchies that would arise from the nature. Yet much research is required to reach definitive conclusions.
3 Concept of hierarchyHierarchy is an order of elements according to their value. It is the gradation of persons, animals or objects according to criteria of class, type, category or another topic that allows to develop a classification system.
The hierarchy, so it is a descending or ascending order. The concept is often associated with power, which is the ability to do something or the domain to send. Who occupied the highest positions in the hierarchical scale, has power over others.
The companies are hierarchical organizations. In a simplified structure, the owner is who ranks highest in the hierarchy: nobody makes decisions without their consent. Back managers, heads of divisions and finally employees are with no one in charge. These hierarchical divisions assume that those who are in the lower categories must obey their superiors.
A State Government also has a hierarchical organization, but softened by the obligation to respect constitutional processes and various regulations. In a Republic, the President is who instructs the Ministers; These, in turn, can be sent to the Secretaries.
In the animal world, the hierarchy is usually established through force and aggression. The stronger animals manage to establish an order of dominance over other individuals of the same species, who abide by this hierarchy of relationships.
Hierarchy, finally, is used as a synonym for value in everyday language: "all teams need players of that hierarchy", "a painter of this hierarchy does not expose every three or four years".