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The ontology is part of metaphysics that studies being in general and transcendental properties. We can say that it is the study for what it is and how it is. Ontology defined being and established the fundamental categories of things from the study of their properties, their systems and their structures.
It must take into account that ontology is studying human beings as they are and not based on the facts or the particular properties is obtained.
Among the main approaches to ontology, we will retain the abstract entities. Numbers and concepts, for example, are part of the set of abstract things, unlike humans, tables, dogs and flowers. Ontology asks what criteria should be used to decide whether an entity is abstract or concrete, because there are abstract entities unknown existence.
The ontology is also interested in the universal (properties or attributes). These models justifies the way to refer to individuals: the subject matter experts wrestle always on the existence of the universal things or in spirit (in the head).
The distinction between the mental and the physical processes of the spirit / the intellectual is another ontological problem. The mind is generally not accessible from the physical point of view (an idea not such is'nt what in our head, it is rather the result of a physical process); its ontological existence is therefore unproven.