The accounting can be considered a science or technique that is designed to provide information of use to economic decision-making. Is responsible to study the heritage and translate its so-called results financial statements that summarize the economic situations.
Accounting is considered to be a science to the extent that it provides authentic information (systematics, verifiable and fallible), and not assumptions. Its development involves the formulation of hypotheses and the construction of theories to predict and explain the phenomena of its object of study.
In addition, the accounting is also a technique given that date on the basis of its processes, it is possible to process and apply the data.
It is said that the scientific study of the accounting date of year 1494, when Luca Pacioli (known as Fray Luca de Borgo Sancti Sepulchri) published his work "Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni e Proportionalita".
Concerning the object of study of accounting (Heritage), it is usually represented graphically shaped T: on the left column, it indicates what must (rate), while the right corresponds to the Credit (or credit memo).
There are two major types of accounting: the financial or external, which provides information on the financial statements of a business to the economic agents concerned (such as customers, investors and suppliers) and which is officially regulated, and the management accounting or internal, i.e., that is used to calculate the costs and economic operations/transactions within a company.