## Garden construction

After design, this would be the construction of the step by step garden.
If you already have the design of the garden, with its areas, elements and plants to include, you is bring it to reality, i.e., to build it. Let's see the steps to follow. The usual thing is to hire the services of a gardening company to be responsible for everything, but you can also do it as particularly if the work is not of much importance.
A middle way is to pay a company to make only certain jobs (compost, irrigation, planting of trees and palms, etc.).
The work to build a garden would be:
1. cleaning of the land
2 earthworks
3 masonry works and equipment:
Walls, pool, pond's work, roads, pavements, stairs, curbs, fences, gazebo, benches, pergolas, arches, sources, sports facilities, playgrounds, banks, etc.
4 lighting
5 drainage
6. installation of irrigation
7. preparation of the soil for planting and sowing
8 planting and sowing
9. placement of decorative elements: pots, etc.

#### 1. cleaning of the land

< < Brush cutter
• The first thing is to remove debris, rubbish and strange remnants that existed in the plot.
• Removed also herbs and stubble with a curved array or hoe If the plot is small.
• A cuba is paid and therein all these residues are deposited. When the tank is full, they removed it.
• The land is already clean.

#### 2 earthworks

Topsoil
• It is likely that it is necessary to provide topsoil. Reasons:
• (a) you have to fill in certain areas or counter-boring the entire plot.
• (b) the quality of the original soil is not good, for example, if it is pure clay or if it is very deep (under stone, concrete, compact layer, etc.).
• The topsoil is purchased by cubic meters (m3), in trucks.
• The quantity to purchase is calculated using this simple multiplication:
Volume of Earth in m3 = plot length x width of the plot x the thickness of Earth to contribute
Example: to provide a layer of 15 cm (0.1 m) of Earth in a plot of 25 x 12 m, needed 43 m3 of Earth:
Volume of Earth = 25 m x 12 m x 0.15 m = 45 m3 of Earth.
• To extend layer is usually between 10 and 20 centimeters thick. The more, better.
• The land of empty foundations and slabs of fountains, ponds, retaining walls, etc. can be used to fill. Remember that the good earth is the first 30 cm, many more rich in organic matter and mineral nutrients from the subsoil. Never mix the good above Earth with the subsoil.
• The topsoil brings it and download the truck inside or closer to the plot. Then you need to extend it. Options to extend:

• Mechanical small shovel
• 1. small mechanical shovel: whenever you can is the best. Without a doubt. Engage themselves for hours, with the included driver, obviously, and in a few hours is extended and leveled land.
• 2. with hand trucks: better if they are few cubic meters or when there is no more remedy because it cannot come a mechanical shovel. Everything that can be machined, is worth.
• Finally, with the divided land, are given appropriate to the terrain slopes, taking care of rain and irrigation water to run toward where you have a natural outlet.
• It is recommended to reserve a deposit of good topsoil to fill holes and ditches of plantation.

#### 3 masonry works and equipment

Masonry
• With the ground clean and molded in his reliefs, are tackled the masonry and the installation of the equipment of the garden works. All this is sometimes done before take the topsoil, it depends on the case, but, for example, hardly can be a path that crosses a depression of the ground before you fill the depression with Earth.
• In this chapter, you would enter:
• - Walls
• - Floors: stone, brick, concrete, earthenware, Chinese...
• - Stairs and ramps
• - Swimming pools
• - Ponds of work
• - Water course
• - Waterfalls
• - Kerbs
• - Fences
• - Sources
• - Sports facilities: tennis, basketball, mini-golf, diana, etc.
• - Playgrounds: swings, slides, Indian cottage, pit sand, etc.
• - Gazebos & pavilions
• - Shed, store or work, place compost
• - Pergolas
• - Arcos
• - Seed beads (placement of the rocks), etc.
• In short, everything is work or installations of different nature.
• It is very important to take care to Let pipes under roads so they can spend for them of irrigation and electricity lines.
• If the garden has no natural outlets for rain water, it is necessary to evacuate. Solutions such as are used for this:
• - PVC pipes buried at least 40 cm and with a certain slope that drain into the sewer network.

• -Another system is by means of a prefabricated trays of plastic (above photos) or concrete, with grille, surrounding the plot and certain sedentary sites. These gutters are placed with a slight slope and pour water to the sewer system or the street.

#### 4 lighting

Solar street lights
• Garden lighting It is made with street lights, beacons, projectors or light bulbs.
• The cables go into buried corrugated plastic tubes to a minimum depth of 40 cm. It should be a yellow plastic Ribbon 25 cm from the level of the pipe as a safety measure.

#### 5 drainage

• Drainage and placement "fishtail" tubes
• Usually it is not necessary the installation of drainage pipes, but there are very compact, clayey soils and with low infiltration capacity ("suck" bit) that give rise to puddles that last several days. In these situations rot plants and grass, it is mandatory to insert drainage tubes.
• Other times, the natural topography of the ground causes puddles in certain areas. If these depressions with fillings of land can not be corrected, it will also require drainage pipes.
• For more information on drainage and how to install pipes, see the article "Drainage of soils".

