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1 Chronicles 1-2-3-4, Bible Highlights: week starting october 5

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(1 CHRONICLES 1:6)

“The sons of Goʹmer were Ashʹke•naz, Riʹphath, and To•garʹmah.”

*** it-1 p. 192 Ashkenaz ***
ASHKENAZ
(Ashʹke•naz).
1. The first named of three sons of Gomer, the son of Japheth.—Ge 10:3; 1Ch 1:6.
In Jewish writings of medieval times (and even thereafter) the term “Ashkenaz” was applied to the Teutonic race, and more specifically to Germany. Thus, even today Jews from Germanic countries are referred to as Ashkenazim in contrast to the Sephardim, Jews from Spain and Portugal.

*** it-2 p. 813 Riphath ***
RIPHATH
(Riʹphath).
A son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth. (Ge 10:2, 3; 1Ch 1:6) At 1 Chronicles 1:6 the Masoretic Hebrew text has “Diphath”; however, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, and some 30 Hebrew manuscripts have “Riphath.” The difference in spelling is perhaps the result of a copyist’s writing the Hebrew daʹleth (ד) instead of the Hebrew rehsh (ר), the letters being very similar in appearance.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:7)

“The sons of Jaʹvan were E•liʹshah, Tarʹshish, Kitʹtim, and Roʹda•nim.”

*** it-2 p. 178 Kittim ***
KITTIM
(Kitʹtim).
Kittim is listed as one of the four “sons” of Javan, although the name appears only in the plural form in all Scriptural references. (Ge 10:4; 1Ch 1:7) The name thereafter is used to represent a people and region.
Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, I, 128 [vi, 1]) referred to Kittim as “Chethimos” and associated it with Cyprus and with “the name Chethim given by the Hebrews to all islands and to most maritime countries.” The ancient Phoenicians referred to the people of Cyprus as Kitti. Modern authorities generally agree with such identification of Kittim with Cyprus.
The city of Kition (Citium) on the SE coast of Cyprus is best known as a Phoenician colony, and so some scholars have viewed the listing of Kittim among the descendants of Japheth as out of place. (Ge 10:2, 4; 1Ch 1:5, 7) However, the evidence shows that the Phoenicians were relative latecomers to Cyprus and their colony at Kition is considered to date from only about the ninth century B.C.E. Thus, after The New Encyclopædia Britannica (1987, Vol. 3, p. 332) identifies Kition as the “principal Phoenician city in Cyprus,” it adds: “The earliest remains at Citium are those of an Aegean colony of the Mycenaean Age (c. 1400-1100 BC).”—See also Vol. 16, p. 948.

*** it-2 p. 819 Rodanim ***
RODANIM
(Roʹda•nim).
Listed as one of Javan’s four sons at 1 Chronicles 1:7. There is uncertainty as to the correct spelling of the name, since the Masoretic text at 1 Chronicles 1:7 has “Rodanim,” whereas many Hebrew manuscripts and the Latin Vulgate here read “Dodanim.” “Dodanim” also appears in the Masoretic text at Genesis 10:4, where, however, the Greek Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch read “Rodanim.” In Hebrew the letter “r” (ר) and the letter “d” (ד) are very similar and hence could be confused by a copyist. (Thus “Riphath” in Ge 10:3 appears as “Diphath” at 1Ch 1:6 in the Masoretic text.) Most translations present both names. Many lexicographers consider “Rodanim” to be the preferred reading. Commentators that accept this reading consider it likely that the people descending from this son of Javan populated the island of Rhodes and the neighboring islands of the Aegean Sea.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:10)

“Cush became father to Nimʹrod. He was the first to become a mighty one on the earth.”

*** it-2 p. 503 Nimrod ***
NIMROD
(Nimʹrod).
Son of Cush. (1Ch 1:10) The rabbinic writings derived the name Nimrod from the Hebrew verb ma•radhʹ, meaning “rebel.” Thus, the Babylonian Talmud (Erubin 53a) states: “Why, then, was he called Nimrod? Because he stirred up the whole world to rebel (himrid) against His [God’s] sovereignty.”—Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation, by Menahem M. Kasher, Vol. II, 1955, p. 79.
Nimrod was the founder and king of the first empire to come into existence after the Flood. He distinguished himself as a mighty hunter “before” (in an unfavorable sense; Heb., liph•nehʹ; “against” or “in opposition to”; compare Nu 16:2; 1Ch 14:8; 2Ch 14:10) or “in front of” Jehovah. (Ge 10:9, ftn) Although in this case some scholars attach a favorable sense to the Hebrew preposition meaning “in front of,” the Jewish Targums, the writings of the historian Josephus, and also the context of Genesis chapter 10 suggest that Nimrod was a mighty hunter in defiance of Jehovah.
The beginning of Nimrod’s kingdom included the cities of Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, all in the land of Shinar. (Ge 10:10) Therefore it was likely under his direction that the building of Babel and its tower began. This conclusion is also in agreement with the traditional Jewish view. Wrote Josephus: “[Nimrod] little by little transformed the state of affairs into a tyranny, holding that the only way to detach men from the fear of God was by making them continuously dependent upon his own power. He threatened to have his revenge on God if He wished to inundate the earth again; for he would build a tower higher than the water could reach and avenge the destruction of their forefathers. The people were eager to follow this advice of [Nimrod], deeming it slavery to submit to God; so they set out to build the tower . . . and it rose with a speed beyond all expectation.”—Jewish Antiquities, I, 114, 115 (iv, 2, 3).
It appears that after the building of the Tower of Babel, Nimrod extended his domain to the territory of Assyria and there built “Nineveh and Rehoboth-Ir and Calah and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: this is the great city.” (Ge 10:11, 12; compare Mic 5:6.) Since Assyria evidently derived its name from Shem’s son Asshur, Nimrod, as a grandson of Ham, must have invaded Shemite territory. So it would seem that Nimrod made the start in becoming a mighty one or hero, not only as a hunter of animals but also as a warrior, a man of aggression. (Ge 10:8) Observes the Cyclopædia by M’Clintock and Strong: “That the mighty hunting was not confined to the chase is apparent from its close connection with the building of eight cities. . . . What Nimrod did in the chase as a hunter was the earlier token of what he achieved as a conqueror. For hunting and heroism were of old specially and naturally associated . . . The Assyrian monuments also picture many feats in hunting, and the word is often employed to denote campaigning. . . . The chase and the battle, which in the same country were connected so closely in aftertimes, may therefore be virtually associated or identified here. The meaning then will be, that Nimrod was the first after the flood to found a kingdom, to unite the fragments of scattered patriarchal rule, and consolidate them under himself as sole head and master; and all this in defiance of Jehovah, for it was the violent intrusion of Hamitic power into a Shemitic territory.”—1894, Vol. VII, p. 109.
Concerning deification of Nimrod, see GODS AND GODDESSES (Babylonian Deities).

