UNESCO - World Heritage site

Heritage is the legacy we have received in the past, what we live in the present and what they transmit to future generations.
All countries have monuments and sites of national or local interest, but this "national heritage" is also considered "World Heritage" has to be the inheritance of "outstanding universal value".The concept of equity was officially recognized by UNESCO in Paris in 1972.
An International Convention defines the financial and administrative framework for the protection of the Heritage of mankind and Natural "" consisting of "monuments, complexes and have outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science, landscapes and natural monuments, geological formations and natural landscapes that have exceptional value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view".
A place declared patrimony of humanity, is a specific site (sea forest, mountain, Lake, desert, building, complex, or city) that was nominated and confirmed for inclusion on a list maintained by the World Heritage program, administered by the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO composed of 21 Member States elected by the General Assembly of the Member States during a specified period. (enter the menu above for more information)
Origin of world heritage sites: After the discovery and then opening again, cleaning, restoration assessment and consolidation, as well as the containment of the works then sands cover the temples. All this would require, with pauses and restarts in the works, discoveries and care, a century more or less.
In the period between the two world wars, Abu Simbel was excavated, cleaned, selected, and consolidated (needed, because some of the Interior pillars, carved into the rock, they began to decrease, crushed by the enormous weight of the lid); But above all had been valued as one of the great ancient history testimonials reja Egypt. And was still moving away from its ancient settlement to save him from the waters; But, as we shall see, is a current story, typical of our century.
Egypt said the Greek historian Herodotus, is the "gift of the Nile"; in a land where almost no rain ever, the great river, with its annual floods that bring sediments and water, is the basis of life. Hence, it is often thought to regulate its waters and channel them to seize them at any time of the year. This is normal the desire of inhabitants of Egypt (whose number is constantly increasing) our time has added interest in energy sources, the exploration of "white gold" to produce electricity.
There is a great spot to block the Nile with a dam that serves for such purposes and this place is Aswan, in the Valley of the first cataract, where it becomes the real Egypt Nubia. At the end of the last century, British engineers built a dam there which was later extended. But that meant that most of the monuments that were there would remain covered by water during half of the year. It was a hard price had to be paid in Exchange for the benefits that the dam would provide; But he did, trying however strengthen the monuments with modern techniques, so they could resist forced immersion.
However, in the middle of our century, the old dam was not enough and it was thought to build a bigger and stronger. This dam indirectly sparked a war that was about to become. Its construction also meant the flood from the temples of Abu Simbel and, almost certainly, his downfall, as sandstones which are built was not supported by the effects of erosion.
This was already a crime against culture, but, on the other hand, seemed inevitable. The world, which, during its millennial history has given and continues to give continuous and innumerable signs of lack of sensitivity by the cultural problems, had not hesitated to accept some tons of stone pharaonic ruins. For this reason, when Kamal al-Din Hussein, Egyptian Minister of education and culture, requested by UNESCO to save the temples of Nubians, maybe didn't expect more than a cold indifference disguised as official interest.
But what happened was full of pride of Ramesses, showing to what extent his beloved buildings were admired and appreciated after the thousand years. In a few weeks, was organized a fact-finding mission and then another rescue, in which participated around the world. Abu Simbel was strictly located, photographed, signed and observed from any point of view; But it wasn't enough, what had to be done was save the temples.
TRASLADO DE ABU SIMBELFrench, Italian and German experts were sent to Egypt to study the whole and on the basis of their reports the final decision: appeal to the Governments and people of the world, to save a monument whose loss was "irreparable damage to the cultural heritage of humanity". And for the first time, the world responded.
In June 1963, having avoided many projects (including the fabulous lift the entire complex into a set of cranes), the final decision: cut the temples in large blocks of twenty tons each; raise them to a level that resguardase them from the waters of the Lake formed by the dam and rebuild them carefully, so that they have a situation identical to the original. So, after thirty-three centuries, was to work for the glory of Ramses.
And as if all this were not enough, also recovered somewhat (though not in their original glory) that was lost when the first Aswan Dam and ancient: island of Philae and its splendid set of temples. The island, the first cataract, at the border of Nubia (the name which in old Egyptian must sound something like Paaleq, meaning "distant place"), was dedicated to the worship of ISIS; its buildings date back to Nectanebo II, last King of the dynasty XXX (380-340 Bc), but were supplemented by Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Tolomeo III Euergete. During the Roman domination was consolidated and increased the splendor of the place, which was one of the last refuges of paganism.
The decor dates back to imperial times and new buildings, including the so-called "flag of Trajan", enrich all. The decline came with Justinian, which forbade the worship of ISIS and Osiris.
Explored and restored in the late 19th century, the whole was reinforced in its different parts, quite unjustifiably, believing that it would be sufficient to preserve it from erosion of water that cover it. But subsequent observations revealed the existence of serious damage in inscriptions and decoration in General; But then I know it was building it to decrease the water level of the new Aswan Dam, would arise again the island.
Progress sometimes has the sad return require victims: but in this case, the price would be too high if sacrificed Abu Simbel and Philae. Luckily, this time it didn't happen; the dam offers well-being for an entire nation, Philae returned to surface waters and Abu Simbel kept intact its splendor, even if he no longer stands in the same place we chose Ramses. Our generation faces so many useless destruction, can be proud of this great work.

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