1. The seven wonders of the ancient world

The 7 Wonders of the ancient history.

The pyramids of Gazans

The most ancient of wonders, and, curiously, the only one that has come down to us, is the monumental ensemble of the pyramids of Giza, in Egypt. We have all heard of them and know their appearance, just as we know that they were the tombs of the Pharaohs. But closer, and find out some interesting details.

The Egyptians began building pyramids a lot time ago, along its ancient Empire: the oldest have nearly five thousand years! Indeed, the oldest which is known is step of Sakkara, Tomb pyramid of the Pharaoh Djoser, dating back to the 2750 BC. The architect, inventor of the pyramid was the Grand Vizier, and famous wise, Inhotep. After this first example, the Egyptians continued to build pyramids until well into the Middle Kingdom, that was passed to use the underground tomb instead of the pyramids. However, of the former empire have been left us nothing less than eighty of these, scattered throughout the lower Egypt.

The hanging of Babylon jardinez

Towards the year 600 BC, Nabucodonosor II, King of the Chaldeans, wanted to make his wife, Amytis, daughter of the King of the Medes, a gift that showed his love for her and remember her beautiful mountains of their home in florida, so different from the Great Plains of Babylon.
According to a legend, on the other hand, gardens have been built in the 11th century BC But then he reigned in Babylon Shammuramat, called Semiramis by the Greeks, as regent for his son Adadnirari III. It was a brave Queen, who conquered the India and Egypt. But it not resisted his son colluding to defeat it, and ended up committing suicide. It belongs to the ancient Mesopotamia and is part of the wonders of the ancient world.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Our journey now takes us to Greek lands, where we will seek most of the wonders that we are missing to see. The classical Greece is the true beacon of civilization of its time, and it is no wonder that it is there where artists flourish and made his most exalted works.
We stop in the city of Ephesus, on the shores of the Ionian Sea and near the mouth of the small meander. We are still in the middle of the 6th century BC. This city has always been a center of worship to the goddess Artemis, later called Diana by the Romans. It's the Queen of the wild nature and wild animals, and usually representár is it accompanied by a hind and armed with bow and arrows. From very old, there is a temple dedicated to the goddess. But in the 7th century BC, the city suffered attack by the Sumerians, and although she refused, could not prevent the temple to ignite and was destroyed.

Statue of Zeus

Our trip will now skip a century later in time, but in compensation will not visit just distance; just a few kilometres up to Olympia, in the Élida, religious of the ancient Greece where worships the main among all gods Center: Zeus. Here, under Mount Olympus (one of the many that exist in Greece with that name), is held every four years the most famous festivities in honor of Zeus: the Olympics.
We are in the 450 BC., and you are finished building the impressive temple of Zeus, which is sparing no means: the best sculptors of Greece working on it. The two pediments represent preparations of Pelops and Oenomaus athletic competition for the hand of Hippodamia, and the battle between lapiths and Centaurs at the wedding of Piritoo. These pediments, together with the metopes, will be considered not only the most important sculptural group of the severe style, but the most notable sculptural series of classical Greek art along with the Parthenon.
Its author, who does not know the name, will be known as the master of Olympia.

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

We return to jump a century forward in time, and arrived at the year 352 BC. The wonders of the world, which already numbered four, come back to be only three, put that Herostratus has just consummated his infamous work by destroying the Temple of ARTEMIS, made just four years. But the relay will arrive right away: a new wonder will be built, giving such coincidences between both, which seems to work a good magic decided to compensate the loss.
We are in Halicarnassus in Caria, a State of Asia minor. It's a major city; even with a factory of those strange discs of metal invented by Croesus who of currency.
The city looks magnificent: Mausolus has managed to bring it to its zenith. But now the city is in mourning, Mausolus has just passed away. What Tomb, grave so enough for a King? His widow Artemisa takes the decision to not repair costs; and suddenly, as if the entire city knew that never again would live once so magnificent as the Mausolus, preparing to demonstrate its recognition, making it the most special burial of history, therefore it will give name to the "mausoleums" to be constructed in the future.
The works are already underway: the satyrs and Piteos architects built a rectangular podium; over it, rises a Colonnade of Ionic order; on this, a stepped pyramid. And at the top, a statue depicting a Quadriga. The set reaches the dizzying height of 50 meters. But that is not all; the best Greek sculptors of the era sculpted reliefs and statues: Bryaxis, Timothy, Leucastes and the famous Scopas (which has nothing to do, except for the name, with the sculptor of the Temple of ARTEMIS).

Lighthouse of Alexandria

We are going to jump now about seventy years forward, and travel back to Egypt. We are in the year 280 BC., and since Alejandro released this state of the Persian domain, ties between Greeks and Egyptians have narrowed: so much so that his King Ptolomeo II, is of Greek origin.
This fusion of Egyptians and Greeks has special relevance in the capital, Alexandria. Founded by Alexander the great in 332 a. c., this thriving city has become the most important focus of helena culture.
But this time the wonder won't be a temple, nor any other kind of building, but a tower. To guide the many ships that constantly come to Alexandria, the King has decided to build a tower that identify the location of the city from far away. To do so, they have chosen the small lighthouse island, overlooking the harbor.
Architect Sostrato de Cnido directs the works, as they advance, acquired a more impressive appearance. When it is complete, the tower is more than 120 meters. At its peak it is equipped with metal mirrors to signal its position reflecting the light of the Sun; and in the evenings, in the absence of light, light a bonfire.
This wonder will last enough: a few thousand six hundred years, until tear in century XIV the earthquakes down it. Again, as the mausoleum, the name of this wonder - which in reality is "the lighthouse Tower" - appoint all made subsequent constructions in order to show the way to the ships.

Colossus of Rhodes

Without traveling just in time (just a few three years forward, until the 277 BC.) we are going to witness the construction of the last of the wonders. To do this we will abandon Asia minor and we will go into the Aegean Sea. There, just 18 kilometers from the coast, find the largest of the Sporades Islands: Rhodes. It is important because its city of the same name, is the capital of the Dodecanese archipelago made up of about twenty Islands. The geographical location of Rhodes is privileged to trade with Greece, Asia minor and Egypt, and thanks to that has become the most important commercial center of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Therefore no wonder that some power of the time ambicione seize Rhodes and try to take it, as Macedonia. Their King, Demetrio I Poliarcetes, is known for his experience in the military art, especially in the sieges, so that in future the military refer to the technique to lay siege to fortresses as "Poliarcética". Demetrio attacks, Rhodes. However, the city resists the ravages of this fearsome Warrior, who finally retires.
To celebrate this victory, the city decided to raise a memorable monument to Helios, God of the Sun, in the port. He directed works Cares of Lindos, disciple of Lysippos. The statue grows, first frame of iron and bronze plates. Finally, when the statue measures no less than 32 meters high. His fame will attract travelers from all over the ancient world to see it.
Source consulted or translated:   Las Siete Maravillas del Mundo Antiguo

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