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What is the analysis of feces | Medical tests


Analysis of feces is a diagnostic test that is used in medicine for the study of the digestive disorders primarily. It consists of collecting a small amount of stool for later analysis in the laboratory. More frequent studies carried out on the stool are:
Physical study: value consistency, density, color and odor of feces.
Biochemical study: discusses the components that make up the stool. It must be taken into account that in normal stools are 70% water, and the remaining 30% are other components such as fats, proteins, bacteria and fibers, which cannot be Digest.
Van Kamer test: is a specific test to measure the amount of fat in the stool with more accuracy than a biochemical study. They are needed to collect several samples of stool.
Detection of enzymes: mainly explores the presence of pancreatic enzymes in the feces, which are essential for digestion.
Blood hidden in feces: allows to detect the presence of small amounts of blood mixed with the stool. Currently it is recommended that over the age of 50 have this test every year as an aid to diagnose colon cancer (although for this type of cancer early diagnosis the most effective test colonoscopy), and can also serve to detect unknown tumors. In some countries sold paper strips in pharmacies.
Cool review: consists of diluting the feces and observe them directly under the microscope. It allows to detect parasites and their eggs, and other large items.
Stool culture: in the same way that you can isolate microorganisms in the blood by a blood culture, or in the urine by a urine culture, stool can be a stool culture to isolate pathogens.

When doing an analysis of feces

It analysis of feces is a test that is used with some frequency in medicine because it involves no big hassle do it, it is cheap, and it can provide much useful information. However, the information provided is limited to the digestive tract and glands associated mainly, why only asks when she is suspect alterations to these levels that can not be studied through a blood test or urine test, which are more comfortable to pick up.
Diseases in which most requested an analysis of stool are:
Inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.
Intestinal malabsorption: from a celiac disease until a Whipple's disease. There are dozens of other causes.
Pancreatic insufficiency: when the pancreas secretes not enzymes needed for digestion.
Cancer in the digestive tract: may lead us to that diagnosis, although it is usually too late stage.
Infections: such as salmonellosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, etc.

Preparation for an analysis of feces

If you are performing a basic analysis of feces , these are issues that you must take into account:
Duration: takes very little time. You can make the stool sample collection at home. Lee any time can be collected, and it should be avoided that they mix with the urine. Then, you will only have to dispose of it at the doctor's surgery in less than 24 hours.
Entry: admission is never needed. It is a test that can be done on an outpatient basis.
Is necessary to be accompanied?: no.
Drugs: is not necessary to take any prior medication. I must say your doctor all medications you are taking at that time, because some medications can alter the normal characteristics of the stool. Many of them are easy to relate (laxatives, for example), but others may go unnoticed (e.g., herbal products or slimming).
Food: you must maintain your normal diet and feces collect at any time. Avoid changing your dietary habits especially fatty meals or much more fiber than you soles take.
Clothing: you don't need special clothes or to collect the sample or to deliver it.
Documents: is advisable to carry your health insurance card and the wheel of proof when you go to deliver the sample.
Pregnancy and lactation: can be the test without modifying any attitude, although it is better that the doctor knows you are pregnant, because Lee may be slightly different.
Contraindications: there are no contraindications. Recommended not to perform sample collection when you have menstruation.

How an analysis of feces

When you get to the consultation the doctor will make you some general questions about your state of health: important diseases, risk factors, lifestyle, place of work and, above all, insist on the gastrointestinal symptoms that you have appreciated. You will ask for the number of bowel movements per day, its consistency and colour.
Other questions that can make you is if you have a fever or you've lost much weight in recent months. After perform you a general physical examination, and assess an analysis of feces. It will give you a flyer which requested the test and where designated data wanting tested in the laboratory.
Days after this first visit, or at the same time, can collect the sample and take her to the clinic. You will need a sterile pot that will give you at the doctor or have to buy at the pharmacy.
When you go to pick up sample is recommended to have your year and perineum clean to avoid contamination, and is better that not touches the edges of the pot or come into contact with anything. The sample collected must have the size of a chestnut it is solid stool, or approximately 10 mL if they are liquid. If you are older, you can gases that produce the bacteria to push the boat and ruptures.
When you are done collecting the specimen close the pot carefully but firmly so it is airtight. Leave the pot in the refrigerator and take him to the clinic in the next 24 hours. If you leave the boat for many hours at home can be contaminated with microbes or lose substances useful for analysis. When you reach the consultation only, you may deliver it and you can go. The results can take anywhere from hours to days, and will give them to you in the doctor.

Complications of the analysis of feces

There are no complications of the analysis of feces.

Results of the analysis of feces

The results of the analysis of feces can include the following parameters:
Composition: detected alterations in the percentage of the components of feces. The percentages are not exact and vary with the ease of a sample to another.
· Proteins: 2-3%. The greater presence of proteins in the stool can be associated with diet or a poor digestion of proteins. Is it related to constipation.
· FAT: 10-20%. When the fat percentage exceeds 20% can speak of steatorrhea. It is a poor digestion or malabsorption of fats in the digestive tract. It is associated with diarrhea.
· Minerals: 10-20%. They do not have much importance in the study of feces. Malabsorption of them is best studied in blood tests.
· Indigestible remains 30% (fiber). It depends directly on the diet, it has no importance in any disease.
· 30% bacteria. The percentage tends to be fairly stable. The most important are the characteristics of those microorganisms that are studied with a stool culture.
Detection of enzymes: enzymes that act in the digestive tract are secreted by the stomach and pancreas mainly. There are also others who act own intestinal wall, but are fixed and not can be studied on a stool test. The most important are:
· Peptidase: secreted in the stomach, digested peptides. Don't usually study at Lee.
· Lipase: secreted by the pancreas, digests lipids.
· Tryptase: secreted in the pancreas, it digests certain proteins.
· Elastase: also secreted in the pancreas, digested elastic proteins.
The study of these enzymes is simply to detect their presence or not. When they are not it may be due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (which is related to chronic pancreatitis) or a blockage of the lower bile duct (by gallstones, for example).
Fresh test: with direct visualization of Lee dissolved in the serum can separate the larger Lees elements and observe the following structures:
· Fibers: what is more, his presence is normal.
· Parasites: it is easy to see amoebas or giardia when they are invading the gastrointestinal tract.
· Cysts: usually both the giardia and amoebas are seen in form of cyst in this type of examination. So it can withstand the passage through the year.
· Eggs: some parasites are too big and not come out for the year, but their eggs do. Is the case of pinworms type ascaris, Strongyloides, etc.
Stool: you can study the different strains of bacteria that are present in the feces. It is usual to find bacteria Diners of the large intestine, but in situations of infection pathogens such as salmonella or Shigella aggressive are observed.
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