(1 CHRONICLES 1:11)

“Mizʹra•im became father to Luʹdim, Anʹa•mim, Le•haʹbim, Naph•tuʹhim,”

*** it-1 p. 103 Anamim ***
ANAMIM
(Anʹa•mim).
Hamitic descendants of Mizraim. Since Mizraim became synonymous with Egypt, it is probable that the Anamim settled there or in that area. (Ge 10:13; 1Ch 1:11) A cuneiform text of the time of Sargon II of Assyria (second half of the eighth century B.C.E.) apparently refers to them under the name “Anami.”

*** it-2 p. 236 Lehabim ***
LEHABIM
(Le•haʹbim).
A name appearing at Genesis 10:13 and 1 Chronicles 1:11 among the descendants of Ham through Mizraim. Since the Hebrew name is a plural form, many scholars hold that a tribe taking its name from one of Mizraim’s sons is meant. (See, however, MIZRAIM.) The Lehabim are generally identified with the Libyans and at least seem to have constituted one of the tribes inhabiting Libya in ancient times. While identification is difficult, they were probably the same as the Lu•vimʹ mentioned elsewhere in the Hebrew text, as at 2 Chronicles 12:3, where the American Standard Version reads “Lubim” and other translations read “Libyans.”—Mo; NW; RS.

*** it-2 p. 418 Mizraim ***
MIZRAIM
(Mizʹra•im).
Listed second among the sons of Ham. (Ge 10:6) Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptian tribes (as well as some non-Egyptian tribes), and the name came to be synonymous with Egypt. (Ge 10:13, 14; 50:11) Thus, the word “Egypt” in English translations actually renders the Hebrew Mits•raʹyim (or Ma•tsohrʹ in a few cases, 2Ki 19:24; Isa 19:6; 37:25; Mic 7:12). The Amarna Tablets, written in the first half of the second millennium B.C.E., refer to Egypt as Misri, similar to the modern Arabic name for the land (Misr).
Many scholars hold that Mizraim is a dual form representing the duality of Egypt (that is, Upper and Lower Egypt), but this is conjectural. (See EGYPT, EGYPTIAN.) The names of Mizraim’s descendants are apparently plural forms: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. (Ge 10:13, 14; 1Ch 1:11, 12) For this reason it is usually suggested that they represent the names of tribes rather than individual sons. Although this is possible, it should be noted that there are other names that appear to be dual or plural in their construction, such as Ephraim, Appaim, and Diblaim (Ge 41:52; 1Ch 2:30, 31; Ho 1:3), each obviously referring to only one individual.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:12)

“Path•ruʹsim, Cas•luʹhim (from whom the Phi•lisʹtines came), and Caphʹto•rim.”

*** it-1 p. 422 Casluhim ***
CASLUHIM
(Cas•luʹhim).
A son or people descended from Mizraim, the son of Ham. The Biblical record shows that it was the Casluhim “from among whom the Philistines went forth.” (Ge 10:6, 13, 14; 1Ch 1:8, 11, 12) Since other texts speak of the Philistines as coming from Caphtor or Crete (Jer 47:4; Am 9:7), some scholars suggest that the above phrase should be transposed to come after the last-named descendant of Mizraim, Caphtorim. However, there is no need to assume a contradiction in these texts. The record at Genesis (paralleled by that in Chronicles) is genealogical. The other references to the Philistines as proceeding from Caphtor are likely geographic, indicating a migration from the territory of the Caphtorim.

*** it-2 p. 418 Mizraim ***
MIZRAIM
(Mizʹra•im).
Listed second among the sons of Ham. (Ge 10:6) Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptian tribes (as well as some non-Egyptian tribes), and the name came to be synonymous with Egypt. (Ge 10:13, 14; 50:11) Thus, the word “Egypt” in English translations actually renders the Hebrew Mits•raʹyim (or Ma•tsohrʹ in a few cases, 2Ki 19:24; Isa 19:6; 37:25; Mic 7:12). The Amarna Tablets, written in the first half of the second millennium B.C.E., refer to Egypt as Misri, similar to the modern Arabic name for the land (Misr).
Many scholars hold that Mizraim is a dual form representing the duality of Egypt (that is, Upper and Lower Egypt), but this is conjectural. (See EGYPT, EGYPTIAN.) The names of Mizraim’s descendants are apparently plural forms: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. (Ge 10:13, 14; 1Ch 1:11, 12) For this reason it is usually suggested that they represent the names of tribes rather than individual sons. Although this is possible, it should be noted that there are other names that appear to be dual or plural in their construction, such as Ephraim, Appaim, and Diblaim (Ge 41:52; 1Ch 2:30, 31; Ho 1:3), each obviously referring to only one individual.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:13)

“Caʹnaan became father to Siʹdon, his firstborn, and Heth,”

*** it-2 pp. 635-636 Phoenicia ***
Origin and Name. The history of the Phoenicians begins after the Flood with Noah’s grandson Canaan, a son of Ham. Canaan became the progenitor of 11 tribes, one of these, the Sidonians, being the descendants of Canaan’s firstborn, Sidon. (Ge 10:15-18; 1Ch 1:13-16) The Sidonians were therefore Canaanites. (Jos 13:4-6; Jg 10:12) They themselves, and others too, called their land Canaan. On a coin of the time of Antiochus Epiphanes the Syrophoenician city of Laodicea is described as “a mother city of Canaan.”
However, in time the Greeks preferred to call these Canaanite Sidonians by yet another term, Phoenicians. So it was that Canaanite, Sidonian, and Phoenician were names sometimes used interchangeably for the same people. In Isaiah’s prophecy, for example, Phoenicia is termed “Canaan.”—Isa 23:11; JP; RS; NW, ftn.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:14)

“as well as the Jebʹu•site, the Amʹor•ite, the Girʹga•shite,”

*** it-1 p. 962 Girgashite(s) ***
GIRGASHITE(S)
(Girʹga•shite[s]).
A people descended from Ham through Canaan. (Ge 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 1:8, 13, 14) The Girgashites resided W of the Jordan. Although powerful, they and six other Canaanite nations suffered defeat, for Jehovah delivered them into the hands of his people. (De 7:1, 2; Jos 3:10; 24:11) This fulfilled God’s promise made to Abraham centuries earlier. (Ge 15:13-21; Ne 9:7, 8) The names “Girgash” and “Ben-Girgash,” found in the Ugaritic literature, have been cited as indirect confirmation of the Girgashites’ existence.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:15)

“the Hiʹvite, the Arkʹite, the Siʹnite,”

*** it-1 p. 165 Arkite ***
ARKITE
(Arkʹite).
Descendants of Ham through Canaan and one of the 70 post-Flood families. (Ge 10:17; 1Ch 1:15) They settled along the Mediterranean Coast W of the Lebanon Mountains.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:17)

“The sons of Shem were Eʹlam, Asʹshur, Ar•pachʹshad, Lud, and Aʹram, and Uz, Hul, Geʹther, and Mash.”

