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The Baroque was a cultural period that was developed at the beginning of the seventeenth century in Rome, Italy. It is usually located between the Renaissance and neoclassical. It has been considered by many authors as the art of the Counter-Reformation or the European absolutism, but also States that it is a set of trends developed in the time, without being necessarily linked to any Government or religion. Despite having been, at some point, a pejorative term, the Baroque is today admired for producing great works in painting, sculpture, architecture, music and literature.
The term Baroque was created by critics after the period. It comes from the Portuguese Baroque, which means "irregularly shaped Pearl" or "false jewel". For a long time, the term was used in a negative way, to criticize the art of the period as overloaded, irrational and with too many decorations and emphasis. In 1888, Heinrich Wölfflin again used the term to differentiate the Renaissance Baroque, as opposing styles. Only in XIX century, the Baroque was appreciated by Jacob Burckhardt, Benedetto Croce and Eugenio D'Ors.
The Baroque emerged around the year 1600, as a result of the desire for a new art at the time. Usually, thought that Baroque was an inspiration of the canon promulgated at the Council of Trent, where the Catholic Church, turned to figurative art, demanding that paintings and sculptures of churches speak to the illiterate rather than to the learned, and encouraged to end customs pay artists avoiding nudes and the scandals that they were both in the Renaissance. However, the Baroque emerged a generation later in the 17TH century. This period was characterized by the great balance that existed between science and reason, and between metaphysics and religion. There were political and economic changes, discoveries and geographic expansion, all while humanity is worried about religious experiences.
The Baroque was a change consents of the intellectual style of Mannerist art to a more focused style in sense and nature, prone to exaggerated and abundant decoration. A highlight of the season was Caravaggio, who painted nature as he saw her and became the creator of naturalism, a stream which was followed by many other artists. In general, the Baroque mythological, religious themes and also portrait; dealt with, mainly, all of them with the new naturalistic vision in which the artists expressed passion, emotion, and feelings in general. Later there are other important issues such as landscaping and painting genre, with themes of everyday life.
On many occasions, it has been thought that the Baroque coexisted with classicism, as two competing currents. Currently, States that classicism was a current Member of the Baroque. It was created by the Carracci painters, who suggested to reflect an ideal based on classical art. The Classicist works presents a reality embellished by artists, according to your point of view. Highlight the French Poussin and Claudio de Lorena. Another current of the Baroque was created by the painter of vaults and ceilings, Pietro de Cortona, which was called cortonismo. It is characterized by open spaces, decorative and illusionistic effects give. Also, include B. Gaulli and Andrea de el Pozzo. In portrait, said Rembrandt, considered the master of the style and grower of all genres.
In terms of baroque sculpture, light, space and time prevailed as the three most important elements of Baroque art. Human figures are energy and dynamic movement, occupy the space that surrounds them and achieve an effect of continuity. Used many angelic figures with multiple views. External elements such as hidden lights and water sources were also used. Highlights the sculptor Aleijadinho and also the architect and sculptor Bernini, considered the most important sculptor of the Baroque.
Concerning architecture, marked different styles in the European countries. Italy, dominated the religious architecture with buildings of plants oval, reciprocation of spaces concave and convex for a great effect of light and shadow. Stresses once again Bernini, with numerous works such as Saint Peter's square. Also highlighted the architect Barromini. In France, the architecture focused on urban planning and the monumentality of its palaces. The forms were simple and elegant, typical of classicism. Later, he acquired more pomp with works such as the Palace of Versailles, the architects Le Vau, Mansart and Le Brun. In general, the Baroque architecture stands out for its monumentality and grandeur, with facade with pilasters, columns, statues and reliefs vigorous.
The term Baroque also serves to name the style of music of the Baroque era. It shares some aesthetic principles of Baroque art, as for example the taste for ornamentation. In the Baroque concerts and symphonies, also the operas, which marked the beginning of Baroque music in the 1600 were born. Featured Vivaldi, Bach and Handel were the highlights figures of the period.
Finally, the Baroque literature expressed new values expressed through metaphors and allegories. We sought virtue, realism and concern for details. In Spanish literature, was the so-called golden age of writers. They stressed Luis de Góngora and Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas.