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Assertiveness, self-esteem, Total quality, Coaching, communication, delegation, empathy, Empowerment | Concepts of leadership

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Concepts of Leadership and Marketing


Table of contents

  1. Assertiveness
  2. Management by objective (APO)
  3. Self-esteem
  4. Total quality
  5. Ontological coach
  6. Coaching
  7. Business coaching
  8. How to organize your computer
  9. How to organize are
  10. Communication
  11. Internal control
  12. Creativity in decision making
  13. Delegation
  14. Organizational development (OD)
  15. Personal development
  16. Empathy
  17. Empowerment
  18. Empowerment and women's leadership
  19. Intelligent Enterprise
  20. Work teams


ITEM 01

Management by objective (APO) | Definition

Management by objectives is a program that incorporates specific targets, set in a participative manner, for an explicit time period and which is feedback with progress towards them

Origin management by objective (APO)

Management by objectives (APO) or management by results is an administrative model quite widespread and fully identified with the pragmatic and democratic spirit of the neoclassical theory. His appearance is recent in 1954 Peter F. Drucker, considered the creator of APO, published a book in which characterized for the first time. APO emerged in the 1950s, when the American private company was suffering severe pressures. From the Keynesian intervention during the depression that followed the 1929 crisis, capitalism on suffered more interference and Government controls, because he came to believe that national decisions could not rely on the action of entrepreneurs.
The entrepreneur of the Decade of 1950 was acutely aware of the loss of their margins of profit and the need to reduce costs, and more focused on results than in superfluous and scattered efforts. Economic pressure of the time generated within the companies "management by pressure", but the pressure on managers did not lead to better results. This due to enterprises leaders interpreted as rebellion the apathy of the managers to produce the results expected as a response, companies were stronger controls and with that the vicious circle was more closed: greater control, greater resistance; greater strength, greater control. It was then when we sought a way to balance the objectives, support greater participation decentralizing decisions, allow self-control and self assessment, providing greater freedom and greater flexibility in the controls.

Definition management by objective (APO)

Administrative process whereby boss and subordinate, are based on a definition of clear goals and priorities of the Organization set forth in the senior management group, identify key outcomes that are willing to reach altogether as well as corresponding indicators of success, agree a strategy to achieve those results, work trying to achieve them, are tracked to the efforts and the results achieved and evaluates the performance of managers in the same function
Management by objectives emerged as a method of evaluation and control of the performance areas and fast-growing organizations. It was initially a financial criterion of evaluation and control. As financial criteria was valid, but in the overall approach of the company resulted in a professional distortion, as gain and cost criteria are not sufficient to explain the social and human organization. The response of the middle and lower levels of the Organization to that criterion was discontent and apathy, which caused conflicts between middle and lower level and senior management officials.
It was then that they started to emerge the ideas of decentralization and management by results. The only way that found the direction to reverse the process described above was the decentralization of decisions and setting targets for each key area: each would choose "how" to achieve results. Deleted the staff bodies, being in charge of each division the creation of "services that are needed to achieve the objectives", which has strengthened the position of authority of each operating head.

Characteristics of management by objective

The management objective is a technique of efforts through planning and administrative control direction based on the principle that, to achieve results, the organization needs before defining what business is acting and where it aims to reach. Initially established the annual objectives of the company, formulated on the basis of a plan of long-term objectives (which can be quinquennial or decennial), and objectives of each manager or Department, based on the annual objectives of the company. The APO is a process whereby managers, main and subordinate, of an organization to identify common objectives, define the areas of responsibility of each in terms of expected results and use these objectives as guides for the operation of the company. Safe and common goals that eliminated any doubt of the Manager, beside a cohesion of efforts oriented towards the main objectives of the Organization are achieved. Thus, the expected performance of a manager must be reflection of what is expected in terms of the realization of the objectives of the company; their results must be measured by their contribution to the success of the business. The administrator has to know and understand what, in terms of performance, is expected of it depending on the goals of the company, and his superior should know what contribution can demand and expect from it, judging it in accordance with the same.
In fact, the "APO is a dynamic system that integrates the need for the company to achieve its goals of profit and growth, with the need to contribute to their own development manager. It is a demanding and balanced style of business management". "In APO, main and subordinate managers of an organization define, together, their common goals and specifying the main areas of responsibility of each position, in relation to the expected results of each one, using such measures as guides to improve the operation of the sector and to verify the contribution of each of its members." The APO is, therefore, a method by which the administrator and his superior jointly defined goals and specifies the responsibilities for each position, depending on the expected results, passing the latter to comply the standards of performance under which managers will be evaluated. Analyzed the final result, performance manager can be objectively evaluated and the results can be compared to the expected results.

In summary administration by objective (APO)

It is a response that is widespread in the business environment in a participatory manner the problem of establishing objectives, and a procedure for the correlation and reformulation of the strategy.
The main advantages that has a good program objectives are that give clarity about the expectations of the work at all levels of the company, they enable a participatory management, can induce motivation and commitment of the staff with the objectives, represent planning by the executives of line instead of doing it by a separate staff group, and are in the integration of the strategy.
It is a system of planning at all levels of the Organization, which is based on the initiative and responsibility of each person about their work.
It seeks to integrate the individual objectives and the Divisional enterprise-wide.
Core concepts:
The business strategy, serving as guidance for individual action of departments and people in the organization.
The needs of individuals, their vital and objectives of work, which may fit with the strategy of the company as a whole

ITEM 02

Assertiveness | Definition

In regards to the concept of assertiveness as such, there are those who consider that assertiveness and social skills are synonymous terms. However, we will consider that assertiveness is only a part of social skills, that which brings the behaviors and thoughts that allow us to defend the rights of each without attacking or being attacked.
Stephen R. Covey (1995), in his book the 7 habits of the people highly effective, describes the assertiveness as a way of life that becomes a habit deep, that term inserted into the first habit; be proactive, be responsible for our own destiny and our response to any stimulus of success or failure that raise us the Middle, assertiveness makes the stimuli that reach us where exactly we were sent; and it makes us to send those messages that in reality we send and they esencializan our respect and that of others.
Being proactive, does not rule out that human suffering there is no, it exists, but its existence ennobles us because makes us strong, we tuned and does not harm us. Assertiveness is the tool to succeed in human relationship, where there are no winners and losers, there are only beings that relate in a field of deep respect, there is a personal relationship of win - win, as the fourth habit in Covey model, where only wins in a single relationship and provided that the other party also wins.
Assertive principles, identifies the model of effective personal to that part of the deep respect I, is part of the beginning of deep respect to the most expensive asset we have as our person I, our body, our being, only to feel such respect, we can respect others.
Some theoreticians of the personal effectiveness initiated from the psicologica-administrativa side, since Elton Mayo, at his school humano-relacionista pointed out is that the State of personal satisfaction of employees, guaranteed greater productivity in companies or factories, so did Abraham Maslow who identified and nested the needs of individuals from basic needs, continued him in safety membership or identity, self-esteem, aesthetic appreciation and intellectual achievements and finally self-realization needs. All this is nothing new, only relates to identify that personal effectiveness model has already been studied to on the basis of understanding and empathy for individuals.
Carl Rogers, is the most common figure of the livelihoods of the people-based education, assertive model is Rogers the force that allows us to consider important to those who communicate with us, and in us duty towards the people to force attention to a correct, accurate and respectful communication.
Dionne and Reig painted in his book challenge to change, in its experiential model to adopt and accept change, we speak of a part or component of your model: relate, quote Dionne to Dorsch (1985) "the experience of the human relationship is interaction and social interaction is understood as: the influence among individuals within a group and groups together" resulting in this changes in behaviours, attitudes, opinions etc."
This is why that assertiveness is included in semantics that is "the ability of relationship in a positive contact, understood how to get to live easy and comfortably with the others, means open, express themselves and share. "Create space in our lives to be with each other, it is to be present, if we are not present deteriorate little by little our relationships with others and we may risk losing contact" (Dionne Reig 1996) Dionne and Reig, three levels of interaction and contact with one's own tell us about:
A surface layer, a middle layer and an inner layer, as well according to these authors, the depth of the contact to the layers, described, depends on the intention of opening, depends on which layer I want to open to touch each other, but does not depend on me, that coat the other will open for me, the truth is that in a relationship we can ask and demand reciprocity which is an assertive right; is not balanced for an interpersonal relationship, which while sharing an internal layer of one relationship, the other, share us only the most superficial: example; I feel very depressed, has hurt me very much a discussion I've had with my oldest son, and the other party answers; do Hey, you notice you how tasty that were pizzas this morning?

COMPONENTS OF ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR

A wide range is covers appropriate components that when combined optimizes the effectiveness of behavior, such as:
Verbal content: Duration of conversation, eye contact, smiles, movements of arms and legs, body and facial expression, gestures and intonation.
There have been some investigations relating to the evaluation of social skills, which show that you given a greater value to the verbal aspects (Roman and Bellack, 1980;) Conger and Mc Fall, 1981; Trown, 1980). Active responses through the motor system can have two basic forms; motorboat verbal and non-verbal.
Verbal motor behavior: expression of the subject can be analysed in two subgroups of components:
In the first place can be analysed the content itself, or where the subject says, thinks and feels (linguistic aspects). Such content defines the type of response expressing opposition, affection, or request.
Secondly, you can parse the intonation and the volume of voice (paralinguisticos component).
Cognitive processing system (images, thoughts; is the result or conclusion of a series of previous steps in the processing of information where various factors interact) as well as autonomous processing system, (has as main function prepare the organism for efficient action, which involves physiological responses mainly innervated to the autonomic nervous system which in turn activates the motor system) can distort the intonation substantially reduce the volume, even completely suppress the content.
Non-verbal motor behavior: its indicators are looking at eyes, facial expression and body language.
Also can be affected by autonomic and cognitive system, although the autonomy seems to infer more directly and frequently, either by activating the skeletal motor system, producing the physical withdrawal of the situation or simply distorting the facial and body expression (tremors, rigidity and excessive movements) and eye contact (avoidance of looks, intermittent or low of vista).

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ASSERTIVE INDIVIDUAL

• The assertive individual often defend themselves well in their interpersonal relationships.
• Satisfied with their social life and has confidence in itself to change when you need to do it.
• The assertive individual is able to influence the others safe, spontaneous, expressive
• Consider what your own needs
• Know to say no to a request without feeling guilty
• Fundamentally be assertive, is realizing on itself, as to the context surrounding it. To realizing for itself, is to look inside to find out what you want before looking around, to see what others want and expect from a given situation.

DIFFERENCES among ASSERTIVE, passive and aggressive behavior

• Assertive behavior: Direct expression of the feelings, desires, legitimate rights and opinions without threaten or punish others and violating the rights of those people. The assertion involves respect for one's self to express needs and to defend their rights and respect for the rights and needs of other people. The individual must also recognize what are your responsibilities in that situation and what consequences result from the expression of their feelings.
• Passive behaviour: Transgression of their rights not being able to openly express feelings, thoughts and opinions or to express them in an autoderrotista way, with apologies, with lack of confidence, in such a way that others can thereby to ignore it. The non-assertion shows a lack of respect towards the own needs. Its aim is to appease others and avoid conflict at all costs. Behave in this way in a situation can give as a result a number of undesirable consequences both for the person who is behaving not assertively to the person with whom it is interacting. The probability of non-assertive person meets your needs or that their opinions are understood is substantially reduced due to the lack of communication or indirect or incomplete communication. Person so acting may often feel misunderstood, not taken into account and manipulated. In addition, can feel upset about the outcome of the situation or become hostile or irritable toward others. After several situations in which an individual was not assertive, is likely to end by pop. There is a limit on the amount of frustration that an individual can store within itself. He that receiveth not assertive behavior can also experience a variety of unfavorable consequences. Having to constantly infer what is actually saying the other person or having to read the thoughts of the other person is a difficult and overwhelming task that can give rise to feelings of frustration, annoyance or even anger towards the person who is behaving not assertive way.
• Aggressive behavior: defence of personal rights and expression of thoughts, feelings and opinions in a way inappropriate and tax and which violates the rights of others. Aggressive behavior in a situation may be expressed either directly or indirectly. Direct verbal aggression includes verbal offences, insults, threats and hostile or humiliating remarks. The non-verbal component may include gestures, hostile or threatening, wield fist or intense looks and even physical attacks. Indirect verbal aggression includes comments sarcastic and spiteful and malicious grumbling. The aggressive non-verbal behaviors include physical gestures made while the attention of the other person moves to another place or physical acts directed towards other people or objects. The victims of aggressive people sooner or later sooner just feel resentment and avoid them. The usual aim of aggression is the domination of other people. Victory is assured through the humiliation and degradation. It is ultimately that others become weaker and less able to express and defend their rights and needs. Aggressive behavior is often reflection of ambitious conduct, that tries to achieve the objectives at any price, even if that means breaking ethical standards and violate the rights of others. Aggressive behavior can bring results in the short term consequences favorable, as a satisfactory emotional expression, a sense of power and the achievement of the desired objectives. However, may arise feelings of guilt, an energetic contraagresion direct in the form of a verbal or physical attack by others or an indirect contraagresion under the form of a sarcastic retort or a challenging look. The consequences in the long term for this type of behavior are always negative

ITEM 03

Self esteem | Definition

Self-esteem has become a concept that plays an important role in the life of the people. Self-esteem increases with successes and decreases with the failures. The satisfaction of feeling good with one same provides psychological well-being and leads to a better development of social relations, because it fosters a sense of identity.

Definition of self-esteem

"It's judgment that every human being of their own attitudes, feelings, capabilities and expertise. It is the assessment of one's own "."
When you have self-esteem, you feel valuable and capable; It is safe to assume any circumstance of his life (self-knowledge and self-acceptance).
"Become your best friend"
You have love towards yourself and help: learn to love as a unique and unrepeatable.
Accept it as it is: accept their qualities and their defects. Draw realistic goals. Devote more time: try to be more often alone with his thoughts and feelings. Enjoy and learn from his own company. Pay more attention to your thoughts and feelings: do what makes you feel happy and satisfied. Non-defeatist: which will prevail the attitude "I can do it". Do not try to imitate someone else: be proud being who is and what it is, have value and respect. She is commended and rewarded for achievements big and small: they are your experiences and you are entitled to enjoy them. Help to develop their talents and skills: create and issue their own judgment.

Origin of self-esteem

The concept of self-esteem is formed in human beings from five years of age as a predominant view of the world that surrounds them. The way how this perspective will give invited them to think that the world is a place unsafe or dangerous reality that leads them to interact in a positive or negative way. During the first years of life, successes and failures, and the way of how we are treated each year by our family, teachers, friends resulting in the creation of the image of ourselves that we have inside, and in consequence, to establish a level of self-esteem. Therefore the quality of childhood experiences play a predominant role in the establishment of this level of self-esteem. To make it happen this process must pass through different stages to develop throughout life. Each of these steps brings their own impressions, feelings and even wrapped inside complicated reasoning. The result is a generalized sense of value or disability.
It is not just a matter of feeling good about itself, it is to be a person capable of love with your own project of self-realization. Every child builds to grow your own self concept. In principle, an idea is formed of who you are, whether you like it or not, if it is accepted or not. Little by little will be creating expectations about its possibilities. Then you are well, with itself or otherwise unhappy with what it is and what it does. Be prepared to enjoy the challenges of life with facilities for empathy, with creativity, trying to overcome any problem; or be prepared to live one to suffer, to complain, to see the negative, to overwhelm any problem, you will learn to retire. You will have two basic emotional positions, you will possess a positive self-esteem or negative self-esteem.
When we are children we are molding the concept of ourselves as unique persons. We channel our emotions and feelings towards our own person. Growing mold those behaviors, but it is in childhood when we are creating databases that will last over time. Both parents and as educators have an important responsibility in terms of formation of the child's self-esteem, because they are what are going to shape the self-image that children create themselves. With this in mind always, should be special care with children, especially in every one of the things they say, do, or think. Thus they will be helping to create a better generation of human beings with greater general well-being in their lives.

Levels of self-esteem

Our level of self-esteem can be high or low, and as a result each will have an impact on our quality of life. In the absence of a basis of solid self-esteem, it costs us to take risks and take the necessary decisions that will allow us to live a productive and rewarding life. A low level of self-esteem adversely affects our relationships family, friendly and partner, our personal and professional performance and most importantly, our inner sense of well-being. While a high level of self-esteem flourish a high level of confidence in our abilities to resolve situations, and the assertiveness necessary to enable us to become all that we can be. A high level of self-esteem allows us to have more functional, healthy and deep, mainly with our own relationships.

High self-esteem

When you feel well with yourself relationships can be established narrower, finding more friends, because you will not be afraid to develop their skills. You want to take the risk and try new things, new experiences. You can:
• The person who wants to be,
• Respect the ideas and own attitudes and those of others,
• Recognize and express their talents and that of others,
• Enjoy over others,
• More than offer itself to the world,
• Maintain confidence in itself,
• Remain tolerant,
• To obtain a better physical and mental health
• Produce more money,
• Better express their feelings and emotions.
• Relate only with positive people and therefore successful
• Evaluate more time,
• Rely more on their own capabilities,
• Give positive examples to their children,
• Forgive and be forgiven.
Having high self-esteem does not mean to be prey to selfishness. We must appreciate the individuality of each person so that we can respond to others in a positive and productive. Having high self-esteem does not guarantee you that you will have guaranteed success, but if it offers you the guarantee that you will feel well I get itself and with others.

Low self-esteem

The beginning of a low self-esteem, in mind and was born in childhood, when at home are questioning skills and intelligence, or are constantly made comparisons between people. All this gives as a result a person incapable of loving yourself and therefore incapable of loving others. This type of people:
• Present inability to express their feelings and emotions,
• Do not plan his life, improvised it,
• Neglecting your body, your image and your health,
• They celan friends and partner,
• Mistreat their children instead, unable to communicate with them,
• Denigrate frequently,
• Develop false (psychosomatic) diseases,
• Actions that do not benefit them, they lose time
• They are unaware of their own talents,
• Are bored and resentful,
• Feel superior,
• Act with disregard and disrespect to other people,
• They need to highlight,
• Always arrive late and lie,
• Are conflicting people, humiliated and abused.

Tips to improve a low self-esteem

To improve a low self esteem it, you should:
• Be accepted as it is.
• Always have positive thoughts.
• Highlight your qualities and that of others.
• Strengthen your self-confidence.
• Accept that we are all important.
• Learn from successes and failures.
• Learn that others do not specify your own value, you only determine their self-esteem.
• Have the ability to confront any challenge or challenge, that you have the ability as any other human being thinking and achieve everything that is proposed.

Considerations for improving self-esteem

Improve self-esteem is one of the best projects of life that can assume, by doing so you will be improving all aspects of your life, and you will be dealing with the most important relationship that has ever had. His relationship with itself. In the event that it so, you can change the image which has a picture of myself to you. Change your image involves several steps:
• Believes in his mind the image you desire; a beautiful and pleasant image.
• Set up your attention in the created image.
• Do not allow anything or anyone making you change your new image.
• Act and have an attitude according to its new image.
• To the extent that this image is to your liking your level self-esteem will be the best.
As we have seen, the concept of self-esteem has become, as a general rule, one of the main aspects of our lives. That level of well-being that we experience, that success that highlights the good performance of our relations, that creativity is permitted us to express and other so many aspects of our lives that we constantly update, will become future achievements already that all this multiplicity of factors are closely linked to a good and high self-esteem. We have created it our own image in the depths of our being, but often are not aware of it. This idea is reflected when we were ourselves that we have forged as a person, and realize how valuable we are with respect to others.
This image becomes our own point of reference with regard to the reality that surrounds us, is applicable or not with reality, thus becoming our basis for decision-making. In the same way, we must consider a small detail. The image we have of ourselves is something very subtle, and is an aspect which we are not fully aware, and generally not successful in stating that our level of self-esteem is the main cause of all the situations that occur to us in life.
This statement is completely valid, since it is our level of self-esteem is responsible, that we are responsible for everything that happens in our lives. Our life is nothing more than a simple reflection of what we have inside us and is the set of thoughts, words, emotions that we have which will give you form over time.

ITEM 04

Total quality | Definition

In recent decades the world has witnessed numerous changes ranging from the consolidation of the globalization of the markets to the ongoing revolution in information and communication technologies.
The companies must confront new realities. One of them is the growing demand of the public of a greater commitment to quality by providers with respect to the products or services marketed.
Quality is no longer one factor more, but it has become one of the main competitive factors, without which every company will be doomed to failure and its subsequent disappearance.
Today the cost is an essential factor. If a company is not competitive in terms of costs, you can even enter the market.
But in recent years a new element comes into play. Quality went from being just a rhetorical challenge, to be a prerequisite for competitiveness.
In the coming years the companies that manage to survive will be those that achieve products and quality services at competitive prices that meet - and even exceed them customers.
This work arises to address the issue of Total quality and their implementation in the company. Broadly we can understand a program that is undertaken at all levels of the Organization in order to establish and preserve an environment in which employees continuously improve its ability to supply on request for Total quality products and services that have a particular value for consumers.

QUALITY

To W. Edwards Deming, the quality is nothing more than:
"A series of questions toward continuous improvement."
Kaoru Ishikawa, defines quality as:
"Develop, design, manufacture, and maintain a quality product which will be the most economical, the useful and always satisfying to consumers"
Armando V. Feigenbaum, defines it as:
"The result total characteristics of the product or service itself meets the expectations of the client".
With the above it can be concluded that the quality is defined as:
"A process of continuous improvement, where all areas of the company are actively involved in the development of products and services that meet the needs of the client, resulting in higher productivity".

TOTAL QUALITY ASSURANCE

The total quality assurance is:
"An effective system of the efforts of several groups in a company for the integration of the development, maintenance and improvement of quality in order to make possible marketing, engineering, manufacturing and service to the total satisfaction of the consumer and at the most economical cost".
To achieve such results it is essential to develop criteria of amplitude. All this has to be considered to complete control of quality as:
A new and important aspect of the administration.
A focus of administrative leadership that has produced significant improvements in quality and reliability for many companies around the world.
A process that has achieved reductions important and progressive on quality costs, since through the use of force and confidence in the quality of products and services, the managements of the companies have been able to get ahead in market volume and thus expanding the product mix with a high degree of acceptability of customer and stability in growth and profits.
A process that constitutes the fundamental bases of motivation positive by the quality of all employees and representatives of the company, from senior management to workers plant, office staff, personal service, etc.
One of the main forces to achieve much improved overall productivity.
The total quality assurance constitutes the fundamental bases of positive motivation for the quality of all employees and representatives of the company, from executives to workers in Assembly, office personnel, agents and service personnel. And a powerful capacity of total quality assurance is one of the main forces to achieve much improved overall productivity.

TOTAL QUALITY

Historical background

During the middle ages, has popularized the habit of putting brand products, and this practice was developed in the interest of maintaining a good reputation associated with the trademark. Years later, during the nineteenth century, began the development of the concept "quality control".
During this first stage of development of quality, in which a worker or a small group of workers (system operators), which had responsibility for the entire process of manufacture of the product, and therefore each of them, individually, could completely control the quality of their work.
At the beginning of 1900, begins the second stage, the figure of foreman or supervisor, who was in charge of monitoring tasks that perform small groups of workers to operate and in whom rested the responsibility for the quality of the work.
During the first world war, manufacturing systems were they were becoming more complicated, which meant control simultaneous of large numbers of workers for one of the foremen of production; resulting in the appearance of the first full-time inspectors and starting the third stage, called quality control inspection.
With the advent of the second world war arose new needs due to the huge production in mass than is required, giving rise to the fourth stage, called "statistical quality control", which was an extension of the inspection phase and the achievement of greater efficiency in inspection organizations, offering these workers some statistics, such as sampling and graphic tools control with estala most significant contribution, although labour remained restricted to the areas of production, making that its growth was relatively slow.
The recommendations arising from the statistical techniques, frequently not could be handled in operational and managerial decision-making structures, since they failed to cover quality problems really more large.
This prevailing need led to the fifth step, called "total quality control". The companies began to establish a structure operational and decision-making for the quality of the product that would be effective enough as to take adequate actions in the discoveries of quality control. Firms couldn't get tangible results as better quality and lower costs.
The concept of 'total quality' made possible revision of the decisions regularly (instead of occasionally as it had in the past), at the same time that analysed the results during the entire production process, taking control action of from the source of manufacture or supply, so if it is strictly necessary, and finally stop the production.
In addition, it provided the establishment of the structure in which the first tools of statistical quality control merged with other management techniques, such as measurement, reliability, team of the quality, motivation for quality information, and other numerous techniques now related to the field of modern quality control and with the overall functional quality of a business.

What is total quality?

Total quality is a reality involving all current businesses, in all sectors of the economy by:
• Empathize with change,
• The creation of better conditions of competition,
• Produce better and lower cost
• Provide better services both in the private sector and the public; in order to instil and deepen a culture of quality that place it at the height of the world's most attractive markets in the country.
This implies above all the commitment of the leaders of the organizations, in the processes of change focused on the competitiveness of companies.
This continuous process of excellence, should be the engine of the new change and modernization, through the implementation of continuous improvement processes, as the basis for any process of quality.
In this moment the organizations must be ready to measure their competitiveness against the best in the world in its field and learn from their experiences, trying to introduce to the people in a process of improvement motivating, so rediscover the enormous potential of the human being, consequently resulting in a job well done and huge profits for all of society.
Total quality is not a problem is a solution. Any leader as facilitator of the working conditions, should highlight the importance of having a solid total quality system, allowing to maintain the motivation of the staff of the organization.
What finally seeks is the dignity of work, through the constant and continuous improvement of all processes of planning service, quality and productivity at the same time that is cheaper costs.

How and when start?

The purpose of the quality must be present from the stage a service process initial once plans go running, because it would be too late want to introduce quality in later phases, that is so important that the design of the services is the result of good teamwork.
The improvement of system indicates that the desired quality begins with the idea which is taken by the governing body or its decision-makers which translates to plans and specifications in an attempt to reach the desired quality consumer whose benefit is vera in a reduced claim for the service and a continuous improvement of the quality in each activity , acquisition, distribution of the work of labour, of payroll management inventory, accounting, and each and every one of the departments.
Streamlining the means to achieve its better use of labor make a good selection of the personnel and the task assigned to it, train it, train it and offer the possibility of increasing their knowledge and develop their skills.
Training must be completely rebuilt, the organization needs to know its staff thoroughly to the company from the parts and materials that are used, to customers that provided the service, taking advantage of the skills of the staff in a one hundred per cent.
It is also necessary to employee training programs, to be reformed completely as this occurs in most of the organizations in poor form and favouritism. The company, should not consider that the money that would be spent on training, education and training, not increase the net value of the company, but in substantial improvements in all operational and managerial processes that are carried out.
Basics
To understand Total quality in all its breadth, we can follow the following:
• Guide the Organization towards the customer. The requirements of the customer is the main thing. With this aim, the Organization should revolve around processes that are important for this purpose and which provide added value. This means overcoming the classical view that the responsibility for quality is unique to the departments responsible for the product or service. The action of others will have effect, in more or less degree, of the final outcome.
• Expand the concept of customer. We can conceive of the Organization as a system made up of suppliers and internal customers. Apply quality, means that we must, also, the needs of internal customers.
• Have leadership in costs. The quality is more expensive non - quality costs If it's focus on the needs and expectations of the client, these will be better served if the cost transferred to customer is lower. This cost reduction allows you to compete in the market with real possibilities of success. It is necessary, therefore, to reduce the cost of non-quality.
• Manage based on prevention. The underlying idea is the do things well at first. It is better than the classical detect and correct actions. The need to implement control actions, minimizing costs is reduced.
• Promote the human factor. The quality is not controlled, is made. And it is made by the people who make up the organization. All, without exception. It is therefore essential to establish a management of human resources since the motivation for quality and participation.
• Continuous improvement. The quality has to be conceived as a horizon, not as a goal. There is Total quality, pursues a horizon that expands as it progresses. Here is this idea of continuous improvement. It is always possible to do things better and more precisely adapted to the needs and expectations of the client, on the other hand, are dynamic.

ITEM 05

Ontological coach | Definition

A Coach is a professional able to observe and intervene in the way that people act to take advantage of their skills and talents in a particular field.
The ontological Coach is a type of coach, able to observe how human beings construct interpretations of our own existence, which are reflected through our emotions, physicality and the use of language.

The role of a Coach

Through conversation, an ontological professional coach is able to assist others involved in interpretations about which they build their existence and how they can be changed.
A professional ontological coach has the ability to intervene in the various domains of human life, personal or professional concerns.
Coaching is a relationship formalized with an individual or a group to develop their potential, improve performance, align achievements and personal results or in an organization.

The phenomenon of the observer

Human beings are observers of the world, live in systems that live in language and through language we make interpretations about how the world is for us.
These interpretations are also bounded by the interpretation of the environment in which we have developed and where we currently operate.
Leads us to think that what we call "reality" is a personal interpretation that we do at a time determined, based on interpretations, and belonging to a community and in relation to future concerns judgments.

Postulates and principles

Coaching is based on the framework provided by the ontology of language, offering a new interpretation of what it means to be human.
The basic postulates of the ontology of language are:
Interpret human beings as linguistic beings.
Interpret how generative language.
Interpret that humans create themselves in the language and through it.

The General principles are:

We don't know how things are. Only we know how we interpret them.
Not only act according to what we are, also are according to how we act.
The action generates to be. One becomes according to what makes.
Coach, in Spanish is pronounced "couch", and we can translate it as a coach, has its origins in the coach or coach and which has been sold by applying at the level of business disciplines from a few years ago. Sports coach took their skills as trainers of high competition in the context of the business, helping to discover the potentials of each in different fields of business action. "Training for business performance", from John Whitmore, was one of the first books devoted to the practice of professional coaching. Whitmore described the essence of coaching in this way: "Coaching is to unlock the potential of a person to maximise their own performance. It is to help them to learn rather than teach them. And we mean "unlock the potential of a person" or "help you learn without teaching him"? The answer to these questions translates into not limit or set aside the opinion and the power of reasoning of the trained, encourage them to discover for themselves and Act, under premises well defined in advance, without giving answers, help them to find their own solutions.
The Coach faces the direct way of doing things, at the level of people and equipment, and therefore we can consider it as a complement to the transformational training, training. The Advisory are more related to strategic issues, coaching is aimed at action, to implement the same strategies.

The role and skills of a good coach

We note that there are four major elements presented in whole process of coaching, coach, coaches, regular meetings and the Individual Development Plan. Then we will make mention of one of them, perhaps the most important and the key to any process of coaching, the coach.
"The coach is not a troubleshooter, a teacher, a counselor, an instructor, even an expert, is a facilitator, a consultant, an elevator of conscience" John Whitmore - training for business performance.
This phrase can be summarized in a few words which is expected to be the role of every good coach. But if it still fails to understand clearly what this role, we believe that the following definition could clarify the issue a bit.
The role of coach must not always coincide with the role of leader or figure that has the formal authority in a team; However in many cases these roles overlap. It is also possible to observe that in many organizations the role of coach is assigned to the formal authorities of work teams, constituting a burden on many occasions for these people who, by their prejudices or their own characteristics, are not ready to assume this responsibility.
If we think of the qualities or skills that you have to have a good coach, we would see the following:
• Patience
• Impartiality
• Support and their coaches
• Is interested
• Good listener
• It is perceptual is aware
• It is responsible for
• Knows how to convey and communicate their ideas clearly and makes sure of having been understood.
• It is open to dialogue
• Inspires confidence and credibility
• Knowledge and experience
This makes us wonder if there actually is any individual that may be coach. The answer is if. This does not mean that a person possess all these qualities and use them simultaneously. To be a good coach is that at least some of these qualities are present in it and that it can empower them to compensate for the lack of the other.
As you can see, the qualities described above make personal characteristics of the individual, except the last one (knowledge and experience). In this regard we must clarify that a coach does not necessarily should have knowledge or experience in relation to the subject who must deal with his coaches, but must be convinced that what sustains is the best way to achieve the desired objective. In this sense a coach may not know about organizational consultancy, but know that this topic is very profitable for the Organization to which you belong and his team, and thus recommended their coaches they be trained in the subject, glimpsing the possibility of obtaining benefits for the team and the organization.
"the less able to coach tends to use its experience in excess, and thus reduced the value of training, because whenever we instructed you that way, it reduces the responsibility of the disciple". John Whitmore - training for business performance.
One of the key points that everyone should be aware if you intend to get involved as a coach in any team, is the ability to listen.
• adapt what we hear based on what we know because we make assumptions, or experienced,
• because we interrupt the speaker and we anticipate what is going to say,
• because distracted easily,
• because we hear selectively, we hear only what we believe it is important,
• because not put interest to hear,
• because we have implied beliefs, biases or attitudes that are challenged by what we hear,
• because it is possible that we have an idea formed the person talking and put it what is saying downplaying this last.
• because widespread, i.e., deduct a law from an example.
These are just some of the causes which hinder the active listening. Against them must fight one who wants to be a good coach.
Then we will try to provide a sort of practical help to overcome the barriers of listening:
This will allow you to the coach:
• Obtain useful information about your coaches
• Promote the Exchange
• Make positive discussion
• Involve the coaches or
As a corollary of this section, we must not fall into the belief that the responsibility for the proper functioning of the coaching falls on the shoulders of the coach. On the contrary, we must know that all skills for the coach, are also applicable to coaches. There should be greater emphasis on two elements, which were not mentioned so far, is the framework within which any process of change must be framed, and to therefore be observed by members of work teams. These key elements of success are the 'will' and the 'attitude' of individuals, if any of these two factors were not present in daily activity, the process of coaching, as well as any type of change that you want to address in the Organization, it is likely that tends to fail.

ITEM 06

Coaching | Definition

Throughout history, many people has received assistance for obtaining achievements and results. Teachers, guides, mentors, teachers, trainers, coaches, have been with us illuminating the steps to success.
In the 80s, the Coaching began to take on an official role in the business. Many senior executives began to work with coaches to help them take advantage in personal and professional domains. This worked: there are many stories that show the effectiveness of worldwide corporate and personal coaching. Many people changed, developed new masteries, skills, and other outcomes. Individual and organizational goals began to align themselves contributing to the progress of many organizations.
Coaching is not just a buzz word, is a professional practice which has demonstrated its effectiveness in different fields. Currently, coaching is an industry of $630 million, with more than 10,000 coaches only in the United States.
A vital part of the Fortune 1000 companies use coaching as a method to assist hundreds thousands of people each year to maximize its potential, productivity, and achieve great successes.

Definition of Coaching

The "coaching" is a dynamic relationship that focuses players, in this case who is them is paying the coach service, action directed toward the realization or materialization of its own vision, goals, or your wishes. Things truly exist and are written in the papers or boards. The coach uses a process question and cross-examine, in our case the Socratic method, and personal discovery of the answers, to raise the level of awareness and responsibility, and provide to the trained, or trained team, a structure, support, and feedback, in the fulfillment of the mission.
As we have already said, the Coach uses the method of Socrates, the philosopher Athenian who lived in the 5th century BC, which is known for the way in which driving people to draw their own conclusions through dialogue not only to students, also to traders, legislators... Socrates that will activate the neurons of the other, or in other words, it aroused the interest of the other party, led him to organize his thinking and made to give light to something new in your brain. That is the method of Socrates. Lead a person to a decision - because with its help-she sees, feels, hears and is said that it is the right decision.
Coaching is centered in the trained, individually and by teams. It is results-oriented, and deals with visions and actions. The difference between a teacher in the process of teaching - learning skills, a counselor, a therapist, a consultant, a mentor and a coach (coach) can be described in simple terms. The coach has no answers. The coach does not provide expertizaje. A coach operates from the premise or assumption that the client (player) has all the resources to get what you want, including the ability to discover and utilize resources. The coach guides and helps maximize the resources to get to where you want to. It is much more than a buzzword.
Today, many organizations have adopted this concept as a fundamental tool to motivate, develop, and improve the performance of the individuals who comprise them, have developed methods of work, baptizing them with other names but that one way or another are based on the concept of "coaching".
Already are applying in companies in different areas: human resources, sales, marketing and management. The goals of coaching from the definition which gives us Whitmore are summarized by Roberto Malcangi and that mostly turn out to be the sought after by organizations in introducing the concept of coaching in their plans:
• Improve productivity and development
• Staff development
• Improve learning
• Develop self-motivation
• Improve communication, problem solving and encourage the initiative
• Increase the enthusiasm at work
• Create a balance between work and personal life.
• Improve skills and the use of their resources
• To facilitate the confrontation with changes
• Facilitate the fixing of targets and improve the ability to reach them
• Increase the quality of life at work
• Satisfaction in the achievement of the personal and professional goals.
Pascal Lancre in his book "Coaching training effective of the commercial", seeks to establish keys to train a team of sales, applicable to other positions in the Organization, and does so from six stages here they are:
1. measure the gap (what?)
2 listen to the seller (can do? and what to do?)
3. negotiate a progress plan (what to do?)
4. route towards motivation and high competence (what shall we do?)
5 organize the tracking (where are we?)
6 recognize the success (as has been?)
In the end, the message that I want to leave is the same as Whitmoore: If you want to unlock the potential of your team, think of a coach or trainer to help him in this work and discover the true potential that his players have.

Aim of the coaching

This conception of consciousness and responsibility feeds learning, developing skills of individuals in this way, expanding their knowledge and experience.
The objective by the cited author, it may be somewhat broad and difficult to understand. However, this definition follows a series of goals that mostly turn out to be the sought after by organizations in introducing the concept of coaching in their HR plans
Thus raised the target, or the multiple objectives of the coaching, we believe that it is important and necessary to define the implications that have adherence to this methodology in an organization.
The coaching process implies the existence of a coach (Trainer), whether individual (i.e. that each individual possesses a coach) or group and one or more coaches (disciples).
Coaching best practices ("best practices") indicate that the coach and their coaches must maintain regular meetings, if it is not belonging to the same team. All aspects that both coach and coaches, believe that they are relevant to your work and where is to discuss openly about any other topic that you can include in professional and/or personal development must be treated at these meetings.
These "best practices" also indicate that each coache must create an Individual Development Plan that allows the coach to perform regular monitoring of the same, in order to assess the degree of compliance with that plan, the critical points for their scope, aspects of improvement, etc.

Coaching style

At this point, and having presented skills in greater or lesser degree all coach should possess or cultivate, we think it is important to clarify that coaching, being a process developed by people (coach) with different characteristics from one another, can acquire different forms or styles, as many as individuals to practice it. For the purposes of this paper, we will group these different forms in 6 large pure styles.

Characteristics of each style

a) Communicator
It is easy to work with this coach. Its strength lies in the ability to build accessible and open relations with the members of the team.
Key resources are based on the effective and continuous, communication team be involved in decision-making, in relations with the members of the team and its accessibility as a coach.
Characteristics that demonstrate this style of coaching, we can include the presence of instructions outlined for the production team, the open door policy, recognition of merit, communication in both directions (from top to below and below upwards), dedication, by coach, working alongside their teams, the active presence of the coach in the field of their teams.
b) Mentor
Build strong relationships with all or some of your team members and seeks to assume an active role in the development of their careers in the long run. These coach offer an informal orientation about the Organization, career and the development of their coaches.
Key resources are based on communication effective and continuous with their coaches, in a strong relationship with each of its individuos-claves, to offer insights about the Organization and long-term orientation and vocational guidance.
Communications on professional issues transmitting to people who take the decisions, pursuing the interests of the team, the coach demonstrate this style of coaching.
(c) tutor
Tutors promote a strong task in coaching and share their knowledge and technical specialty with the team.
Its resources are based on technical competence, skills and knowledge transfer, the good development of the tasks; It is often responsible for showing the way.
This style is evidenced by the following characteristics:
• The coach is considered a specialist in your field,
• Provides opportunities for the learning of others,
• Promotes opportunities so that the members of the team to practice new skills and
• The coach is accessible and easy to deal with
d) model
The model is someone who leads by example, does what it says. These coach inspire the rest of the team. The team respects him and his members think... "I'd like to be like him," in some aspect of their performance.
This style shows the ability to inspire and motivate positive thinking success and not failure, oriented so that the coach may not be a "good coach", however people learn from it.
In these styles of coaching, the coach, is usually "famous" or recognized for something in particular. There is a respect, both his team and other teams, customers of the Organization and senior staff. There is an influence from the coach to the team, in the form of shares rather than guidelines.
(e) challenging
It sets goals and provides constructive feedback and constant on the tasks. It seeks to assist persons in obtaining demanding goals.
These coach key resources are based on goal setting demanding but achievable, in the supervision of the team work, pushing for results but giving support to its achievement. He faces and challenge the members of his team, gives effective and constant feedback delegating compensating and challenging works.
f) consultant
This style of coaching, shows us a coach which develops to the members of the team helping them to discover the knowledge and to develop skills and pass judgment if same.
In this style is evidence of the presence of open questions, helping the team members to discover the answers for Yes same. Decisions are made once collected the opinion of the team. Reviewing the work is accomplished through meetings and discussions.

The coaching process

While it is difficult, we will try to approach to the identification of the main stages of the process of coaching, or at least that in our view the main result.

(a) identify goals

Consider long and short-term objectives. Long-term objectives represent the solution of a problem or the development of a skill, while the short-term goals represent what the targeted person will reach at the end of the coaching session.

b) promote discovery

This point involves the following:
• Listen actively.
• Draw the consequences.
• Share your experiences.
Your role as a coach is to direct the team member to discover restrictions, demands and implications of the task facing. If you impose them, giving yourself, never learn to do it yourself.
It is necessary that the coache consider the different options available and learn how to evaluate them.

(c) establish parameters

Needs to establish what to do and when. In this way, you can monitor the situation.

(d) give authority and power

At this stage the coach should avoid that their coaches hit against the wall.
You need to ensure and assure that they have the authority and power to do what was agreed.

e) recap

At the end of the coaching session, make sure that everything is clear, calling his coaches that they verify the points discussed and agreed upon.
In the same way that we try to define the process of coaching in stages, Pascal Lancre in his book "Coaching training effective of the commercial", seeks to establish keys to train a team of sales and does so from six stages here they are:
1. measure the gap (what?)
2 listen to the seller (can do? and what to do?)
3. negotiate a progress plan (what to do?)
4. route towards motivation and high competence (what shall we do?)
5 organize the tracking (where are we?)
6 recognize the success (as has been?)

f) measure the gap

The role of the coach consists of discovering and measuring the gaps between what has been done and what to do to get an optimal result.
For this the coach must clearly define the objectives to reach, regularly analyze the results, i.e. What is made, with the help of scorecards and sources of information available to them.

(g) listen to the seller

After having discovered a gap, i.e. a distance between what has been done and what should have been, the coach listens to the seller to identify the reasons for this gap, evaluate the perception that the seller has and persuade him to make a plan for improvement.
The coach, find out with the individual interview if you have to act on motivation, competition or both.

(h) negotiate a progress plan

Negotiation is the process that will enable the coach and coaches conclude a satisfactory agreement to their respective interests and which will clearly establish reciprocal commitments.
To do this, the coach should follow competition and the seller's motivation to strengthen their skills. Any solution imposed unilaterally by the coaches will be ineffective.
This negotiation must allow to find agreement on the objective of achieving progress and on the stages of the plan's progress.

(i) move towards motivation and high competition

It is essential to be the seller, assisted by the coach, who find the means to gain in efficiency. Not only because the seller will be able to improve its performance, but also because it will help that the own seller exceed some pitfalls of lack of motivation.

j) organize follow-up

Intervene when the seller do not what to do, because of lack of effort or because new difficulties have arisen. We must strive to be assertive, i.e., consider what is suitable to do otherwise, without attacking and not beat about the Bush, relying on facts and provided media solutions.

k) recognize success

It is essential that the coach recognizes the success of its sellers.
Whether it's the success of the seller:
1. the coach analyzes precisely with the seller what is what has allowed him to succeed.
2. is limited to congratulations, without addressing other issues.
Whether it's the success of the team:
1. the coach provides sellers the opportunity to celebrate together the success.
2 emphasizes, in the course of individual interviews, the contribution of each vendor to the collective result.
Recognizing the success of the seller in the performance of a task is essential, both for the seller's motivation and by demonstration of the added value of the coach.
This recognition will be more effective in terms of the coach:
• Be clear and firm with its vendors on the negative points.
• Be honest and predictable in their reactions.
• Require much the best.
• Have created a positive tension to achieve the goal.
A successful team is based on:
• Use optima of different competencies.
• A motivation increased by sellers.
To recognize the success of the team, the coach will address:
The team in the course of a meeting (detailed the successes obtained and it will extract the causes, direct collective congratulations and carry out the contributions of each one in the common success).
The sellers in the course of individual interviews (then will emphasize the role played by each vendor on the occasion of a collective action).
In conclusion, we can say that the coach strives to provide reasons why the seller this satisfied itself, both by having fulfilled a task correctly, and by helping others to succeed.

ITEM 07

Business coaching | Definition

The growing use of expression reflects coaching or managerial, Executive or corporate coaching business force than the learning of this goal strategic competition is also growing in our midst. In fact many executives advanced, beginners in the jargon of this discipline are interested increasingly in knowing its meaning, usefulness and importance. No less intense is the concern of them about as you learn or dominates this goal management competition. This article aims both to satisfy these needs and concerns as serve as initiation into the theme.

Introduction to Coaching

Coaching is the activity that takes place a coach with a coachee or group of coachees.
The word coach is widely used in the sports field. In our midst he associates it with the coach, but the expression goes far beyond that. Not every trainer has powers of coach, even though it would be very useful to have them and use them to put to use - the most - to your (s) trained (s).
This is extended in all fields to every teacher, instructor, etc. wishing to acquire masters in the art and science of dynamic facilitation of individual and/or collective learning processes. And every entrepreneur, Executive, Executive or manager who wants to achieve collective success, this is a very high-performing group with prosperity and happiness.
Coaching is - literally - activity carrying out a Coachman, to carry a passenger - a special drive - to a mutually agreed place. We can associate the Coachman with a coach, driver, guide, leader, etc. We can associate the passenger with a coachee, passenger, guidance, etc. The special car can associate it with the specialized media that the coach uses, to try to bring to the coachee to the agreed place (or situation that is mutually to be achieved). To the coaching we can associate it then with conducive activity to achieve the advancement or displacement of the coachee to the desired situation.
Coaching success is measured by the degree in which forward or shift sought as by the degree of support - this feed - in time is achieved: degrees of advancement and sustainability depend on both the coach and the (I) coachee (s).
The leading coach of our prestigious Galarraga, need not be itself a champion of baseball, to be an excellent coach: what matters is that he will be able to see the strengths and weaknesses of Galarraga and made them see to it in relation to the opportunities and threats that jointly to visualize in the environment present and future, to see how to achieve what Galarraga want to achieve... and uphold what has already been achieved and want to hold) (avoiding to fall asleep on its laurels: first symptom of ankylosis).
Anyone can achieve a horse take water if he doesn't want to take it. No one can teach anything to anyone who does not want to learn: there are no teachers who teach only students who learn (human beings are closed information systems, Maturana).

What is managerial Coaching

The Executive or Manager - to become management coach - required to acquire expertise in those aspects that beyond their technical and managerial skills enable you as a business coach in a context of transformative leadership of human groups: this is leadership of human systems configured by beings human, cultural and emotionally interrelated by many and complex networks conversational - verbal and non-verbal - trying to achieve individual and collective goals.
A Manager, candidate for transformative leader, requires much in-depth understand what this means as also learn to idealized influence, create inspiring motivation, achieving intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration
From there that the Manager to act as a coach in a context of transformative leadership not enough to increase their purely linguistic or cognitive competence necessarily perfectible but it requires in addition to dominate bodily and emotional skills that facilitate and Manager groups achieve optimal performance, individual, group and organizational situations, leading to the achievement of high levels of prosperity and happiness.
Happiness unlike any other human purpose is a final purpose: it is never a means to another end, it is the only end in itself. Hence the need for the Executive to achieve even spiritual comfort: clarity and peace of mind. This implies not to circumvent the ethical aspects related values: Conversely, means tackling them with strength, courage and wit (in accordance with each and every one of the other relevant organizational aspects: symbols, systems and structures, people and skills, and allocation of responsibilities and resources).
Management attributes, to exercise leadership successfully, are today much more demanding than the past: the requirements demanded by the changing environment are now larger and very different, as it is the type of leadership can be used and what it involves.
Beyond approaches - progressive - benchmarking, total quality and continuous improvement of processes and products that have faded images and decreased margins - and of those most recent competition and coopetition, conflicting each other - we were in a global world of information technology and radical innovation in product and business generating margins unrivalled and distinctive images , in record time apparently Yes, and in a remarkable way, and at least for a long time. But probably new type of confrontations in the process will also generate new challenges and new ways to deal with them successfully, all of which we hope to mankind out strengthened and benefit.
What will not change is that to achieve and maintain a sustained success it is not enough to have persistence and desire to succeed, we need to also have a common thread, a model and a guide. The action leads with higher quality, effectiveness and efficiency this is productivity to the achievement of the desired success if there are systemic what insight you want to achieve in different environments, but - do it - requires in addition a guide, to transcend the past and - from the present - design, build and explore a path and a process, to reach and to be part of the future desired... Despite the foreseeable and not predictable pitfalls.
Without a method to deal with the complexity of today's business - large, medium or small - she can cope with us and become makeshift fire shut down fires, most concerned solve the urgent that occupied undertake the important: innovate radically in the way of doing business successfully to lead people, creating human and intellectual capital.
The strategic leader today has more and better tools, instruments, techniques, concepts, systems and philosophies of management, more adaptable to different environments and situations.
Between them dominated the focus of strategic management which - synthesizing more than 10 schools of thought (Mintzberg) - aims to make managers more successful strategic managers: are most successful that most frequently manage the objectives that arise.
Managerial Coaching isolated from other management skills yields the expected results, how many people have seen through his experience in coaching programs with weak varnish in relation to management, leadership, strategy, and business. Instead the business coaching in a context of strategic management generates surprising synergistic effects.
Advance to a person, group or organisation, from the situation in which you wish to reach is one major strategic problem: cannot be accomplished without a witty strategic design - immaculately carried out-who certainly inquire in the environment of the coachee and the same coachee. This implies taking into account both opportunities and threats arising from any moved allies, opponents and indifferent as the strengths and weaknesses deriving from the skills and resources of the own coachee - front of that environment - and according to him is account or not of this... and act or not accordingly... with or without the contribution of its coach...
A manager who wants to act as coach, but that does not have competencies organizational, strategic and leadership appropriate or sufficient, may not make it to the coachee to see all what would be desirable and that would make viable their progress towards the desired situation: it will probably base its activity of coaching in the self-improvement and personal development of the coachee, without any hope do come out victorious in the complex - and sometimes cruel and merciless - organizational battlefield... is it possible that even some coaches without business experience cancelling welcome competitive concerns of their coachees and even undermine healthy inspirations of governance objecting to its efforts to take control of the process manager, with examples drawn from hair, in the field of business.
Conversely a Manager ostensibly expert in management and business without training in coaching strategy - can ignore everything related to the effective management and emotionally intelligent people in charge and despite your Executive poise and glamour strategic cancel the initiative and creativity of these people, generating levels of laziness or stress, individual or group, damaging and counterproductive in achieving what is pursued , without benefit to anyone.
When the free and transparent course of the individual or collective existence is interrupted, by positive or negative events of transcendence, that peaceful evolution leads to express with sound interjections surprise us they generate: cáspita!, recorcholis!, etc. This is what usually happens when we win the lottery jackpot or we say goodbye to our work or fails in full highway truck, when peak and just when we were going towards the most important event in recent times, or when warn us that unexpectedly just won the most important tender in game or lose more loved or most important customer. It is also usual that then initiate private conversations - with ourselves – who want to make us assimilated what happened... but we were sometimes stuck in them and not leave... persist in congratulate us congratulate others or display our good luck, blame us or blame others or to injustice or bad luck... in the break produced overwhelms us in such way that we atinamos not to get out of it... do not act pro actively accordingly with what happened... and return again and again about the same thing... sometimes breaks contingent make recurring...

Management Coaching skills

Boost required action, effectively, to achieve the expected results - means to coordinate and lead the action in a manner consistent with the previously planned and organized: it represents a necessary but not a sufficient, way to successfully achieve the pursued.
Boost requires in addition specific emotional competence, to be able to generate moods and emotions that predispose to dependants, to carry out timely actions and sufficient, in order to cost-effectively achieve the results strategically planned - organized and co-ordinated way - acting accordingly, with joy and energy... Despite the difficulties and eventual breakdowns.
Difficult it will be that the Manager can accomplish this without repertoire and ability to recognize their own emotions and those of others, interpreting the bodily signs that identify them, gestures, postures and form of breathing, interpreting what it feels like and what they want to do or not in such or which emotions, reproduce at will the emotions or the signs and be aware of what it feels like change of an emotion to another if same and achieve that others also succeed, anchor neurolinguisticamente recurring emotions required, etc.
However, our body represents everything that our being chemical biophysicist allows us, body and psyche are influence each other; the same systemic interaction occurs between the body, linguistic and emotional. The spiritual is no stranger to these interactions.
The Manager as coach - in its relentless pursuit of an optimum situation of performance - you must know this and make it manageable: should know breathe and show others how to breathe deeply, relax and show others how to scientifically relax, focus, and show others how to focus as an aikidoka, synchronized with itself and with others and show others how to go at the same pace energize and show others how to energize depending on the circumstances, and act with physical presence and human contact and show others how to Captivate displaying empathy:

BODILY SKILLS.

Managers with a background in business coaching, skilfully integrate their proficiency with the emotional and body, increase in high grade their

COMMUNICATIONAL skills, allowing them - among other things - the following:

• Achieve seductively communicate values, vision, mission, strategies and plans,
• Give to know in detail both the context as it pursued and what was planned,
• Do fully understand all that this entails, and even
• Share the satisfaction of achieving what you want, to be able to emotionally
• Achieve passionately commit to each and every one,
• Achieving successful and sustainable of the coveted, despite the difficulties and the possible scarcity of resources, with:
or a very high degree of compliance, to - achieved desired - generate
or great confidence in - all and everyone - and make them feel - basis and at all levels - how
or a team of very high reliability.

Additionally, the training of managers in business coaching increases in high-grade competence in the coordination of actions

(Flowers) - previously planned and organised - facilitating the process, for:
1 early detect the needs and concerns to meet (with the result), and
2 explicitly decide which needs and concerns, and when, would require to be fulfilled,
3 contextualize seductively on the subject with the chosen to meet them, before requesting them meet them (the ideal is to offer us what we ask for, without asking for it), and
4 ask promptly to them the satisfaction of them, specifying the conditions of satisfaction, and
5 negotiate effectively conditions, postpones, negative, etc. that they pose to satisfy the request (or to carry out the required actions), even
6 effectively compromise the mutual fulfillment of what was agreed; then
7 periodically monitor the level of progress, and
8 renegotiate effectively - and thus with the results you are getting - the assumption of the relevant responsibilities in the event of abandonment, cancellation, revocation, backwardness, etc.), to finally
9 receive kindly what is delivered (if delivered something), together with
10 thank sincerely what has been received (or claim that did not receive in time), and
11 to thoroughly assess the degree of satisfaction... and after detect and decide the necessary adjustments, to fulfill the preconditions and/or that new circumstances require,
12 retro contextually to feed makers, so restarting a new cycle of coordination of actions.
A good command of the coordination of actions allows the Manager as coach a constant strategic learning or double loop (Argyris) learning: through successive cycles of trial and error - and due consideration of the impact of organizational defenses that prevent from touching certain topics, confronting certain opinions and openly appreciate what is happening - allows you to put to use distinctive and effective efforts to achieve governance : effective increase in the chances of what you want to achieve, through the Organization in charge.
The importance of governance - also target the already outdated traditional management control, now called new managerial control or assurance of management - derives from the need for leaders to more governance (the purpose), despite the circumstances that arise (exogenous factors) and the degree of sophistication of planning and management control systems (media) : but increase governance means to solve more a political problem than one instrumental power of technology.
Unlike the formal authority power is not something that is given or purchased, is a judgment on the greater or lesser capacity of the autonomous action of an entity (Echeverria). Trials - children of the statements, and like them - are acts that can be valid or invalid, depending on authority or force that they support. But trials - in contrast to statements - required also to be evaluated as to whether or not they are founded, and this depends on both the relevance of the concerns behind the judgements issued, areas in relation to which they are formulated, and reference standards used, it as force of the statements in favour of the judgment , and the comparative strength of the presentations against him.
This foray into the field of the linguistic competence was defined purposes-setting an example - define the importance of linguistic acts in the coaching business, without entering here into greater details... but ahead of that other linguistic acts - which is important to the Manager as a coach to handle with skill - are the requests and offers, since q once they are accepted they become promises which will be fulfilled or not... depending on the linguistic competence of the parties, but inevitably affect performance... and trust: behind every linguistic Act there is a social commitment we can meet or not, and this compliance or repeated failure will inevitably configuring our public image.
Let us remember that in the organizations activities are developed through an intense conversational exchange, which implies skills to design and carry out conversations that allow to achieve - with greater or lesser effectiveness - things with words, resorting to verbal - written or spoken - language and non-verbal language. All conversation takes place with various backgrounds, the most visible is the emotional: our bodies can reflect our emotions with more or less sharpness and ratting us with insightful observers, but also the competent use of our bodies can catalyze emotional reactions of others and cause the intended effects or not.
Dexterous handling of these patterns is essential in relation to the art of the perpicaz - typical of coaching - coach is to ask that the coachee is - it - account which will allow you to overcome successfully and steadily contingent and recurrent, individual and collective, breakdowns in which is immersed.
The language is neither passive nor innocent, allows you to create and change situations, ways of being, reality, etc.
Strategic Manager that forms in business coaching - in a context of leadership - acquired special COMPETENCES in leadership TRANSFORMER, to be able to generate a greater degree of commitment, involvement, loyalty and performance - with a lesser degree of stress-despite the contingencies, emergencies, conflicts, or unforeseen or foreseeable crisis, and depending on the circumstances can reinforce or change the culture and organizational politics in more participatory or more directive form and in accordance with their rank and status (Bass). This implies learning a:
Idealized influence: leading to identification and emulation in their role as models admired, respected, and reliable, with extraordinary capacity, persistence and determination, that take risks and act in way consistent, non-arbitrary, correctly and with high ethical and moral standards.
Create inspiring motivation: proposing persuasive, understandable and significant challenges that stimulate team spirit, displaying enthusiasm and optimism, viewing engaging with goals and shared and attractive future situations and expectations that communicate clearly.
Achieve intellectual stimulation: expanding skills and promoting creativity, innovation and the search for solutions and new ideas even if they are controversial, questioning assumptions, re framing issues, approaching old situations new roads, and without public criticism of errors committed.
Individualized consideration: paying special attention to the needs of achievement and developing the potential of each person, acting as coach and guide, delegating and creating new opportunities for learning, and a climate that sustain it, recognizing and accepting differences individual needs and desires, interacting in a personalized way, and monitoring while people feel checked.
Transformative leadership is not only the paradigm in vogue - much leadership - but the only one that allows - instrumental - measure that improves the performance and satisfaction of leaders and led. Additionally it has been shown that he allows achieving levels of performance and satisfaction in higher degree than the different forms of transactional leadership (based on rewards that generate positive or negative contingent reinforcement: management by exception active or passive), or leadership of laissez-faire (style in which decisions are not taken, actions are postponed, responsibilities in terms of leadership are ignored (, the authority is not used, etc.). In any case the practical world shows that all great leaders used - in different situations - different mixtures of all of them.
Business coaching or managerial coaching training - in a context of strategic management and leadership transformer - extends the competence of the Manager, Executive or Director, significantly to deal strategically with the leadership of individuals, groups and organizations, in order to radically improve the levels of performance and satisfaction.
Them involves achieving a State of optimal individual and collective performance through enhancing strategic management skills and learn new skills linguistic, emotional and body, along with other character Integrator: skills in communication, coordination of actions and transformative leadership.
All this with the purpose of achieving better performance and greater satisfaction, encouraging a greater degree of commitment, involvement and loyalty - with less stress and in spite of the eventualities - and even, depending on circumstances, attempting to reinforce - or change - culture and organizational policy, shaped more or more directive.
The Executive or Manager - to become management coach - required to acquire expertise in those aspects that beyond their technical and managerial skills enable you as a business coach in a context of transformative leadership of human groups: this is in the leadership of human systems configured by beings human, cultural and emotionally interrelated by many and complex networks conversational - verbal and non-verbal - trying to achieve individual and collective goals.

ITEM 08

How to organize your computer | Definition

We all live and work with other people, and their lives and interests are part of us, in the same way that ours are part of them. When we think of organizing, we have to consider that organise myself differently affect these other people who are important. Criticism more obvious that you can do to organize me is, that it is selfish.
He is clear that organize concerns first and before anything to work with and through other people. To be responsible for the time is accomplished in isolation. It is often a work of ensemble, a company entering an entire group of conventions, understandings and assumptions cups.
It is one of the realities of the time, which is not fully yours, has to share it with others with whom they work, live and interact, the way how shared time is adaptable, but adaptation must be based on mutual respect that is worth the time.
Some of the following are ways in which administrative groups can work together successfully. It expands the concept of teamwork to encompass the idea that each of us is responsible for clarifying the conventions of our relations, to inform others that we expect of our own time and our time with them. Also about how to obtain and maintain the respect of others towards their time and how to balance the need to work with the demands of the time of others and yet, meet their own.
The following is a list of ways to do to respect your time. According to vera, most of them also considers the respect that you should have by the time of others:
• This conscious of how it uses and abuses of the time. Desired account of where your time goes. Use it responsibly, and find ways in which you can use it more wisely.
• Learn to distinguish the time. Base their choices of the use of their time according to their personal values and those of their relatives. When you use consistently time in productive activities, others can better understand what their priorities and that way your time contributes to fulfill these important tasks.
• Do others know what he thinks of the use that they make the time you. Its you think that they are removing the time (in a way conscious or unconscious) tell them so. Communicate their feelings in a way implied, adequate, so that they know what you think and what you would like them to do.
• Examine its conventions invisible. Many invisible agreements establish conditions that encourage others to remove time. When you see that other people are not respecting your time, check invisible agreements you have with them and which allow this to happen. For example, if a contributor does continually wait to view it, you probably have an invisible Covenant with him in the sense that this well receive it late, that doesn't matter to you expect; in a nutshell, this well makes it wasting time.
• Note that things are saying verbally and, more importantly, not verbally. they are others saying perhaps with his conduct that:
1 - they do not respect their time because they think that you do not respect their own time. Do nor that of them?, or both?
2 - do not know that they are not respecting your time.
3 - they do not admit that if they are taking their time
4 - they are not sure which are the priorities for you, and therefore which must subsequently be the of them.
• Observe how it behaves with his subordinates. When you make work assignments, it clearly defines what you want it done, how much authority delegated. And how much responsibility expected? Note your management style. A study of selective time and take note of their interactions with their subordinates. Cut them off many times during the day or the week?, outages were justified?. Many times is delay their staff carry out their work because you did not get them what they needed?. Examine what you make that it blocks or hinders performance optimal by them.
• Do not interrupt constantly your staff is busy with tasks with which they must comply. If you make a list of all their daily contacts with with his subordinates, vera the tremendous amount of interruptions that arise. At least, examine its disruption to the rest of the way to more criticism. Are few of interruptions that unnecessary? Some issues could probably meet and get the attention of his subordinates at a staff meeting or in some other suitable occasion, to avoid interruptions.

HOW TO BALANCE THE DESIRE TO BE AVAILABLE AND THE PROBLEM THAT SUBORDINATES JUST COME TO TALK WITH YOU.

This is a very common problem among busy executives. Here are some effective solutions:
• Assign special at that time East willing to listen to anything that your personal wish to consult him. A manager established this schedule: Tuesday morning between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. and Thursday afternoon between 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.
• Ask for or required by all those who want to consult, beforehand have clear the matter coming to treat. You could say something like the following: "Please tell me briefly that the topic, it is so that I can be ready before we meet". This encourages its staff members to reflect previously and gives you the opportunity to concentrate on the subject.
• As part of this policy, you may want to set time limits. Indicating the time available for a particular interview. Say: "Peter, I have fifteen minutes, that will be long enough so that we will see what they want to try?".
• Occasionally, go directly to the office of his subordinate. It is easier to deal with the issue there and also it gives you the opportunity to see how things go in the territory more than your desktop.

AS DECLINING INAPPROPRIATE REQUESTS OF HIS TIME AND AS TO IMPLY THAT HE IS SERIOUS.

One of the ways most important and responsible for improving its efficiency is to learn to decline unreasonable requests of his time. In fact it is impossible to effectively manage your time until you establish a measure of good will and determine what to what you are willing to refuse to do.
Refuse takes care of its unwanted requests time and conserves your precious time which then fits available for high priority tasks. Certainly you not make it to his boss, nor to his friend, any favors when he says that if a request which should have said that 'no', if it would have managed his time responsibly.
His ability (or more correctly, its responsibility to tell if or not to requests for time) depends on the various functions that you have chosen play and conventions that you have made, both overt and tacit. All play different roles in life: employee, citizen, friend, husband, head of the family, Member of a religious sect, and conventions involving have effects on your ability to refuse.

ARE WASTING MUCH TIME REDOING TASKS THAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE FROM THE VERY BEGINNING. EXPLIQUELES WELL TO HIS SUBORDINATES ARE ASSIGNED WORK.

Definitely do not have if you organized well and have clear duties, while his subordinates are distributing their time inefficiently. Time management is not only the efficient use of their own time, but also that of others, and managers can help their subordinates to work more efficiently. Below is a list of guidelines to follow to assign tasks to staff:
• Try to calculate how long take to perform assigned work, if only an approximate calculation. If you have an idea of how long it is necessary, it will then be easier to understand when and where to invest this time.
Many subordinates fail to meet all assigned work simply because, above all, there is never enough time to do so. Ask your staff what they assume to be a realistic calculation of time to assign to a job. It is often better to leave some tasks without attending to try to give them less time than necessary. Often these calculations bit attached to reality truck inefficiency, errors or shoddy work.
• Explain the task clearly. Ask your staff to repeat to you in their own words what they understand to be assigned work. Time additional to this represents is justified and at the same time allows both parties to explore more productive ways to carry out a specific task.
• Explain how task contributes to the achievement of valuable goals of the team, the Department and the organization. Understand the reason for an assigned activity can help staff to understand how it should be.
• Check the tasks assigned in the context of valuable targets, priorities and adequate investments of time. You and your subordinates can discover is they are spending too much time to some task that is not invested enough in others. Know what valuable goals of the management team and of your organization clarifies the substance and the reason for the work assignments. Sometimes many subordinates do not actually know they are their tasks because they ignore the goals and do not understand their contribution specified to all.

SELECT SUITABLE PERSONS.

Managers do not always have the opportunity of interviewing prospective members of his staff, or not always believe to have the chance to do so. If someone is going to be working very close to you, it would be logical that you would give approval to the appointment of that person. As a Director, you had that have defined the work and the kind of person that can play it. In a large organization, will be a member of the personnel department who has written and placed the ad and selected applications so that you only see that really merit an interview. The staff can be perfectly the first interview, allowing you to take part in the final interview.
There are interviewers who concentrate on professional and technical capabilities of the applicant. This aspect is, since then important, but there are many indicators pointing to the ability and areas of competence of a candidate who only need to confirm in an interview. The most difficult to treat area is the same person: as estimate their character and their ability to work in team, under pressure, and deciding whether to get along with the. The majority do not like research on the motivations of the person, what makes it as is, because it is take a few concrete options for education and work, in the form as others have influenced it, and other personal details that will distinguish it from other similar capacity possible candidates. In our culture, we don't feel stimulated to delve into these private details, but are of great help in choosing the right person for your computer, and you can carry it out in a polite way that does not offend the applicant.

ITEM 09

How to organize it | Definition

Anyone who wants to improve its way of organising to others, you must first learn to organize itself. Therefore, we must learn to organize from within. In other words, organize from within is based on the idea that what is outside is a reflection of what is within us, and vice versa.
Efficiently organize it has to do with the notion of self-organization, it is the idea that there are four aspects of ourselves that we need to survive, maintain and make progress, these are:
Health: A healthy body in a healthy mind
Skills: Mental, technical, social, artistic
Action: Fix the things
Identity: Know who you are, accept yourself, always having an idea of who you want to become.
There is obviously a relationship between these four points. You need health if you want to get to be skilled, or to resolve things. Similarly, resolving something requires skill as well as motivation. And their ability is related to its shape see and assess if same.
Organize yourself as adult requires that you decide consciously to learn and develop, taking into account the past experience in the context of their current needs I decided if it stagnates or try to change.
Organize a situation and himself, can be explained in terms of sensitizing the situation, clarify it, weigh it and then do something.
Weigh:
1 priority and clarifying objectives or intentions
2. generate alternative courses of action
3 evaluate the alternative conduct lines
4 decide what course of action taken. In other words, adopt resolutions.
Take action:
1 plan for what to do. His first steps.
2. bring to term our first step
3 analyze and plan the second step and so on.
It would be useful, perhaps, to now reflect on yourself and in its current form to action.

OBSTACLES AND TRAPS

Visible and hidden, internal and external
Who could ensure you get the most of your time. That he uses it in the best possible way for its full realization and the most valuable achievement. Served from the to build own happiness and the things dear.
There are "Thieves of time" quite numerous and much more formidable, the more hidden and concealed. Identifying them is the way to stop them.
By "enemy or the time-consuming", we mean any circumstance that is opposed to the achievement of our objectives, or simply, to distract us from our values.
There are enemies visible and hidden, external and internal, controllable and non-controllable.
The most frequent
Some enemies are obvious and easy to identify. For example:
• The verbiage like communication style
• The useless repetitions
• Confusing and ambiguous language
• Disorder
• Indecision
• Hobby of spending too much time doing things unclear intentions, objectives and purposes.
• Custom adopt rituals that are mere formalities empty and dead.
• Confuse the urgent with the important thing.
Easily we fall into the illusion that the enemies of our time are external, but the reality is that many of the most fearsome are in ourselves.

Enemies of the time


External

Internal

Phone outages

Not knowing how to say "no"

Interruptions by unexpected visits

Wanting to hoarding activities by not knowing how to delegate them

Emergency

Overestimate the own abilities

Furniture uncomfortable

Delay and procrastination for later

Inability of the subordinates

Indiscipline in compliance with the own plans

Lack of adequate information

Confusion and disorder in the office

Poor leadership

Lack of motivation, indifference

Paperwork over (bureaucracy)

Tension and concerns

Noise and Visual distractions

Obsession with the trivial, meticulousness

Poor communication systems

Inconstancy, habit of leaving unfinished
We all agree that it is easier to identify the enemies in the first column (external) of the second.
Some enemies that are not terrible in itself, become dangerous when combined with internal factors.

STRATEGIES TO MAKE BETTER USE OF YOUR TIME

Listed below are ways to practice to avoid what can cause you to lose time.

USE OF AN AGENDA

If you want to start to organize themselves seriously, you can start scoring the different tasks that takes place during a week. It is very heavy, no doubt, but only when you know how it is using their time may pass judgment if using it in what should or not. Then you can think in as it should organize the day and decide which tasks are a priority.
A simple agenda can be one of their most useful tools. As it is, a simple agenda of desktop that the company responsible for you, it may be not very promising as an aid to planning, but can, with a little imagination and some modifications, to become a "system of survival".
At the beginning of the day it is worth booking time, i.e. fifteen minutes to write down the tasks to be performed. They should be viewed as active and reactive, important or urgent, if you must carry out or delegate them, etc.
Then you can assign priorities to each of the activities, and whenever possible, book a time.
Great satisfaction feels to delete the activities from the list as they are ending. Although only a task, you will have the impression that today already has done something. Anything that does not end today can be postponed until tomorrow, and their importance or urgency according to new activities that occur can assess.

DOOR OPEN AND CLOSED

What you want to achieve is the happy situation in which a closed door indicate that not, under any circumstances, be annoyed, because doing something that requires concentration and tranquility. On the other hand, if you want to know that his door is open and you want to come to see; It has succeeded in its main goal; become more accessible.
One of the benefits provided to plan your time more effectively is that you can form a better idea when it is needed to be isolated and when can be accessible so that they call you in order to discuss problems or chat. If you book, for example, a couple of afternoons a week to carry out not very important tasks that can be dispatched with ease, or if someone needs to see him, you can devote the rest of the time to positive activities that form the basis of its work. If people become inured to the idea that normally is not accessible, except at specific hours, soon took the habit of agreeing quotations specific or they agreed to see him in the period of "Open door"

THE PHONE

One of the causes most common frustration and anguish among managers is the amount of time that passed to phone
One of the main aspects of their work can be to have to attend to telephone consultations, therefore must accept that this is part of their work, although they interrupt any other thing you are doing.
It must be channelled through the secretariat calls, or any other subordinate. In fact, one of the responsibilities of a Secretary is to avoid your boss calls unnecessary than a loss of time. Its mission is to recognize the partners with whom you want to talk, and know how to deal with others, contact. Quite often, she herself can handle the call, respond to any requests, or provide information, but if you cannot, must pick up the message and make the person you call one hour concrete.

UNSCHEDULED OUTAGES

The majority of the people, to write the daily agenda, are agreed that concerned much the number of unscheduled interruptions that have allowed all day. Everyone knows who came to see them people for a quick conversation, and that they responded to several calls during the day, but until they saw all writing, they didn't realize detrimental it de4 were. You can include examples such as those coming to the office asking for your attention No matter who you dictating this to his Secretary or speaking with someone.
Some people are unable to recognize when you are busy, when you don't have time, nor intend to interrupt any activity to talk about weather or problems that occurred yesterday in the dining room, and it is difficult to know what to do to not be rude.

MEETINGS

The meetings normally involve a planned agreement so some people join to give or Exchange information or to solve a problem
As it is safe that you should spend much time in meetings of all kinds, look at the first question: "Is this meeting really necessary?". All too often people gather on a regular basis because they have been doing every week at that time the whole year, what this becomes habit. It is possible that the original terms of reference so that group of people gather at present, are obsolete and that there is a need to hold the meeting regularly. The terms of reference, in which case you will have to change committed people, programming, site may have been altered.
Often held meetings "for good communication". But if there is nothing to say, they are a loss of time.
Before you turn to organise a meeting, consider the alternatives. Could you zanjear the matter with a letter, a memo, a phone call, or a simple conversation between you and the other person? Sometimes five minutes with six people separately are more productive than a meeting half an hour with them all together.
In some cases, a meeting may be the only time that a group has opportunity to meet considering their boss as the leader of the team, rather than as the boss who every individual delivery reports.
There are several things that a meeting organizer should be resolved before your celebration, so it develops smoothly and effectively. First of all: "who is wants to achieve with this meeting?". The goal may be to comment on a report, the current evolution of a project, a new policy or how to address a new labour in power. Whatever it is, the organizer should have it very clear before distributing the program.
The program should not consist of a mere list of topics to be treated during a meeting. It has to be correctly drafted to indicate if the topics are purely informative, if it is to comment them or must decide about them, and would have to consist of a brief description of the issue that is going to be treated. For example, the "Budget" is too brief and vague, while "budget: discuss the proposition of the client reduce the cost for the creation of parks in favour of safety systems more sophisticated", gives people the opportunity to think a little on the subject beforehand and form certain opinions.
Most of the people are in agreement that a meeting should not be very long. One way to avoid this is to assign a time to each case and make sure that it is not exceeded.
It is also a good idea to indicate the time of completion and opening of the meeting in the program.
Write "Miscellaneous matters" in a program is an invitation to waste time. Doesn't mean that the organizer should not book time to additional topics if it is something urgent and unexpected, but, generally speaking, subjects should be known and prepared in advance.
It is very useful to be delivered all kinds of additional documentation with the program, and not arising at the meeting. This not only saves time, but it works the people think about the issues and can formulate questions. This documentation should not be very long, since otherwise nobody will read it.
Documentation must not move too early to the meeting (you will lose or forget) but, on the other hand, must be given enough time so that you can read.
The task of the organizer can be difficult at times, especially if the subject under discussion is delicate or unpleasant, but a good organizer can ensure that a meeting goes normally, cover the entire program in the time allotted, and to reach the objectives exposed. He or she will also have to confront a difficult group members, disagreements, misunderstandings false and bad tracks.
The Organizer must control and make sure that the members of the Group understand that it is what you get commenting on the issues, and if necessary, you will have to suggest ways to address the issue, particularly if it is long and complex, you have to make sure that people who know a subject in particular be allowed to talk to develop informed decisions.
At the end of each agenda item the organizer should develop a clear and brief summary of what has been decided, and can even dictate to the Secretariat, which subsequently were on the records. If taken some kind of action in relation to someone present at the meeting, the Organizer must ensure that the person concerned understands and accepts that action.
The minutes of a meeting should be submitted within a period of two days, especially if you have to take some action. If this is not possible, you can develop a summary of the actions which have been decided to carry out, and it can be distributed immediately after the end of the meeting.

ITEM 10

Communication | Definition

What is communication?

It is the process by which the individual transmit stimuli to modify the behavior of others"(Hovland)
It is the simplest, most important factor that determines the type of relationship that generates with each other in order to survive. Communication is the meaning that people give to their own information." (Virginia Satir)
"It is a message to a receiver with the conscious intention of affecting their subsequent conduct" (Miller)

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

1. issuing or encoder: is the one who initiates communication and encodes the message, to obtain greater fidelity must possess the following: communication skills, attitudes, level of knowledge and position it occupies in a certain socio-cultural system
2. message: It is the real physical product from the issuer (writings, postures, gestures, discourses). There are three factors that must be taken into consideration when a message is sent: 1) code (symbols used to formulate the message) 2) content (Material selected by the issuer to express its purpose); (3) treatment (refers to decisions who initiates communication when you select, structure, content codes)
3. channel: all messages must be transmitted via a communication channel. The Communicator must decide which should be transmitted orally, written, Visual, etc.
4 receiver or decoder: is the one who moves the message and capture it to the extent that East psychologically synchronized with the issuer.

Types of communication the organizations


Formal

Informal

It is the communication that occurs via releases, inside information (official) systems, which contain the policies and established procedures, provided by supervisors in hierarchical form.

• Is the communication established by the own employees about what is happening in the organization.

• Communicate issues and situations real or perceived and not so it is less important.

• It is often stronger than the formal.

• Ignore it can affect the development of organizations.


Verbal

Non-verbal

It is both formal and informal communication that occurs in organizations which includes dialogue, discussion etc.

Consists of attitudes and messages which do not express themselves with words, but which can be read through how to talk, look, and gestures, among many other ways and give us idea of thought or reaction of the people.

CONDITIONS THAT FACILITATE COMMUNICATION

On the theories of psychological counselling, many authors (Rogers, 1,957; Patterson, 1,966, Truax and Carkhuff 1965 and 1967, consider that there are a number of facilitativas conditions in people, such as: unconditional acceptance, empathy and congruence among others, which have significant effects on the interaction of people.
Rogers defines empathy as the ability to understand prosecutions, feelings, behaviors of others, in such way, that are communicated understanding and accurately to others, as if it were another person. In other words, it is trying to understand the other, putting in place, on the basis of its own frame of reference and not our
Carkhuff defines understanding empathic as the ability to understand the feelings of the other, without putting our judgments about the situation that we may raise.
Fundamentally, is the level of functioning of the person in their ability to interact with others, what determines the results of those relationships.

HIGH PERFORMANCE LEVEL

LOW LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING

The involved parties benefiting in that relationship

The parties involved are impaired with this relationship.

Managers or supervisors who work with high level physical, emotional and intellectual are agents of growth and development of employees

Managers or supervisors who work with low level physical, emotional and intellectual, impede the growth and development of employees and workers.

Effects produced by human relations.


FACILITATORS (POSITIVE)

They affect other people making them:

CHALLENGERS (NEGATIVE)

They affect other people making them:

a physically strong

a physically out of shape

b emotionally expansive

b emotionally shallow

c intellectually acute

c intellectually bored.

STYLES OF BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN RELATIONS


ASSERTIVE

NOT ASSERTIVE

AGGRESSIVE

Defend your rights, avoid violating the rights of others

It is not able to defend their rights effectively

Defend their rights so that it is in violation of others

Communicates easily

Let others be responsible

If it flatters itself at the expense of others

It relies on its resources

It depends on the resources of other persons

It offends

Does the respect of others without underestimating them

Constantly ask excuses for what it does

It is dominant, cutting, and selfish

It is expressive, descriptive, firm

It is passive

It makes other people feel wounded, they are defensive, fearful, resentful and used

It offers information, express their goals and expectations


He blames others when you make a mistake

Listen and understand



Will modify their behavior when confronted him


LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION

It is important to note that in every dialogue, all the body communicates, not only with words, but with the voice, breath and muscles
Verbal communication - words
Non-Verbal communication - Facial expression. Body position
Body muscle Tension. Breathing rate
Tone of voice. Eye movements
When verbal communication and non-verbal do not correspond we talk about inconsistency, i.e. that what "I think", "I do" and "tell" you have different interpretations.
When the communication does not lead to reality or to direct and simple expression levels, not you can in any way be confidence.

THE MODEL OF VIRGINIA SATIR

At the end of the elements involved in the communication, the author emphasizes that all human beings — except those who lack any sense (sight, hearing, touch, etc.) They have the same elements to communicate: his own body, which moves and has their own ways; values, i.e., those concepts that represent their lifestyle; their expectations, from past experiences; their sense organs; the language and its intellectual part that includes what the person has learned from its past experiences, what you have read and what has taught him.
It emphasizes, Virginia Satir, that so that there is true communication, it is necessary to discard the inferences and riddles and check messages with each other so that they become concrete facts, since at the time we communicate, another unknown that we are experiencing, we are feeling, which is our past, our values and expectations and vice versa.

HOW TO IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATION

We listed below are some general recommendations to improve the effectiveness of communication
1. proper handling of oral and written language
2. favourable attitude towards the issue we are discussing and to everyone who receives the message
3 adequate standard of knowledge of the subject and avoid the use of too much technical language.
4. proper selection of the code and content of the message
5. Select content that are in accordance with the interests or needs of the receiver.
In addition to these general recommendations, it is necessary to mention that the use of "Feed-Back", "Feedback", is particularly helpful to make more effective communication. This procedure allows us to help another person or group to consider changes in their behavior, basically consists of giving information verbal or non-verbal, others of how their behavior affects us so that we can review with others how we perceive such behaviour and if the messages that we have sent have been received properly or improperly.

COMMUNICATION PATTERNS

Here are four models that people use to communicate and that they respond to a way to prevent rejection. In all cases, the individual feels and reacts to the threat, but as you don't want to show weakness tries to hide:

1 ACCUSER OR CULPADOR

-The words are in disagreement (never do anything good. That is what happens to you?
Body guilt: "I am here charge"
Inside: "I'm alone and I'm a loser"

2-LEVER

-Agree the words: "everything your want it well." I only want your happiness"
Body pleads: 'I'm helpless'
Inside: "I feel a void; without the I am lost. I am not worth anything"

3. SUPER REASONABLE

-The ultrarazonables words: "if one is to carefully observe persons present, notary that is who's hands are battered by the work"
Calculates the body: "I am calm, impassive and cold"
Inside: "I feel vulnerable."

4. IRRELEVANT

-The word: "the words do not make sense"
Body: wriggled and distracted
Inside: "no one will care. "There is no place for my"
None of these models presented above is effective; only the answer open or fluid, is the only one that allows easy relations, free and honest, and there are few threats to self-esteem.

THE FEED - BACK (FEEDBACK)

It is a mechanism that can be used by the issuer to ensure successful communication. Allows you to check with the recipient (person or group), if their perceptions conform to reality and allows at the same time the receiver know how correct or is not receiving the message that sends to the issuer.
Some criteria for exercise "Feed-Back"
1. it is more descriptive than evaluative. Avoid the use of evaluative language reduces the need for the other person react defensively
2 is more specific than general. Targeting a specific behavior
3 takes into account the needs of everyone who receives it
4. only directed to behaviors that can be modified
5 it must be requested before tax.
6 it must be offered at the right time
7 it must be checked to ensure good communication.
Feedback is a way of providing aid, is a corrective mechanism for the individual who wants to learn how much affinity exists between their behavior and intentions.
In the work the "Feed-Back" would be one of the mechanisms of evaluation, since it attempts to assist subordinate to consider changes in their behavior, in their level of knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, etc. As well as reinforce its positive or effective conduct. When we evaluate, provide information to the other on how we perceive their conduct and how we receive their messages. The "Feed-Back" is one of the components of the communication process, which makes the difference between communication and information"". It helps to share the coloured prisms that we have when we evaluate others to improve the encodificacion, reduce the camouflage, blockages, leaks in the communication. The congruence has a lot to do with the Feed-Back, since the channel may not be sending a message and by another channel, another contradictory message. Why they say that we receive feedback through the five senses and from the inside out.

