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Definition of utilitarianism
1 Meaning of utilitarianismUtilitarianism is a philosophical doctrine that places the utility as a principle of morality. It is a teleological ethical system that determines the moral conception based on the final result.
The results, therefore, are the basis to utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was one of the pioneers in the development of this philosophy, to consider its ethical system around the notion of pleasure and away from physical pain. The utilitarianism of Bentham appears related to hedonism, since it considers that moral actions are those which maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) advanced with the development of this philosophy, although away from the hedonism. For Mill, pleasure or general happiness must be calculated from the greater good for the greatest number of people, although it recognises that certain pleasures are "superior" to others.
It is important to note that utilitarianism was a break from the way of thinking. While the moral religious was based on rules and divine revelations, utilitarianism put the results. In this way, the reason replaced faith in the determination of morality.
Utilitarianism always stood out for its relative simplicity. To think if an action is moral, no need to estimate the negative and positive consequences. When good overcomes evil, it can be considered that it is a moral action.
Beyond the philosophical system, the notion of utilitarianism have a critical sense to nominate the attitude to evaluate the usefulness of exaggerated and that puts their achievement to anything else.
2. Definition of utilitarianismUtilitarianism is an ethical conception that considers human life is oriented to the satisfaction of an ultimate goal that is the pleasure, which achieves happiness, which determines the morality of the acts.
Avoid the pain, and get feeling good, are the goals of life and everything to her is oriented as a result, is ethical. An action will be qualified as fair according to how much happiness provided or how much damage or improperly avoid (in this case would be a negative utilitarianism) measured in general, i.e. not individually.
The fathers of utilitarianism have been Jeremy Bentham and his disciple, John Stuart Mill, who founded the utilitarian society in 1822. The first proposed to carry out a calculation between the various pleasures; choose between two pleasures to the most intense, the most durable, which is pure, or which do not bring associated headaches, and which benefits to more number of people, whereas to those who choose as one more. For example, buy a book should be preferred to a garment, because it increases our knowledge forever and stimulates our imagination. The biggest concern of Bentham, was, precisely, combat ignorance.
For Stuart Mill, the choice between different pleasures should be, preferring those of higher quality, these being the intellectual, emotional, and which awaken the imagination, still below those of the rest of the animals, which are the sensory pleasures. The choice of the latter by humans is to Mill the lack of education. As man is by nature selfish, to promote altruism must be coincide with his own general interest.