*** it-1 pp. 701-702 Elam ***
ELAM
(Eʹlam).
1. One of the five sons of Shem from whom descended “families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.” (Ge 10:22, 31; 1Ch 1:17) The names of Elam’s sons are not specified; his name, however, designates both a people and a region on the SE border of Mesopotamia.
Historically, the name Elam applied to an area in what is now called Khuzestan in SW Iran. It included the fertile plain on the eastern side of the lower Tigris Valley, watered by the Karun and Karkheh rivers, and evidently extended into the mountainous regions bordering this plain on the N and E, although these two boundaries are the least certain. A region called Anshan is believed to have been situated in these mountainous regions and is represented in inscriptions as forming a part of Elam from an early period. Elam, located at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, was, therefore, in somewhat of a frontier position, being one of the regions where territory populated and generally dominated by Semitic races confronted or merged with races descended from Noah’s other sons, principally the Japhetic line.
The land of Elam was called elamtu by the Assyrians and Babylonians and Elymais by the classical Greek writers, who also at times referred to it as “Susiana” after the city of Susa, or Shushan, at one time evidently the capital of Elam. Under the Persian Empire, Susa (Shushan) was a royal city. (Ne 1:1; Es 1:2) It was situated on the trade routes leading off to the SE and also up into the Iranian plateau. Efforts to gain control of these routes made Elam the object of frequent invasion by Assyrian and Babylonian rulers.
Language. In discussing Elam, reference works generally claim that the writer of Genesis listed Elam under Shem only on a political or a geographic basis since, they say, the people of Elam were not Semitic. This view they base on the claim that the language of the Elamites was not Semitic. Investigation, however, reveals that the earliest inscriptions found in the geographic region designated Elam are “mere lists of objects pictorially jotted down on clay-tablets with the numbers of each beside them, indicated by a simple system of strokes, circles and semicircles . . . their contents at this time are purely economic or administrative.” (Semitic Writing, by G. R. Driver, London, 1976, pp. 2, 3) These inscriptions could reasonably be called “Elamite” only as meaning that they were found in the territory of Elam.
The weight of the argument of those opposing the inclusion of Elam among the Semitic peoples, therefore, rests principally upon later inscriptions in cuneiform, regarded as dating considerably within the second millennium B.C.E., as well as on the Behistun monument (of the sixth century B.C.E.), which contains parallel texts in Old Persian, Akkadian, and “Elamite.” The cuneiform inscriptions attributed to the Elamites are said to be in an agglutinative language (one in which root words are joined together to form compounds, thereby distinguished from inflectional languages). Philologists have not been able successfully to relate this “Elamite” language to any other known tongue.
In evaluating the above information, it should be remembered that the geographic region in which the descendants of Elam eventually concentrated may well have been occupied by other peoples prior to or even during such Elamite residence there, just as the early non-Semitic Sumerians resided in Babylonia. The Encyclopædia Britannica (1959, Vol. 8, p. 118) states: “The whole country [designated Elam] was occupied by a variety of tribes, speaking agglutinative dialects for the most part, though the western districts were occupied by Semites.”—Italics ours; MAP and CHART, Vol. 1, p. 329.
That the cuneiform inscriptions found in the region of Elam would not of themselves prove that the true Elamites were originally non-Semitic can be seen from the many ancient historical examples that can be cited of peoples adopting a tongue other than their own because of domination or infiltration by foreign elements. There are likewise examples of ancient peoples simultaneously employing another language along with their own for commercial and international uses, even as Aramaic became a lingua franca used by many peoples. The “Hittites” of Karatepe wrote bilingual inscriptions (evidently in the eighth century B.C.E.) in “Hittite” hieroglyphic script and in old Phoenician. Some 30,000 clay tablets of the time of Persian King Darius I were found at Persepolis, a royal Persian city. They were mainly in the language termed “Elamite.” Yet Persepolis would not be called an Elamite city.
Further showing that it is unwise to view the table of nations at Genesis chapter 10 as purely geographic, and not actually genealogical, is the evidence in the form of sculptures carved for Elamite kings and dated by archaeologists as far back as the time of Sargon I (whose rule they assign to the latter part of the third millennium). These sculptures not only present the form of typical Akkadian (Semitic Assyro-Babylonian) figures but also bear Akkadian inscriptions.—The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, edited by J. D. Douglas, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 433.

*** it-1 p. 1157 Hul ***
HUL
A son of Aram. (Ge 10:23) At 1 Chronicles 1:17, though, Hul appears to be listed as a son of Shem. In the Alexandrine Manuscript and Hebrew manuscript Kennicott 175, 1 Chronicles 1:17 reads as does Genesis 10:23, having the phrase “and the sons of Aram” before listing Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. So, the omission of the words “and the sons of Aram” at 1 Chronicles 1:17 in the Masoretic text may be due to scribal error. But this is not necessarily the case; in the Scriptures, “sons” can also include grandsons and even later descendants. (For what might be a comparable situation, see 1Ch 1:4, where Shem, Ham, and Japheth are not introduced as sons of Noah, perhaps because their relationship to Noah was so well known that the original writer felt it unnecessary to make the identification.)

*** it-2 p. 349 Mash ***
MASH
A descendant of Shem through Aram. (Ge 10:22, 23; 1Ch 1:17, Sy and six Heb. manuscripts) At 1 Chronicles 1:17 the Masoretic text reads “Meshech” instead of “Mash.” But this is probably a scribal error, since Meshech is listed as a “son” of Japheth.—Ge 10:2; 1Ch 1:5.

*** it-2 p. 919 Shem ***
After Aram, the parallel account at 1 Chronicles 1:17 also lists “Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash,” but at Genesis 10:23 these are shown to be sons of Aram. Biblical and other historical evidence indicates that Shem was thus the progenitor of the Semitic peoples: the Elamites, the Assyrians, the early Chaldeans, the Hebrews, the Aramaeans (or Syrians), various Arabian tribes, and perhaps the Lydians of Asia Minor. This would mean that the population descended from Shem was concentrated principally in the southwestern corner of the Asiatic continent, extending throughout most of the Fertile Crescent and occupying a considerable portion of the Arabian Peninsula.—See articles under the names of the individual sons of Shem.

*** it-2 p. 919 Shem ***
The fact that Shem is mentioned first is of itself no definite indication that Shem was Noah’s firstborn, since Shem’s own firstborn son (Arpachshad) is listed third in the genealogical records. (Ge 10:22; 1Ch 1:17)

(1 CHRONICLES 1:18)

“Ar•pachʹshad became father to Sheʹlah, and Sheʹlah became father to Eʹber.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 8 par. 5 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
1:18—Who was Shelah’s father—Cainan or Arpachshad? (Luke 3:35, 36) Arpachshad was the father of Shelah. (Genesis 10:24; 11:12) The term “Cainan” at Luke 3:36 may well be a corruption of the term “Chaldeans.” If this is so, the original text may have read, “the son of Chaldean Arpachshad.” Or it may be that the names Cainan and Arpachshad refer to one and the same person. Not to be overlooked is the fact that the expression “son of Cainan” is not found in some manuscripts.—Luke 3:36, footnote.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:36)

“The sons of Elʹi•phaz were Teʹman, Oʹmar, Zeʹpho, Gaʹtam, Keʹnaz, Timʹna, and Amʹa•lek.”

