Definition, Concept, Meaning, What is Augustus
1. Concept of AugustusCaius Iulius Caesar Augustus (Rome, September 23, 63 b.c. - Nola, August 19, 14 d. C.), in Spanish Cayo Julio César Augusto, known as Caesar Augustus, and most commonly as Augustus was the first emperor of the Roman Empire. He ruled between 27 BC and 14 d. C., year of his death, thus becoming the Roman emperor with the longer reign of history.
Born under the name of Cayo Octavio Turino, was adopted by his uncle grandfather Julio Cesar in his will, in the year 44 BC From that moment until 27 a. C. became known as Cayo Julio Cesar Ottaviano. 27 A. C. the Senate granted him use the cognomen of «Augustus», and therefore became Cayo Julio César Augusto. Because of the several names that he held, it is common to call him "Octavio" referring to the events that occurred between 63 and 44 a. C., «Octaviano» of 44 to 27 b.c. and «Augustus» after 27 to. C. In the Greek sources, Augustus is known as Ὀκταβίος ("Octavio»), Καῖσαρ ("Caesar"), Αὔγουστος(«Augusto») or Σεβαστός ("Venerable", literal translation of Augustus), depending on the context.
The young Octavio became heir to Julio Cesar after this assassination in 44 BC. A year later, in 43 BC, formed along with Mark Antony and Lepidus a military dictatorship known as the second triumvirate. As a Triumvir, Octavian ruled Rome and most of its provinces as an autocrat, with consular power after the deaths of the consuls Aulo Hircio and Pansa and getting himself re-elected every year. Some time later, the triumvirate would breaking to the ambitions of its creators: Lepidus was forced into exile, while Marco Antonio ended up committing suicide after his defeat in the naval battle of Actium against Octavio fleet, directed by Agripa 31 to. C.
With the demise of the second triumvirate, Octavio restored the principles of the Roman Republic, which government power became established in the Senate, although in practice he would retain his autocratic power. It took several years to get it is to determine the exact structure by which a Republican entity could be led by a sole ruler; the result became known as the Principality. The imperial title never came to be regarded as a charge similar to what they had meant the Roman dictatorship of the Republic, and that Caesar and Sulla had held previously; Augusto rejected formally this role since Roman society 'pray you to take the dictatorship". By law, Augustus had a whole collection of perpetual powers conferred by the Senate, including those relating to the Tribune of the Plebs and censor. He held the Consulate until 23 BC. On the other hand, its real power was growing due to its economic power and resources obtained from its conquests, creating relationships of clientele throughout the Roman Empire, and earning the loyalty of many soldiers and veterans, the authority implicit in many honours and titles that were given to him by the Senate, and the respect of the people. The control of Augustus on the majority of the existing legions of Rome meant an armed threat that could be used against the Senate, allowing in this way constrain the decisions of the same. With this power to eliminate senatorial opposition by means of the use of weapons, the Senate became adopted a docile profile towards its sovereign status. His rule through patronage, military power and the accumulation of charges of the defunct Republic became the model for subsequent rulers.
The mandate of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the pax romana or Pax Augusta (in his honor). Except for the constant border wars, and with the exception of a civil war of imperial succession that lasted a year, the society of the Mediterranean enjoyed a peaceful environment for more than two centuries. Similarly, Augustus expanded the Roman Empire, ensuring in the process their borders through the subordination to Rome of the surrounding regions. In addition, held a peace agreement with the Empire - the most powerful of their neighbors-through diplomatic channels, reformed the Roman tax system, developed networks of roads that had an official courier system, established a standing army (as well as a small Marine Corps), and created the Praetorian guard by security police forces, both to maintain order and to fight the fire in Rome. It is noteworthy to add that much of the city was rebuilt under his reign.
After his death in 14 d. C., the Senate divinizó it, being subsequently worshipped by the Roman people. By way of legacy, their names «Caesar» and «Augustus» would be adopted by all subsequent emperors, and the month of Sextilis would be renamed «August» in his honor. In addition, their achievements are reported in a document known as "the writings of divine Augustus' which, at the request of the own Augusto, was recorded in a pair of bronze pillars and placed in front of his mausoleum, reaching time then rub in lots of buildings, many of which have survived. However, this material is considered little goal historically and is rather treated as an advertising writing whose aim is to offer an idyllic view of the Principality exercised by Augustus. After a long process to solve the problems to his heir, Augustus was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius.
2 Meaning of AugustusAugusto is currently a male name which comes from the latin "augustus" meaning be consecrated by the auguries, pagan Roman priests who, observing the flight of birds, their appetite, their cries, and other signs of nature, made predictions. To be worthy of that consecration who was augusto was venerated; and at that time it was not a personal name but an honorific title, of one who is consecrated, title was the first Roman Emperor Cayo Julio César Octavio, from the hands of the Senate. During his tenure, which stretched from 27 a. C until his death in the year 14 a. C, the Empire enjoyed a great splendor, with the flowering of architecture, arts and letters, so it is known to its days as the century of Augustus. In his honor, the eighth month of the year was August name.
All the emperors of Rome received from it, that denomination. When in the low Empire Emperor Diocleciano (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian Augustus) who ruled from the year 284 to 305, created the system of tetrarquias to avoid injustices and struggles in the succession to the throne, divided government functions in two August, played by power and two Caesars who would assume power as August, when they fulfil the term of their mandate.
Today we use the adjective Augustus to qualify what is object of respect and veneration, for example: "your augusta figure cut in the door". As a common noun is who accompanies the clown in circus performances, as his clown, forming partnership.
3. Definition and what is AugustoAugustus (latin: Augustus; plural: augusti) is a title that the emperors of the Roman Empire.
Origin of the titleThe first Roman ruler to bear this title was Cayo Julio César Augustan. The nickname was given by the Senate on January 16 of the year 27 BC, and had merely honorific, without bringing about any specific judiciary. In latin, the word Augustus means 'majestic' or 'venerable', and it had always been applied to the world of the gods, used as a particular epithet of Jupiter, father of the gods and Supreme God of the Roman pantheon. The use of this honorary title, however, coincides with accumulation in one of numerous ordinary courts, which ended up being recognized as a symbol of all the powers that Gaius Caesar Ottaviano had accumulated throughout his tenure (princeps senatus, pontifex maximus, consul, potestas authority, etc. This concentration of powers became the following centuries in the model by which the emperors governed Rome, although in practice this sophisticated theory was losing any relationship with reality, especially after the III and IV centuries, when the emperors were seeming more and more Oriental despots.
Of the three titles that used most of the emperors, Imperator, Caesar and Augustus, the latter was the only which was reserved in exclusive for the Emperor (with a single exception: the wife and the mother of the Emperor had the right also to the title of «Augusta»).
It became a custom that when someone was appointed successor of the emperor adopted the name Caesar NN (NN being the praenomen and nomen of the individual in question) or more in advance, NC. Nobilissimus Caesar, and sometimes was rewarded with the title of Princeps youth ('Prince of youth'). After access to the throne, the new emperor used to adopt the name of Imperator Caesar NN Augustus (the emperors of the low Empire added Pius Felix and Invictus, between their personal names and Augustus).
In this use of the word, Augustus is equivalent of «Emperor», even though, as he has said before, it did not enable any particular power.