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What is Democracy?
Democracy is the system of Government, in which the sovereignty of the power resides and is sustained, in town. It is this, through direct or indirect elections who choose the main authorities of the country. It is also the people who can change or ratify these same authorities, in the following popular elections. For this reason the Greeks spoke of democracy, such as the people's Government; in fact this is its literal meaning.
So, as a direct democracy can be shaped, where the people are who takes all Executive and legislative decisions, or representative democracy, where people through popular vote pick the authorities representing the citizenship, in decision-making.
Today, the vast majority of democratic systems, operate by means of representation; We can imagine how complicated it would be otherwise, with the current population of the countries.
Within democracy, those who have the blessing, to hold public office, are the members of the political powers. So, as political parties, are those who promote and strengthen democracy. Through their actions and the feeding of participants, who will choose by means of different elections, the charges of the powers Executive and legislative, in most democratic nations. Even when, in some cases, citizenship, can also choose certain members of the judiciary.
So, as the separation of the powers of the State, is one of the fundamental pillars of any democracy. Each of them is independent and there is a constant control of one over the other. That is in the control over doing the same and prevent cases of corruption or illegalities thereof; Unfortunately, in some cases, these powers will collude and corruption becomes widespread, as we still see in some countries, especially in those who are developing.
With respect to the history of democracy, this goes back to the ancient Greece. Since the 1500s, before Christ, is born this system of Government, through the creation of the people's Assembly, within the polis or Hellenic cities.
This occurs due to the small size of the polis, whereupon, the population at the same time was small. So, as all citizens free men, could participate in the Assembly. In that way, each one of them, alternately, could occupy one of the bureaucratic positions of this House. Therefore, that this system of Government, it was not representative, but it is acted, by means of direct democracy. Against each of the decisions, most voter, was that decided on the subjects.
With respect to Roman culture, this had a democratic system, but of a representative nature. At least in the executive positions. To the legislature, he was already constituted, by the senators, who were not elected. Likewise, many of the public offices, were chosen through a direct election. Those who voted initially were citizens with rights; further way, you could vote the vulgar.
In the middle ages, the concept of democracy, virtually disappeared. Almost all Governments were aristocratic, formed by monarchies. One of the few exceptions, formed it the Swiss cantons, in the 13th century.
To 1688 in England, wins democracy, by means of the principle of freedom of discussion, which was primarily exercised by the Parliament. So, definitely was a parliamentary monarchy.
So, by the 18th century, many European philosophers, was considered democracy, such as the possibility of the people, choose the prevailing government. The American Revolution in 1776 and the French revolution in 1789, led the final expansion of the libertarian ideas and the establishment of a democratic culture, across the West. Situations which deeply marked the political destinies of several Nations in the 19th century.
So, as at present, representative democracy, is the system most used in the world, to guide the designs of the Nations. It is therefore, that democracy is considered, the system of Government less damaging, for the management of the Affairs of State, compared to other systems that have existed or have been designed.
A phrase that has deeply marked the conception that is democracy, is that mentioned Abraham Lincoln, during the Guerra Civil of the United States, which said that the Governments are of the people, by the people and for the people.
Within any democracy that afane be, must be a magna carta or Constitution. Which shall be the law mother, by which all the laws of the nation, must regulate and subordinate