*** it-2 p. 1104 Timna ***
TIMNA
(Timʹna).
1. Concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz and mother of Amalek. (Ge 36:10-12) In the genealogy at 1 Chronicles 1:36, there are first enumerated five sons of Esau’s son Eliphaz. Next are added, “Timna and Amalek.” Professor C. F. Keil remarks on this: “The addition of the two names Timna and Amalek in the Chronicle thus appears to be merely an abbreviation, which the author might well allow himself, as the posterity of Esau were known to his readers from Genesis. The name Timna, too, by its form (a feminine formation), must have guarded against the idea of some modern exegetes that Timna was also a son of Eliphaz.” (Commentary on the Old Testament, 1973, Vol. III, First Chronicles, p. 53) Thus, Eliphaz’ six sons were listed, but with the notation that one of them, Amalek, was of Eliphaz’ concubine, Timna. It must be remembered that Amalek became a nation that hated God’s people and concerning whom Jehovah said: “Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” (Ex 17:8-16) Thus the accounts, both in Genesis and in Chronicles, give this detail concerning the origin of Amalek. This Timna is possibly the same as No. 2.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:41)

“The son of Aʹnah was Diʹshon. The sons of Diʹshon were Hemʹdan, Eshʹban, Ithʹran, and Cheʹran.”

*** it-1 p. 101 Amram ***
3. Name given to a Seirite, a son of Dishon, in the King James Version rendering of 1 Chronicles 1:41.—See HEMDAN.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:42)

“The sons of Eʹzer were Bilʹhan, Zaʹa•van, and Aʹkan. The sons of Diʹshan were Uz and Aʹran.”

*** it-1 p. 68 Akan ***
AKAN
(Aʹkan).
Last named of three sons of Sheik Ezer of the Seirites. (Ge 36:20, 21, 27) The Masoretic text reads “Jaakan” at 1 Chronicles 1:42, but the Greek Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus) and 22 Hebrew manuscripts read “Akan” in agreement with Genesis 36:27.

*** it-1 pp. 635-636 Dishan ***
DISHAN
(Diʹshan) [possibly, Antelope].
A Seirite, a sheik of the Horite in the land of Edom. (Ge 36:20, 21; 1Ch 1:38) Genesis 36:28 says the sons of “Dishan” were Uz and Aran, while 1 Chronicles 1:42 in the Hebrew Masoretic text, Greek Septuagint, and Syriac Peshitta refers to “Dishon” as their progenitor. This difference in vocalization, apparently the result of a copyist’s error, is resolved in many English translations (AS, KJ, JB, Le, NW, Ro, Yg) by using the same rendering in both texts, as does the Clementine recension of the Latin Vulgate.

*** it-1 p. 636 Dishon ***
DISHON
(Diʹshon) [possibly, Antelope].
The name of one or possibly two different men in the genealogies recorded at Genesis 36:20-28 and 1 Chronicles 1:38-42.
At Genesis 36:20, 21 (also vss 29, 30) seven “sons of Seir the Horite” are listed as sheiks, namely, Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. Then, in verses 22 to 28, each of the seven sheiks is listed with his sons. At verse 25 one of the sons of Anah is named Dishon. Some believe that this Dishon is a grandson of Seir and a nephew of Sheik Dishon, considering that the seven sheiks were all “sons” of Seir in the strict sense of the word, that is, of the same generation.
Others, however, believe the account to present the seven sheiks merely as descendants of Seir, not of the same generation, hence “sons” in the broad sense of the word. So they suggest that the Dishon of verse 25 is the same as Sheik Dishon (Ge 36:21, 26) and not his nephew. According to this view, although actually the son of Sheik Anah, Dishon is named with the other six sheiks not because of being their brother but because of being their equal in the sense of being a sheik.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:48)

“When Samʹlah died, Shaʹul from Re•hoʹboth by the River began to reign in his place.”

*** it-2 p. 768 Rehoboth ***
2. A city of unknown location from which came Shaul, an early Edomite king. (Ge 36:31, 37; 1Ch 1:43, 48) In both references to it, the place is called “Rehoboth by the River.” Generally in the Bible the designation “the River” means the Euphrates. (Ps 72:8; 2Ch 9:26; compare Ex 23:31 and De 11:24.) Thus some geographers have suggested either of two sites near the junction of the Khabur and Euphrates rivers. This would mean, however, that Shaul was from a city far outside of Edomite territory. Certain modern geographers, however, believe that in these two instances “the River” refers to a river in Edom or near one of its borders, such as the Zered (Wadi el-Hasaʼ) running into the southern end of the Dead Sea. Geographer J. Simons proposes a site about 37 km (23 mi) SE of the tip of the Dead Sea.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:51)

“Then Haʹdad died. The sheikhs of Eʹdom were Sheikh Timʹna, Sheikh Alʹvah, Sheikh Jeʹtheth,”

*** it-2 p. 1104 Timna ***
3. The first name found in the list of 11 “sheiks of Esau,” or Edom. (Ge 36:40-43; 1Ch 1:51-54) In the view of many translators, Timna and the other names listed are personal names. (AS, KJ, JB, NW, RS) However, it is generally acknowledged that the expression “according to their families, according to their places, by their names” indicates that a tribe or an area is meant. Some versions therefore prefer expressions such as “the chief of Timna.” (JP, AT) In fact, at Genesis 36:41, in the same list, a woman’s name, Oholibamah, appears, allowing for the name Timna to be that of a woman. Eusebius and Jerome identified Timna with an Edomite site called “Thamna,” which stood in their day. (Onomasticon, 96, 24-27) However, the location of any such region named for Timna is currently unknown.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:6)

“The sons of Zeʹrah were Zimʹri, Eʹthan, Heʹman, Calʹcol, and Daʹra. There were five of them in all.”

*** it-1 p. 765 Ethan ***
1. One of four men whose wisdom, though great, was exceeded by Solomon’s. (1Ki 4:31) This Ethan may be the writer of Psalm 89, for the superscription identifies Ethan the Ezrahite as its writer. In 1 Chronicles 2:6, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara are all spoken of as sons of Zerah of the tribe of Judah and possibly are the same as the men mentioned in First Kings. Ethan is referred to as the father of Azariah.—1Ch 2:8; see EZRAHITE.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:15)

“Oʹzem the sixth, and David the seventh.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 1 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
2:15—Was David the seventh son of Jesse? No. Jesse had eight sons, and David was the youngest. (1 Samuel 16:10, 11; 17:12) One of the sons of Jesse evidently died without having any children. Since that son would have no bearing on genealogical records, Ezra omitted his name.