#### 6 irrigation

Sprinkler (left) and diffuser (right)
• Sprinklers for the lawn.
• Diffusers for lawn and narrow areas (have a reach of up to 5 meters).
• Drip irrigation in trees in pits or outside areas with lawn, shrubs, perennial flower beds, vegetable garden, fruit trees...
• The hose is the irrigation system slower. However, it must be well distributed by the garden hydrants for "plug" hoses.
• My advice is to install an automatic watering system. No hoses, nor be opening and closing keys.
• Automatic watering programs to it and it just opens and closes the irrigation the days of the week that you indicate and when you prefer. Each area will be controlled by a different program, according to the water needs of lawn, trees and palm trees, bushes, plants flower, garden and fruit trees.
• The steps to design and install an automatic irrigation system are described on this page.

#### 7. preparation of the land

Walking tractor
• Once concluded the movements of earthwork, masonry, the equipment and the installed irrigation, is preparing the ground for planting and sowing of lawn (if carrying).
• Become to clean the remains of materials work, debris, weeds, boulders, etc.
• Is till the soil to a depth of 25 cm. This work is carried out with mechanical walking tractor or hoe, with this provided that it is a small area. The soil must be slightly damp to be styled, or very wet or very dry.
Manure
• Spreads over the entire surface will be where the lawn a layer of manure, compost or peat, at a rate of 600-800 pounds per 100 square meters of plot.
• Also recommended go where the turf, in addition to the previous organic fertilizer, provide fertilizer minerals ("balls"), about 6.5 Kg per 100 square meters of complex fertilizer 15-15 - 15, for example.
• Many people seeding directly lawn bring before or organic or mineral fertilizers, but ideally, do both operations of Subscriber, at least one of them. The same occurs with sand, it is sometimes convenient to bring it to improve the drainage of soils and is not.
• A pass is given with walking tractor to bury the organic fertilizer or ore and proceeds to plantations and crops.

#### 8 plantations and crops

• It is marked on the ground with wooden stakes or similar where will each plant.
• The approximate hole dimensions, expressed in cm they would be the following:
-Trees and large palms... 100 x 100 x 100
-Large tropical plants and young trees... 60 x 60 x 60
-Shrubs and climbers... 40 x 40 x 40
- Zanja de setos....................................................... 40 x 40
• The massifs can be traced aid of a hose and then sprinkle with lime or gypsum over the hose to make the drawn curve.
• Planting begins by larger plants.
• The extracted Earth going where every tree, Palm tree, shrub, rose and climbing mixed with compost (manure, mulch, compost, humus of lombriz, peat, etc.).
• In the trenches for hedges and borders are cast 3 kilos per linear meter of manure, and surfaces where plants perennial, bulbous, aromatic, shall be recorded and annual, credited with 8 kg/m2 of manure.
• The mineral fertilizer is optional, with the organic is sufficient at the time of planting.
• Plants is removed with the container, either pot or bag, taking care not to damage the root ball. If come 'bare-root' care in not to damage the root system.
• The holes are filled with dirt to the level of the neck; is entutoran trees and palms and a first abundant irrigation occurs.
• Is very important not to neglect the irrigation the first month after planting, since they have yet to develop roots and are very sensitive to lack of water.
• Lawn Seeding

• A lawn may be sowing seeds or laying sod (plates).
• If the grass surface is small, the topic of the sod can be interesting, will depend mainly on the rush that you have. However, a medium or large, Garden already must study carefully whether it is worthwhile, since the sod out much more expensive. You can sow seed, wait a month and a half and has a good grass for much less money.
• Leveling the soil with a rake and remove rocks, plastics, sticks and debris. If there are lumps, gives a pass from roller to break them (the function curl a canister of butane can make it).
• The best times to plant are spring and autumn, but it is also in summer and, in warmer climates, even in winter.
• In mixtures of seeds the normal dose is about 35-40 grams of mixture of seeds for each square meter (read container).
• Rakes to bury the seeds shallowly. Moving forward rake back and forward. That are slightly covered by the Earth is enough. In some books recommend cover seeds with a "cubresiembras". This is mulch or peat, alone or mixed with sand; but it is optional.
• Given a pass of roller to contact the Earth with seeds. It is very beneficial to promote the germination of the seeds. The problem is that not worth buy a roller to sow a single lawn. If someone lends it to you or you can rent it, do so. If not, use a canister of butane.
• Once planted, water 2 or 3 times per day at the beginning so that the seed bed is wet 2 to 4 centimeters in depth.

#### 9. placement of decorative elements

• The final touch to the garden will give the ornaments and the inclusion of other non-plant items:
• Covering empty land surfaces between plants with edges rolled, bowling of crushed rocks, marble, pine bark, gravel, volcanic soil, etc.
• Furniture of garden, including hammocks, umbrellas and awnings.
• Sundial
• Drinkers and feeders for birds.
• Mill or truck wheels.
• Pots, planters, vases, jars, amphoras and other containers.
• Pieces of capitals, columns and other Antiquities.
• Etc.