Definition of Gothic art
1 Meaning of Gothic artThe Gothic art is a type of artistic style which was born in Western Europe during the last years of the middle ages, approximately from the 12th century until the arrival of the Renaissance in the 15th century. The kick-off occurs in the North of France and hence will expand by throughout the West. Then, to be contemporary to the fullness and the crisis of the middle ages, both situations will be reflected in its production.
It should be noted that depending on the country concerned and the regions, will it develop in different chronological moments, i.e., it occurs in all Nations simultaneously. Therefore, is that in all their events there are profound differences, well pure in France, although being different from Paris with regard to the Provence, closer to the classical tradition in the case of Italy and in Flanders, England, Germany, Castile and Aragon with local singularities.
The big news that provides with respect to its predecessor, the Romanesque, the Gothic is the construction of elevated cathedrals provided with plenty of light.
In architecture the highlight is the introduction of the pointed arch, which commonly called are ogival, which happens the vault, facilitating the displacement of the thrusts to external buttresses, being precisely this which allowed the construction of high and large buildings.
The philosophical-theological conception of the time derivative is that the light in buildings; joined not concentrated but rather fuzzy and colored light thanks to the games proposed rosettes and stained glass Windows. The light would be allowing approaching the purest form.
Sculpture carvings are kept in stone of the previous movement, although printed it a more natural on the elongated and rigid style predominantly.
And as for painting, although there is no specific breakdown with respect to its predecessor, little by little more bleak, dark and emotional features were added.
2. Definition of Gothic artGothic art expression was employed by the historian and Italian artist Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574), Renaissance, designating it, the art of the Goths, village located in the current France medieval barbarian (formerly Gaul), which was developed from the year 1150 until the beginning of the 16th century.
It happens at a time in which the decline of the feudal power is given and begins the awakening of urban life, and artistic expression free and humanistic, with an abundance of forms, and dedicated especially to meet the demands of the emerging bourgeoisie. The connotation of "Gothic" in the beginning, was pejorative. Gothic art, with romanticism was newly appreciated.
Art Roman, predecessor of the Gothic, especially in architecture, which adopted structures you solid and closed, they opposed him lighter constructions, illuminated and airy, to decompress weight that should withstand the walls, doing fall on columns, groin vaults, and other support systems. Thus the walls could have Windows and buildings charge height. This was gradual, as early Gothic was still solid and sturdy, with features similar to the Romanesque art, so also he called it romano-gotico.
Your first example, should find him, near Paris, with the construction, between 1132 and 1144, under the direction of Abbot Suger, of the Abbey of Saint Denis. In 1163 began construction at Paris in the Church of Notre Dame. They are buildings that still do not charge as much height, nor have as much ornamentation, which will be newly achieved in full Gothic, but greater lighting than the previous period.
The Cathedral, as exponent of the Gothic architecture, characterized by Dome vaults, the Lancet arch and the Outrigger, not only set in the center of the city for religious purposes, but also civil and corporate. Also existed buildings next to cathedrals.
To the fullness of Gothic art, correspond the imposing cathedrals of Chartres, Amiens and Reims, with Central naves of great height and large Windows.
The Gothic style, of French origin, spread to England and Germany since the 13th century, with a predominance of verticality. In England is example, Salisbury Cathedral, in Germany, Cologne, Strasbourg and Freiburg.
It then goes on to Italy. For example, we can see it in the Cathedral of Milan, but the Renaissance style scrolls to Gothic. In the Netherlands has been replaced stone which was a scarce material, by bricks. In Spain it was introduced by the monasteries of the Cistercian order. The great Spanish Gothic cathedrals of the 13th century, are located in Castile, Leon, Toledo and Burgos. In the 14th century Gothic art stands out in the Levante area, with the cathedrals of Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca.
As we said the Gothic evolved forms increasingly slender and light, more and more decorated, but that they are simultaneously removing harmony, until you reach expressions such as the Church of Magdalena, in Troyes.