*** w02 9/15 p. 31 Questions From Readers ***
• Why does 1 Chronicles 2:13-15 refer to David as the seventh son of Jesse, whereas 1 Samuel 16:10, 11 indicates that he was the eighth?
After King Saul of ancient Israel turned away from true worship, Jehovah God sent the prophet Samuel to anoint one of Jesse’s sons as king. The divine record of this historical event, written by Samuel himself in the 11th century B.C.E., presents David as the eighth son of Jesse. (1 Samuel 16:10-13) Yet, the account penned by Ezra the priest some 600 years later says: “Jesse, in turn, became father to his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh.” (1 Chronicles 2:13-15) What happened to one of David’s brothers, and why does Ezra omit his name?
The Scriptures state that Jesse “had eight sons.” (1 Samuel 17:12) One of his sons evidently did not live long enough to get married and have children. Having no descendants, he would have no claim in tribal inheritance nor any bearing on genealogical records of Jesse’s lineage.
Now let us think of Ezra’s day. Consider the setting under which he compiled Chronicles. The exile in Babylon ended about 77 years earlier, and the Jews were resettled in their land. The king of Persia had authorized Ezra to appoint judges and teachers of the Law of God and to beautify the house of Jehovah. There was a need for accurate genealogical lists to confirm the tribal inheritances and to ensure that only authorized people served in the priesthood. So Ezra prepared a full account of the nation’s history, including a clear and dependable record of the lineage of Judah and of David. The name of the son of Jesse who died childless would be irrelevant. Hence, Ezra omitted his name.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:16)

“Their sisters were Ze•ruʹiah and Abʹi•gail. The sons of Ze•ruʹiah were A•bishʹai, Joʹab, and Asʹa•hel, three.”

*** it-1 p. 21 Abigail ***
However, it is noteworthy that the record at 1 Chronicles 2:13-16 does not call Abigail and Zeruiah ‘daughters of Jesse’ but rather “sisters” of Jesse’s sons, including David. This allows for the possibility that their mother had first been married to a man named Nahash, to whom she bore Abigail and Zeruiah before becoming Jesse’s wife and the mother of his sons. It cannot, therefore, be stated dogmatically that Abigail was the daughter of Jesse.—See NAHASH No. 2.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:17)

“Abʹi•gail gave birth to A•maʹsa, and the father of A•maʹsa was Jeʹther the Ishʹma•el•ite.”

*** it-2 p. 72 Jether ***
6. Father of David’s onetime army chief Amasa. (1Ki 2:5, 32) Second Samuel 17:25 in the Masoretic text calls him Ithra and says that he was an Israelite, but 1 Chronicles 2:17 calls him an Ishmaelite, possibly because he lived for a time among the Ishmaelites.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:24)

“After the death of Hezʹron in Caʹleb-ephʹra•thah, A•biʹjah the wife of Hezʹron bore him Ashʹhur the father of Te•koʹa.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

*** it-1 pp. 1105-1106 Hezron ***
According to the reading of 1 Chronicles 2:24 in the Masoretic text, Hezron died at Caleb-ephrathah, and after this his widow Abijah bore Ashhur, the father of Tekoa. However, some scholars believe that the Masoretic text does not preserve the original reading, since Hezron is listed among the 70 “souls of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt” and so must have died in that land (Ge 46:12, 26, 27), and it seems to them unlikely that a place in Egypt bore the Hebrew name Caleb-ephrathah. Hence, many translators have emended 1 Chronicles 2:24 to correspond more to the readings of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate. The Jerusalem Bible renders this text: “After Hezron’s death, Caleb married Ephrathah, wife of Hezron his father, who bore him Ashhur, father of Tekoa.” The translation by J. B. Rotherham reads: “And after the death of Hezron Caleb entered Ephrathah, and the wife of Hezron was Abiah who bare him Ashhur father of Tekoa.” So, according to these alterations, “Ashhur” is either the “son” of Hezron by Abiah (Abijah) or the “son” of Caleb by Ephrathah.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:45)

“The son of Shamʹmai was Maʹon. Maʹon was the father of Beth-zur.”

*** it-1 p. 306 Beth-zur ***
The name Beth-zur appears in a genealogical list of the descendants of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel at 1 Chronicles 2:45. Maon is there said to be “the father of Beth-zur.” Many commentators understand Beth-zur to refer to the town of that name, Maon in such case being the father of those settling there, or perhaps the chief or principal one of the city.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:46)

“Caʹleb’s concubine Eʹphah gave birth to Haʹran, Moʹza, and Gaʹzez. Haʹran became father to Gaʹzez.”

*** it-1 p. 902 Gazez ***
GAZEZ
(Gaʹzez) [Shearer].
First Chronicles 2:46 says Caleb’s concubine Ephah gave birth to Haran, Moza, and Gazez, and then it states that Haran “became father to Gazez.” Hence, there may have been two men named Gazez: (1) a son of Caleb, and (2) a grandson of Caleb. But if the expression, “As for Haran, he became father to Gazez,” is simply a clarification identifying the Gazez mentioned initially as, not Caleb’s son, but his grandson, this would mean there was only one Gazez, namely, the son of Haran and grandson of Caleb.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:49)

“In time she bore Shaʹaph the father of Mad•manʹnah, Sheʹva the father of Mach•beʹnah, and Gibʹe•a. Caʹleb’s daughter was Achʹsah.”

*** it-1 p. 389 Caleb ***
Achsah is listed as the daughter of “Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel” (No. 1 above) who lived about a century and a half before “Caleb the son of Jephunneh.” (1Ch 2:42, 49) Some commentators say there was only one Caleb. But the great lapse of time between Judah’s grandson Hezron and the settlement of Canaan precludes such a conclusion. Others say that both Calebs must have had daughters by the same name. However, women are mentioned in genealogies only when they have had a major role in the history of God’s people. And since there was only one famous Achsah, she must have been the daughter of the second Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. Still other commentators would drop this statement about Achsah from the verse (1Ch 2:49) as a misplaced scribal addition, but they have no textual authority. However, it is more reasonable to think that the original writer intentionally included this abrupt notice in verse 49 for a special purpose, using “daughter” in its wider sense to mean a descendant to call attention to the fact that Achsah was not only the daughter of Caleb the son of Jephunneh but also a direct descendant of Caleb the son of Hezron.

*** it-2 p. 290 Madmannah ***
1. This name appears in the list of descendants of Judah through Caleb. Caleb’s concubine Maacah is stated to have borne “Shaaph the father of Madmannah.” (1Ch 2:49) However, most scholars consider the term “father” to be used here in the sense of “founder” and consider Madmannah in this text to correspond with the town considered below, Shaaph being viewed as the founder or perhaps the rebuilder thereof after its capture. It may be noted that the names of Kiriath-jearim and Bethlehem appear in a similar context in the following verses.—1Ch 2:50, 54.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:50)

“These were the descendants of Caʹleb. The sons of Hur the firstborn of Ephʹra•thah were Shoʹbal the father of Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim,”

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:51)

“Salʹma the father of Bethʹle•hem, and Haʹreph the father of Beth-gaʹder.”

