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The reason is a term that can be defined from various perspectives. From arithmetic, the reason refers to the difference between two quantities, i.e. the subtraction. From the geometry, the reason has to do with the operation of the division in this regard, would be the number of times that a number contains another. However, the reason mostly known to this term, corresponds to a concept of philosophy, and has been used to refer to the human faculty to solve problems with different levels of satisfaction. It's that 'think' that allows us to elucidate the best solutions for the problems of everyday life, as for those who have a greater difficulty.
One of the main features of the reason relates to the logic. The logic is that tool that allows us to use reason in lathe to the pattern of cause and effect - solution. It is based on the logic as a tool for the reason that it have been established two fundamental types of the inductive and the deductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning is one that allows you to draw conclusions from general categories. In practical terms, that reasoning that allows you to go from the general to the particular, therefore, is an example of this type of reasoning would be to say that all human beings have a head, two arms and two legs, and that John is a human being, therefore, has a head, two arms and two legs.
On the other hand, inductive reasoning is that starting from something particular to achieve a generalization. I.e. General conclusions or laws from particular observations are made. This type of reasoning is installed as base by the method of scientific research, however, often used along with the type of deductive reasoning, which in most cases leads to satisfactory results.