Francisco is 266 Pope in the history of the Catholic Church.
Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the reigning pope of the Catholic Church, in which capacity he is both Bishop of Rome and absolute Sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Born in Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina, in December 17, 1936, Jorge Bergoglio studied Pharmacy in his teens before awakening his vocation to the religious life. He attended the seminary in Villa Devoto and joined the society of Jesus at the age of 19 years of age. He studied theology and philosophy at the University of San Miguel simultaneously to his ordination as a priest.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio divided his time between religious and academic life. He was Rector of the College of San Miguel for six years and received the title of doctor in Germany. In 1992, he was appointed Bishop. In 1997, he was elevated to Archbishop and went on to lead the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires. His work was recognized by Pope John Paul II appointed him Cardinal in 2001.
Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was a member of the Congregation for divine worship and the discipline of the sacraments, Member of the Congregation for the clergy and the Congregation for institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life and was also member of the Pontifical Council for the family and of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America.
The religious activities of Jorge Bergoglio in his homeland was characterized by conservative and radical positions. During the Argentine military dictatorship, the Catholic Church has been criticized for not making opposition to the authoritarian regime and does not manifest itself on the kidnappings and disappearances of political opponents. Jorge Mario Bergoglio is rendered since 2005 for alleged involvement with the kidnapping of two Jesuit missionaries and a child in 1976. Later, during the Government of Kirchner, Bergoglio was considered the main opponent. On the basis of the grievances, he and Nestor broke definitely. Cristina Kirchner, in turn, tried an approach when her husband died, but there was a major disagreement with Bergoglio in 2010, when Argentina became the first country in Latin America to legalize gay marriage. On occasion, the cardinal stated that the measure was a destructive attack God plans and that the adoption of children by gay couples was a way to break them down. President Cristina Kirchner retorted by saying that the religious leaders still live in the dark ages. Jorge Mario Bergoglio is considered an orthodox conservative on issues such as abortion, sexuality, same-sex marriage and use of contraceptive methods. On the other hand, is a strong advocate of helping the poor and used to support social programs and contest free-market policies.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected Pope by the conclave on March 13, 2013 to be the successor of Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned on 28 February. The Argentine Cardinal was already tipped to take over the papacy in 2005, at the conclave that elected Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, but his tenure was extended. In 2013, he became the first Latin American Pope in the history of the Catholic Church, taking the name Pope Francisco (will be called Francis I just when Francis II, according to the Vatican).
The Pope Francisco takes the Catholic Church amid the many scandals of pedophilia and of the Vatican administration. His greatest challenge is to reverse the fall in the number of faithful to Catholicism. The new Pope is natural of the continent with the largest number of Catholics in the world, which, however, already registers also a marked decrease in the number of faithful. It seems, however, that the Pope Francisco will not offer any change in relation to the more conservative attitudes of the Catholic Church, which is why some critics consider an outdated institution. But the devotion which presents by St Francis of Assisi lets hope that act more effectively in combating poverty.