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:52)

“Shoʹbal the father of Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim had sons: Ha•roʹeh and half of the Me•nuʹhoth.”

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

*** it-2 p. 372 Menuhoth ***
MENUHOTH
(Me•nuʹhoth) [Resting-Places].
According to the Masoretic text, apparently a Judean family descended through Shobal. (1Ch 2:4, 52) But some scholars prefer emending the Hebrew text to read “the Manahathites,” as in verse 54. (JB, Mo) And a Jewish commentary on Chronicles gives the alternate reading “who supervised half of the resting-places” and notes: “Shobal was in charge of half the caravan stations in the land of Judah.”—Soncino Books of the Bible, edited by A. Cohen, London, 1952, p. 15.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:54)

“The sons of Salʹma were Bethʹle•hem, the Ne•tophʹa•thites, Atʹroth-beth-joʹab, half of the Man•a•haʹthites, and the Zorʹites.”

*** it-1 pp. 214-215 Atroth-beth-joab ***
ATROTH-BETH-JOAB
(Atʹroth-beth-joʹab) [Crowns [that is, circular enclosures] of the House of Joab].
A name appearing among “the sons of Salma” in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. (1Ch 2:54) Some consider this to be the name of a town in Judah, pointing to the inclusion of such names as Kiriath-jearim, Beth-gader, Bethlehem, and others in these genealogies. However, the mere correspondency of a name with that of a town is not a certain indication that the town is referred to, since there are numerous instances of persons and towns bearing the same name. Nevertheless, the form or meaning of certain names in the genealogies does seem to be of a geographic nature rather than a personal one. The solution may rest in the view held by many scholars that it is more precisely to the inhabitants of the town that reference is made, rather than to the geographic site itself. Thus, the expression “father of” in certain occurrences is understood to mean the “founder of” or “chief settler of” the particular population dwelling in the place indicated.
It may be noted that the word “father” appears in the original Hebrew at Genesis 4:20, 21 but in some translations is rendered “ancestor” (AT; JB) or “founder” (NW). Hebrew lexicons include among the possible meanings of the Hebrew term “father” that of “ruler, chief” (A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, by Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 1980, p. 3), “forefather, ancestor of tribe, nation . . . of a place . . . founder of a class or station, . . . of a trade . . . founder, chief magistrate of a place.” (Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, by L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Leiden, 1958, p. 1)—Compare Isa 22:20-22.

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:5)

“These were born to him in Jerusalem: Shimʹe•a, Shoʹbab, Nathan, and Solʹo•mon; the mother of these four was Bath-sheʹba the daughter of Amʹmi•el.”

*** it-1 p. 708 Eliam ***
1. Father of Bath-sheba. (2Sa 11:3) Called Ammiel at 1 Chronicles 3:5.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:6)

“And nine other sons were Ibʹhar, E•lishʹa•ma, E•liphʹe•let,”

*** it-1 p. 718 Elishama ***
3. A son born to David in Jerusalem. This Elishama is listed as Elishua in 2 Samuel 5:15, in 1 Chronicles 14:5, and in two Hebrew manuscripts at 1 Chronicles 3:6. Elishua is generally considered to be the correct name, as the name Elishama appears again in 1 Chronicles 3:8 and therefore could easily have crept into verse 6 through a scribal error. However, since the Hebrew Masoretic text, the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Latin Vulgate read “Elishama” at 1 Chronicles 3:6, this form of the name has been retained in the New World Translation as well as other translations.

*** it-1 p. 719 Elishua ***
ELISHUA
(E•liʹshu•a) [God Is Salvation].
One of the sons born to King David in Jerusalem. (2Sa 5:15; 1Ch 14:5) Elishua is called Elishama at 1 Chronicles 3:6.—See ELISHAMA No. 3.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:15)

“The sons of Jo•siʹah were the firstborn, Jo•haʹnan, the second, Je•hoiʹa•kim, the third, Zed•e•kiʹah, the fourth, Shalʹlum.”

*** it-2 p. 86 Johanan ***
4. Firstborn son of King Josiah. (1Ch 3:15) Since he is nowhere mentioned in connection with succession to the throne of Judah, as are his three younger brothers, he must have died before his father’s death.—2Ki 23:30, 34; 24:17; Jer 22:11; see JOSIAH No. 1.

*** it-2 p. 1227 Zedekiah ***
At 1 Chronicles 3:15, Zedekiah is listed as the “third” son of Josiah. Whereas he was actually the fourth son in the order of birth (compare 2Ki 23:30, 31; 24:18; Jer 22:11), he may here be placed before his full brother Shallum (Jehoahaz) because of having ruled much longer.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:17)

“The sons of Jec•o•niʹah the prisoner were She•alʹti•el,”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 2 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
3:17—Why does Luke 3:27 refer to Jeconiah’s son Shealtiel as the son of Neri? Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel. However, Neri apparently gave his daughter to Shealtiel as a wife. Luke referred to Neri’s son-in-law as Neri’s son just as he did in the case of Joseph, calling him the son of Mary’s father, Heli.—Luke 3:23.

*** w92 7/15 pp. 5-6 Does the Bible Contradict Itself? ***
▪ Who was the father of Shealtiel?
Certain texts indicate that Jeconiah (King Jehoiachin) was the fleshly father of Shealtiel. (1 Chronicles 3:16-18; Matthew 1:12) But the Gospel writer Luke called Shealtiel the “son of Neri.” (Luke 3:27) Neri apparently gave his daughter to Shealtiel as a wife. Since the Hebrews commonly referred to a son-in-law as a son, especially in genealogical listings, Luke could properly call Shealtiel the son of Neri. Similarly, Luke referred to Joseph as the son of Heli, who was actually the father of Joseph’s wife, Mary.—Luke 3:23.

*** it-1 p. 147 Archaeology ***
Near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon some 300 cuneiform tablets were uncovered relating to the period of King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Among lists of the names of workers and captives then living in Babylon to whom provisions were given appears that of “Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud,” that is, “Jehoiachin, the king of the land of Judah,” who was taken to Babylon at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem in 617 B.C.E. He was released from the house of detention by Awil-Marduk (Evil-merodach), Nebuchadnezzar’s successor, and was given a daily allowance of food. (2Ki 25:27-30) Five of Jehoiachin’s sons are also mentioned on these tablets.—1Ch 3:17, 18.

*** it-1 p. 199 Assir ***
The King James Version uses the name Assir at 1 Chronicles 3:17; however, many modern translations (AS, AT, Mo, NW, Ro, RS) view the Hebrew word here, not as a proper name, but, rather, as an expression descriptive of Jeconiah (Jehoiachin) as a captive or prisoner in Babylon. (2Ki 24:12-15; 25:27-30) The New World Translation fittingly reads: “And the sons of Jeconiah as prisoner [ʼas•sirʹ] were Shealtiel . . .”

