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What is the meaning of Surrealism? Concept, Definition of Surrealism


Definition of surrealism

Here you will find one or more meanings in your language for the word or expression: surrealism. As well as definitions of the pages of Wikipedia and other websites related to the word surrealism and, of course, synonym of surrealism with the appropriate related images with the use of the term surrealism.

Portrait in "Vertumnus" (summer) of the Emperor Rudolph II by Giuseppe Arcimboldo. All the fruits and flowers represented in the box were typical of the summer season in the 16th century. Some surrealists saw in it a precursor.

1. Concept of surrealism

The irrational attitude of the movement "Dadá" led to a larger attempt: surrealism. Surrealism is an artistic and literary movement emerged in France in the early 20th century, is the last major manifestation of modern art before the start of the terrible second world war that changed the conception of art in Europe. Known as the movement of the irrational and the unconscious in art of the avant-garde, arises in the field literary but soon embraces everything, thought, arts, cinema and theatre.

The spokesman of the movement was the magazine Littérature directed by a group of Breton, Aragon, Soupault and Éluard poets, founded in 1919.

Galatea de las Esferas (1952)
Salvador Dali

These poets adopted the word surrealism to define a method of simultaneous writing which were experimenting with:

“... Pure psychic automatism, by means which tries to express verbally or in writing, or in any other way, the actual process of thought. The dictation of thought, free of any control of reason, independent of moral or aesthetic concerns..."

The singing fish Miro Joan

The surrealist production was characterized by the exaltation of the oniric process, the corrosive humor and eroticism, conceived this as a weapon of struggle against tradition, morality and bourgeois culture. The approaches of the surrealist movement against tradition and bourgeois life had a political root and a sector of the surrealism began to consider insufficient the cultural manifestations and joined the French Communist Party. Thus arose the first discrepancy in the heart of the movement with regard to the relationship between art and politics.

The first surrealist exhibition was held in Paris in 1925, and in addition to Arp and De Chirico, Ernst, also hung his Picasso, Tanguy, Miró and Klee, works that would later be separated from the movement or keep some links with some of their principles. A few years later joined the movement artists like Dalí and Buñuel, among others.

Manifests contradictory occurred and the movement began to disperse it. Despite its deterioration, in 1938 it held in Paris the international surrealist exhibition, since the movement had spread by many countries.Soon after, World War II paralyzes activity in Europe and disperses the surrealist artists, many of whom (including Breton) exile in New York. There is an Association of German and French surrealist painters around the magazine VVV. After the world war, in 1946, Surrealism as a unitary movement practically had already disappeared.

The domain of Arnheim (1949)
(Le domaine d´Arnheim)
René François Ghislain Magritte

In the field of Visual Arts, surrealist painters are manifested in two different ways, the figurative surrealists interested via the dream (Delvaux, Magritte and Dali, among others) and serving of realism, techniques and traditional pictorial resources; and the abstract surrealists, who practice pure psychic automatism (Masson, Miro) and invented grafico-plasticos own universes.

• Figuration with subjective dream character theme based on the techniques of Freud's unconscious (the figurative character disappears in the so-called "abstract surrealism").
• Interpretation of reality from dream, unconscious, magic and irrationality.
• Combination of disparate images (real or unreal), both in time and in space.
• In addition to the oneiric, representation of all kinds of symbols, especially sexual and erotic.
• Imaging equivocal to so the same thing can be interpreted in several ways (principle of "discordance"), for example, a cloud may look like the head of an animal or something else.
• Gives importance to the paradox, absurdity, forfeiture, destruction, and the mysterious.
• Objects and shapes are cleared of its traditional meaning ("disorientation" principle), the observer is disoriented, not knowing what to expect.

Nude in a landscape (1923)

Dali touch all styles: Classic, Baroque, ingenuismo, Futurism, etc.
• Spectacular use of the Conic perspective exaggerating the sense of depth (creation of large spaces and distances).
• Creation in the perceptual games and ilusionisticos box.
• Detailed pictorial execution with great care of the drawing and figure (Dali).
• Use of chiaroscuro and the patterned colour.
• Invention of new methods and techniques: grattage, frottage, and automatic painting

2 Meaning of surrealism

Surrealism emerged in France, as an evolution of Dadaism, towards a construction of reality from dreams, influenced by Freudian psychoanalysis, being called this movement, surrealism, with the meaning of place beyond the real, in the unconscious of reality Association; by the Dadaist, and French poet Guillaume Apollinaire in 1917, when he premiered his play that he himself described as a surreal drama: "The breasts of Tiresias".
The poet André Breton (1896-1966) is considered the father of this movement, author of the "surrealist manifesto" in 1924, advocating a thought free, untethered the reasoning, moral or aesthetic, governed by the operator, as if it were to represent the dreams.
Surrealism was born in poetry and then spread to painting and sculpture, as a consequence of that, extending to the political starting from 1925, identifying with the Communist ideology. Born in Paris, he managed to form groups in Belgium, Switzerland, England and Czechoslovakia.
Francis Picabia (1879-1953) after entering the post-impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism in and excelling in Dadaism, joined surrealism. However, Breton in his "second surrealist manifesto" of 1929, condemned it for not belonging to the Communist ideology.
In painting stood out Max Ernst (1891-1976) where fantasy is represented so convincingly that it appears as real.
Joan Miró (1893-1983) Spanish painted symbols and scribbles, a personal universe, product of his fertile imagination. Works: "The Carnival of Harlequin" (1925) and "Dutch Interior" (1928) among others.
The most popular was Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) with dreamlike images of various meanings: "The persistence of memory" in 1931, also known as "Soft watches" by the incorporation of watches deformed to the landscape of a sunset on the beach, give the impression of subjectivity of time and space.

3. Definition of surrealism

Surrealism (in French: surréalisme; South ['envelope, above'] more ['realism'] Réalisme) is an artistic and literary movement emerged in France from Dadaism, in the Decade of the 1920s, around the personality of the poet André Breton.
Origin of the term
The terms surrealism and surrealist come from Guillaume Apollinaire who coined them in 1917. In the programme he wrote for the musical Parade (May 1917) says that its authors have achieved:
an alliance between the painting and dance, between the Visual Arts and the Mimetic, that is the harbinger of a wider still to come art. (...) This new Alliance (...) has resulted, in Parade to a kind of surrealism, which consider the starting point for a wide range of manifestations of the new spirit that is making feel today and which will undoubtedly attract our best minds. We expect to cause profound changes in our arts and customs through the universal joy, as it is simply natural, after all, that they carry the pace with scientific and industrial progress.
The surreal word appears in the subtitle of the breasts of Tiresias (surrealist drama), in June 1917, to refer to the creative reproduction of an object, which enriches and transforms it. As Apollinaire writes in the preface to the drama:
When the man wanted to imitate the action of walking, he created the wheel, which is not similar to a leg. In the same way has created unconsciously, surrealism... After all, the scenario does not resemble life that represents more than a wheel to a leg.
The surrealists drew as precedents of the surrealist company various thinkers and artists, as the thinker Heraclitus, the Marquis de Sade and Charles Fourier presocratico, among others. In the painting, the most notable precedent is Hieronymus Bosch "Bosco", which in the 15th and 16th centuries created works such as "The garden of earthly delights" and "The Hay Wain". Surrealism takes these elements and provides a systematic formulation of the same. But its more immediate precedent is Dadaism, current that takes different aspects.


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