(1 CHRONICLES 3:18)

“Mal•chiʹram, Pe•daiʹah, She•nazʹzar, Jek•a•miʹah, Hoshʹa•ma, and Ned•a•biʹah.”

*** it-1 p. 147 Archaeology ***
Near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon some 300 cuneiform tablets were uncovered relating to the period of King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Among lists of the names of workers and captives then living in Babylon to whom provisions were given appears that of “Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud,” that is, “Jehoiachin, the king of the land of Judah,” who was taken to Babylon at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem in 617 B.C.E. He was released from the house of detention by Awil-Marduk (Evil-merodach), Nebuchadnezzar’s successor, and was given a daily allowance of food. (2Ki 25:27-30) Five of Jehoiachin’s sons are also mentioned on these tablets.—1Ch 3:17, 18.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:19)

“The sons of Pe•daiʹah were Ze•rubʹba•bel and Shimʹe•i; and the sons of Ze•rubʹba•bel were Me•shulʹlam and Han•a•niʹah (and She•loʹmith was their sister);”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 3 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
3:17-19—How were Zerubbabel, Pedaiah, and Shealtiel related? Zerubbabel was a son of Pedaiah, who was a brother of Shealtiel. Yet, the Bible at times calls Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel. (Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27) This could be because Pedaiah died and Shealtiel raised Zerubbabel. Or perhaps since Shealtiel died without having a child, Pedaiah performed brother-in-law marriage, and Zerubbabel was the firstborn of that union.—Deuteronomy 25:5-10.

*** it-1 p. 916 Genealogy of Jesus Christ ***
Matthew indicates that Zerubbabel is the son of Shealtiel (Mt 1:12), and this coincides with other references. (Ezr 3:2; Ne 12:1; Hag 1:14; Lu 3:27) However, at 1 Chronicles 3:19 Zerubbabel is referred to as the son of Pedaiah. Evidently Zerubbabel was the natural son of Pedaiah and the legal son of Shealtiel by reason of brother-in-law marriage; or possibly, after Zerubbabel’s father Pedaiah died, Zerubbabel was brought up by Shealtiel as his son and therefore became legally recognized as the son of Shealtiel.

*** it-2 p. 594 Pedaiah ***
3. Third-named son of King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) born during the Babylonian exile. Pedaiah became father to postexilic Governor Zerubbabel and was therefore a vital link in the line leading to Jesus. (1Ch 3:17-19)

*** it-2 p. 911 Shealtiel ***
As to Zerubbabel’s father: Pedaiah is once so identified (1Ch 3:19), but Pedaiah’s brother Shealtiel (1Ch 3:17, 18) is so termed in all other instances. (Ezr 3:2, 8; 5:2; Ne 12:1; Hag 1:1, 12, 14; 2:2, 23; Mt 1:12; Lu 3:27) If Pedaiah died when his son Zerubbabel was a boy, Pedaiah’s oldest brother Shealtiel might have raised Zerubbabel as his own son. Or, if Shealtiel died childless and Pedaiah performed levirate marriage on his behalf, the son of Pedaiah by Shealtiel’s wife would have been the legal heir of Shealtiel.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:22)

“and the sons of Shec•a•niʹah were She•maiʹah and the sons of She•maiʹah: Hatʹtush, Iʹgal, Ba•riʹah, Ne•a•riʹah, and Shaʹphat—six in all.”

*** it-2 p. 921 Shemaiah ***
26. A distant descendant of David. (1Ch 3:9, 10, 22) Some scholars think that the words “and the sons of Shemaiah,” in the middle of verse 22 (which is followed by only five names), should be omitted as a scribal error, thus crediting Shecaniah with six sons. However, other scholars suggest that Shemaiah and his five sons were reckoned as the six descendants of Shecaniah.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:1)

“The sons of Judah were Peʹrez, Hezʹron, Carʹmi, Hur, and Shoʹbal.”

*** it-1 p. 420 Carmi ***
The designation “sons of Judah” at 1 Chronicles 4:1, where Carmi is listed, evidently is to be understood as including later descendants.—Compare 1Ch 2:4-7.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:4)

“and Pe•nuʹel was the father of Geʹdor, and Eʹzer was the father of Huʹshah. These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephʹra•thah and the father of Bethʹle•hem.”

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 1163 Hushah ***
HUSHAH
(Huʹshah).
Either a “son” of or a city “fathered” or “founded” by Ezer of the tribe of Judah. (1Ch 4:1, 4) If Hushah designates a city, then it was likely the home of one of David’s mighty men, Sibbecai, who was probably also called Mebunnai. (1Ch 27:11; compare 2Sa 23:27; 1Ch 11:29.) Some regard Hushah as the name of a city and identify it with Husan, about 6 km (3.5 mi) W of Bethlehem.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:5)

“Ashʹhur the father of Te•koʹa had two wives, Heʹlah and Naʹa•rah.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:6)

“Naʹa•rah bore to him A•huzʹzam, Heʹpher, Teʹme•ni, and Ha•a•hashʹta•ri. These were the sons of Naʹa•rah.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:7)

“And the sons of Heʹlah were Zeʹreth, Izʹhar, and Ethʹnan.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:9)

“Jaʹbez was more honorable than his brothers; and his mother named him Jaʹbez, saying: “I gave birth to him in pain.””

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
The name Jabez comes from a root that can mean “pain.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Let us examine 1 Chronicles 4:9, 10.
All that we know about Jabez is found in these two verses. According to verse 9, his mother “called his name Jabez, saying: ‘I have given him birth in pain.’” Why did she choose such a name? Did she bring forth this son with more than the usual birth pangs? Was she perhaps a widow, lamenting the fact that her husband was not there to welcome their baby into the world? The Bible does not say. But this mother would someday have reason to be especially proud of this son. Jabez’ siblings may have been upright men, but “Jabez came to be more honorable than his brothers.”

(1 CHRONICLES 4:10)

“Jaʹbez called on the God of Israel, saying: “O that you would bless me and enlarge my territory and let your hand be with me and preserve me from calamity, so that it may bring no harm to me!” So God brought about what he had asked for.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Let us examine 1 Chronicles 4:9, 10.

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Jabez was a man of prayer. He began his prayer by pleading for God’s blessing. He then made three requests that reflect a heart full of faith.
First, Jabez implored God, saying: “Enlarge my territory.” (Verse 10) This honorable man was no land-grabber, coveting what belonged to his fellow man. His earnest request may have had more to do with people than land. He may have been asking for the peaceful enlargement of his territory so that it could hold more worshippers of the true God.
Second, Jabez pleaded for God’s “hand” to be with him. God’s symbolic hand is his applied power, which he uses to help his worshippers. (1 Chronicles 29:12) To receive the requests of his heart, Jabez looked to the God whose hand is not short toward those who show faith in him.—Isaiah 59:1.
Third, Jabez prayed: “Preserve me from calamity, that it may not hurt me.” The expression “that it may not hurt me” may suggest that Jabez prayed, not to escape calamity, but to be kept from being grieved or overcome by the effects of evil.
Jabez’ prayer revealed his concern for true worship and his faith and trust in the Hearer of prayer. How did Jehovah respond? This brief account concludes with the words: “Accordingly God brought to pass what he had asked.”
The Hearer of prayer has not changed. He delights in the prayers of worshippers. Those who place their faith and trust in him may have this confidence: “No matter what it is that we ask according to his will, he hears us.”—1 John 5:14.

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
The Targums, Jewish paraphrases of the Sacred Scriptures, render Jabez’ words: “Bless me with children, and enlarge my borders with disciples.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 6 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
4:9, 10. Jehovah answered the fervent prayer of Jabez for a peaceful enlargement of his territory so that it might accommodate more God-fearing people. We too need to offer heartfelt prayers for an increase as we zealously share in the disciple-making work.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:12)

“Eshʹton became father to Beth-raʹpha, Pa•seʹah, and Te•hinʹnah, the father of Ir-naʹhash. These were the men of Reʹcah.”

*** it-1 p. 302 Beth-rapha ***
BETH-RAPHA
(Beth-raʹpha) [House of Rapha].
The name appears at 1 Chronicles 4:12 where Eshton is said to have become “father to Beth-rapha.” The use of “Beth” (meaning “House”) in the name has led many commentators to view it as applying to a family “house” or to a place. Keil and Delitzsch’s Commentary on the Old Testament (1973, Vol. III, 1 Chronicles, p. 88) observes: “Eshton begat the house (the family) of Rapha, of whom also nothing further is said; for they can be connected neither with the Benjamite Rapha (viii. 2) nor with the children of Rapha (xx. 4, 6, 8).”

(1 CHRONICLES 4:14)

“Me•oʹno•thai became father to Ophʹrah. Se•raiʹah became father to Joʹab the father of Ge-harʹa•shim, so called because they were craftsmen.”

*** it-2 p. 77 Joab ***
1. Son of Seraiah, a descendant of Kenaz of the tribe of Judah. Joab was “the father of Ge-harashim” (meaning “Valley of Craftsmen”), “for,” says the Bible account, “craftsmen are what they became.” Evidently Joab was “father” or founder of the community of craftsmen living in the valley.—1Ch 4:1, 13, 14; see GE-HARASHIM.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:15)

“The sons of Caʹleb the son of Je•phunʹneh were Iʹru, Eʹlah, and Naʹam; and the son of Eʹlah was Keʹnaz.”

*** it-1 p. 1216 Iru ***
IRU
(Iʹru) [possibly from a root meaning “full-grown ass”].
The first-named son of Caleb the spy; of Judah’s tribe. (1Ch 4:15) Some scholars think that the name was really Ir and that the “u” was only the Hebrew conjunction and.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:18)

“(And his Jewish wife gave birth to Jeʹred the father of Geʹdor, Heʹber the father of Soʹco, and Je•kuʹthi•el the father of Za•noʹah.) These were the sons of Bi•thiʹah, the daughter of Pharʹaoh, whom Meʹred married.”

*** it-2 p. 26 Jekuthiel ***
JEKUTHIEL
(Je•kuʹthi•el).
A descendant of Judah and “father of Zanoah.” (1Ch 4:1, 18) Zanoah is the name of a city rather than a person in its other occurrence (Jos 15:56, 57), so Jekuthiel as its “father” was likely the father of those who settled there, or was himself its founder or chief settler.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:21)

“The sons of Sheʹlah the son of Judah were Er the father of Leʹcah, Laʹa•dah the father of Ma•reʹshah, and the families of the workers of fine fabric of the house of Ash•beʹa,”

*** it-1 p. 189 Ashbea ***
ASHBEA
(Ash•beʹa) [Let Me Make One Swear (Take an Oath)].
The house of Ashbea descended from Judah’s son Shelah and was noted for its production of fine fabric. (1Ch 4:21) The Targums add that their linen was made for kings and priests.

*** it-1 p. 1154 House ***
(15) an association of workers engaged in the same profession (1Ch 4:21);

(1 CHRONICLES 4:22)

“and Joʹkim, the men of Co•zeʹba, Joʹash, and Saʹraph, who became husbands of Moʹab•ite women, and Jashʹu•bi-leʹhem. These records are ancient.”

*** it-1 p. 525 Cozeba ***
COZEBA
(Co•zeʹba) [probably, Liar].
A site in Judah where descendants of Shelah the son of Judah resided. (1Ch 4:21, 22) Most scholars consider Cozeba to be the same as Achzib (“Chezib” in some versions) mentioned at Genesis 38:5 and Joshua 15:44, and on this basis it is tentatively identified with Tell el-Beida (Horvat Lavnin), 5 km (3 mi) WSW of Adullam.

*** it-1 p. 1256 Jashubi-lehem ***
JASHUBI-LEHEM
(Jashʹu•bi-leʹhem).
Name in the genealogies of Judah, possibly a descendant of Shelah. However, some translators think this means “returned to Lehem,” that is, “to Bethlehem.”—1Ch 4:21, 22; RS, AT, JB, Mo.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:23)

“They were potters who lived in Ne•taʹim and Ge•deʹrah. They lived there and worked for the king.”

*** it-1 p. 525 Cozeba ***
The men of Cozeba are apparently included in the expression “they were the potters.”—1Ch 4:23;

(1 CHRONICLES 4:29)

“Bilʹhah, Eʹzem, Toʹlad,”

*** it-1 p. 231 Baalah ***
3. A town in the Negeb region of Judah (Jos 15:29), evidently referred to as Balah in Joshua 19:3 and Bilhah in 1 Chronicles 4:29. It was subsequently allotted to the tribe of Simeon as an enclave city. Its specific location is unknown, but evidently it lay to the SE of Beer-sheba.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:33)

“along with their settlements that were all around these cities as far as Baʹal. These were their genealogical enrollments and the places where they lived.”

*** it-1 p. 231 Baalath-beer ***
BAALATH-BEER
(Baʹal•ath-beʹer) [Mistress of the Well].
An enclave city of Simeon within the territorial limits of Judah. (Jos 19:1, 8) Also called “Ramah of the south” (or Negeb), it is evidently referred to simply as Baal at 1 Chronicles 4:33 and may be the same as the “Ramoth of the south” at 1 Samuel 30:27. The references to it would place it S of Beer-sheba, thus in the Negeb.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:39)

“And they went to the entrance of Geʹdor, to the east side of the valley, to look for pastures for their flocks.”

*** it-1 p. 925 Gerar ***
Some scholars suggest altering 1 Chronicles 4:39, 40 to read “Gerar” (as does LXX) instead of “Gedor.” This passage connects Gedor with a region originally inhabited by the Hamites and having good pasturage, and this description would fit the Biblical references to the area around Gerar.

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