CRITERIA FOR GIVING A GOOD FEED-BACK

• Direct the focus (the focus of evaluation or feed-back) to conduct or behavior, observable and can be modified and not the person. In the case of work, evaluate performance, performance, participation, and assess to subordinate as a person.
For example, it is correct to say: this is incorrectly last drawing, etc.. It is incorrect to say: you do not know you draw, you're clumsy
A way of trying to use verbs and adverbs (well, wrong), instead of adjectives. The adverb modifies a verb in action. They are: a) of time (afternoon, early), b) place (here, beyond) and c) so (well, evil). Qualifying adjectives to qualify the person, to the noun (awkward)
We say observable, because we should make assessment about what they see or to speak and describing behavior we want to change. We say modifiable, since nothing is worth doing an assessment of something that can not be overcome by proven inability. This would be an aggressive download-only.
• Direct approach in specific terms (of more or less) instead of using general terms (definitive of the one to the other). This must situate ourselves in the present, in what just happen and not to generalize (always, never) in abstract form. It is important to customize (I, you, instead of "people", US)
Incorrect example: people always want to dominate others, are on the defensive, and they are aggressive (generalize, interpreter, prosecuting, non-specific)
Correct: At this moment, when we have been discussing, I have interrupted several times, not me are listening to. Also take a look at the tone of voice are you talking about (more specific, current, direct and personalised)
• Take into account the timing and characteristics of the receiver: take into account the context (where) and if this person able to receive it. Also if the person is prepared to receive it. This is important vocabulary used, the amount of information that it may receive and process the receiver, know how to listen, respect the rhythm of the other.
• Take into account the needs both of which receives it as the of offering it. If this is not done, you can become an emotional shock and be destructive. It must be perceived as a support or advice and not as an imposition. The ideal would be that it was requested by the receiver
• Direct approach towards the possibility of finding alternatives for behaviour change. It is what is known as it constructive criticism. Help to find the correct substitute conduct. In this the supervisor or manager must act with much strength, not criticize for criticizing, but offered as a model in the learning or at least to share experiences.
• Must be checked to ensure good communication (re-feed-back). Here is the validity of the process. One way is to ask the person to repeat us message to see if us has understood. In addition you can ask others who give us your opinion on this, and check correctness or otherwise of this assessment; as well as the feelings and opinions that were raised in the other (empathic understanding)
• Respect the unity of the human being: try not to compare with the others and left free to decide on their shift, not impose it

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: ATTEND AND RESPOND

Skills that a good Communicator needs to develop:
Address: Physical attention, observe and listen
Answer: the content, the feeling, the meaning.
The goals of the communication process are achieved through skills that it displays and executes the Communicator during the interpersonal relationship and these in turn are communicable and learned by you receiver, thus defining the two-dimensional nature of the relationship
The first skill which the Communicator, exhibits is the serve, which facilitates the receiver to be involved in the relationship. Expressed through conduct of physical care, observation and ability to listen to.
The second skill, is the answer, that it facilitates the exploration of the subject in relation to where it is located. Answer, is the Act of entering the frame of reference of the receiver, creating a sense of trust, freedom and commitment. These skills are displayed through the ability to respond to the contents, feelings, and meanings that express the subject.
Both attend and respond, constitute the basis of the process of communication between people and promotes a helping relationship. All human relations are relations of aid (potentially), since they promote development.

STEPS FOR PHYSICAL CARE

1 involve the subject: communicates interest
2 CONTEXTUAL attention: Layout and physical arrangement. It communicates intimacy and proximity
3 PERSONAL attention: Meet emotional and primary physiological needs. It communicates interest.
4 pay attention posture: Balance, leaning, eye contact, physical distance, eliminate distractions. Contextual.

ITEM 11

Internal control | Definition

Internal controls are implanted to keep the company in the direction of its profitability targets and the achievement of its mission, as well as to minimize surprises along the way. They make it possible the Administration to negotiate in rapidly changing economic and competitive environments, adjusting to the demands and priorities of customers, and restructurandose for future growth.
Internal controls promote efficiency, reduce the risk of loss of assets, and help ensure the reliability of financial statements and compliance with laws and regulations.

DEFINITION OF INTERNAL CONTROL

Internal control means different things to different people. This causes confusion among business people and others. So that internal control is a process that is designed to be performed by the Board of Directors, administrators and other staff of the economic entity, whose main objective is the provide reasonable security looking at the fulfilment of the objectives in the following categories:
1 effectiveness and efficiency in operations: focuses on the basic objectives of business of an entity, including performance and profitability objectives and the safeguarding of resources.
2. reliability of financial information: is related to the preparation of reliable published financial statements, including interim financial statements and selected financial data derived from such States, such as performed, publicly reported profits.
3. compliance with laws and regulations: refers to compliance with those laws and regulations that this holding entity.
Such different categories but integrated, they are oriented to different needs and allow direct attention to meet separate requirements.
Internal control systems operate at different levels of effectiveness. Internal control can be judged effective in each of the three categories, respectively, if the Board of Directors and management has reasonable assurance that:
• Understand the extent in which the objectives of the operations of the institution are being.
• Published financial statements are prepared reliably.
• It is complying with the laws and applicable regulations.

OBJECTIVES OF INTERNAL CONTROL

Each entity set its mission, establishing the objectives that you want to achieve and the strategies to achieve them. The objectives may be to an entity, as a whole, or specific activities within the entity. The goals are placed into three categories:
• Operations: Related to the effective and efficient use of the resources of the entity.
• Financial information: Related to the preparation of reliable public financial statements.
• Compliance: Related to the compliance of the entity with the laws and applicable regulations.
Internal control may not prevent lawsuits or wrong decisions, or external events that can cause a failure in business for the achievement of its objectives.

COMPONENTS OF INTERNAL CONTROL

Internal control consists of five interrelated components derived from the way the Administration conducts the business, and they are integrated into the management process. Such components are:
• Control environment: it is the Foundation for all other components of internal control, providing discipline and structure. The control environment factors include integrity, ethical values and the competence of the people with the entity.
u integrity and ethical values. Aspects that should be considered:
Existence or application of codes of conduct and other policies.
or relationships with employees, suppliers, customers, investors, creditors, insurers, competitors, auditors, etc.
or pressure to achieve unrealistic performance goals.
• Commitment with the competition. Aspects that should be considered:
or formal or informal descriptions of work.
or analysis of knowledge and the skills necessary to properly carry out the work.
• Valuation of risks: there are a variety of risks from external and internal sources, which should be measured in each entity. As a prerequisite you must set objectives, linking them at different levels so that they are internally consistent.

Overall objectives of the entity. Aspects that should be considered:

1 extension in which the overall objectives of the entity provide statements and guidelines widely enough envelope that the entity should get.
2. effectiveness with which the overall objectives of the Organization are communicated to the employees and the Board of Directors.
3 relationship and consistency of the strategy with the overall objectives of the entity.
4. consistency in plans and budgets for business with the overall objectives of the Organization, strategic plans, and current conditions.

Objectives at the level of activity. Aspects that should be considered:

1 link-level activity objectives with the overall objectives of the Organization and strategic plans.
2. relevance of the objectives at the level of activity for the entire business.
3. identification of the really important goals.
4. commitment of all levels of administration in the definition of objectives and its extension.

Risks. Aspects that should be considered:

All entities face risks and these should be evaluated. The process by which are identified, analysed and managed risks form an important part of an effective control system.

Aspects that should be considered:

1. suitability of mechanisms to identify the risks of internal or external sources.
2. identification of the significant risks for each important objective.
3 whole and relevance of the process of risk analysis. To perform a risk analysis should include inter alia the following: estimation of the importance of risk and their effects, the assessment of the likelihood of occurrence, the establishment of actions and necessary controls and periodic evaluation of the previous process.

Change management.

This element is of vital importance because it is aimed to the identification of changes that can influence the effectiveness of internal controls. Such changes are important, since the controls designed under certain conditions may not work properly in other circumstances.

Aspects that should be considered:

1. existence of mechanisms to anticipate, identify and react to events or routine activities that affect the overall objectives or the objectives at the level of activity.
2 existence of mechanisms to identify and react to the changes that can take effect more dramatic and pervasive on the entity.
• Control activities: are policies and procedures that help ensure that administrative directives are carried out. They help to take the actions necessary to orient the risks to the achievement of the objectives of the entity.
Control activities should be assessed in the context of administrative directives to manage the risks associated with the objectives for each significant activity.
I will be considered if control activities are related to the risk assessment process and if they are appropriate to ensure that the management policies are being met.
• Information and communication: relevant information should identify themselves, captured and communicate information in a form and at a time which allows employees meet their responsibilities. Systems produce reports that contain information of operational, financial and compliance that makes it possible to lead and control the organization. All staff should receive a clear message from senior management of their responsibilities on the control.
The elements that make up this component, are among others:
The information generated internally as well as that which refers to events that occurred abroad, is an integral part of decision-making as well as the monitoring of the operations. Information complies with different purposes at different levels.
or the systems integrated to the structure. The systems are integrated with the operations, however, there is the trend that these should be taken conclusively in the implementation of the strategies.
or integrated operations systems. Are effective means for the implementation of the activities of the entity.
or quality of the information. It is an asset, a medium and up to a competitive advantage in all of the important organizations.
The information, to act as an effective means of control, requires the following features: opportunity, update, fairness and accessibility.
Also should be given an effective communication in a broad sense, flowing down, along, and upward in the organization.
• Monitoring: internal control systems must be monitored, process that assesses the quality of performance of the system over time.
This is done through actions of monitoring ongoing, which consists of continuous and periodic assessment that makes the management of the effectiveness of the design and operation of the internal control structure to determine if she is working according to plan and that is modified when necessary.
Monitoring takes place in the normal course of operations, and includes supervision and address or permanent administration and other activities that are taken to carry out the duties of each employee and obtain the best internal control system.
For a suitable monitoring (ongoing) must take into account the following rules:
• Staff must obtain evidence that internal control is functioning properly.
• If the external information corroborate the information generated internally.
• Must be periodic comparisons of the amounts recorded in the system of accounting information with the physical assets.
• Check if implemented controls recommended by external and internal auditors, or otherwise not have been made.
• If the training seminars, planning sessions or other meetings staff provide feedback to the Administration as soon as that if controls are operating effectively.
• If the staff is questioned periodically to establish if it understands and complies with the code of ethics of legal regulations and if it plays regularly control activities.
• If appropriate, effective and reliable internal audit department activities.

EXTERNAL PARTICIPATION

The participation of external entities consists of the following:
• THE reviewers prosecutors and Auditors: They provide to the Board of Directors, the Board of Directors and management a viewpoint independent and objective contributing to the fulfilment of the objectives of financial reporting among others.
or the Auditors of CONTROL and surveillance: participate through the establishment of governance requirements as well as the direct examination of the Organization's operations making recommendations that it strengthen.

ITEM 12

Creativity in decision making | Definition

Decision making, therefore it is a matter of interest not only for executives and entrepreneurs but for all human beings. Sometimes these decisions will have a great significance and others will merely trivial.
A lecture by Alberto Wilensky, author of books on strategy and marketing, was entitled "Decision making Poker or chess"; This suggestive title subtly refers to that often executives make decisions betting on intuition, like a poker game, and not a serious decision-making process as when a chess Grandmaster made a Masterful move.
As the chess master makes it, the best decision is that considered the logical process of analysis allowing intuition.
Logical analysis is produced through the left hemisphere of our brain, and is the right hemisphere which gives rise to the intuition and creativity.
Several authors have addressed this important issue, although perhaps the most famous of them all was Herbert Simon, 1978 Nobel Prize, with its classical classification of decisions on programs and not. Kenichi Ohmae others have been with its model for decision-making considering the intuition in business, Edward de Bono with his approach to creativity through lateral thinking, Tony Buzan with its contribution "Mind maps", and so many others.
We must not approach decision making without making use of our most powerful tool: the brain. Lacking impulses of the analysis and the scientific process for decision making are very dangerous and lead to costly errors.
The main message is that the founder of IBM Tomas Watson had on his desk: "Think!"
They are many methods suggested for decision-making and is useful to study them, but more importantly, take a while to analyze, and to our right brain hemisphere brings creativity and intuition that will produce the best decision.

What is creativity?

The creative process in management

Here we review some models proposed by authors who have contributed indirectly their training professional is unlike the administrators elements administrative development of the creative ability-oriented.
The common elements that characterize all these models are:
1. the definition of the problem through a series of questions
2. a moment of observation and reflection
3. a process generator of ideas
4. a moment of the action
5. a form of evaluation and control.
As you can see the generation of creative ideas is the result of a maturation process that culminates with the brilliant idea, but with their assessment and factual verification.

Creative management

Some American authors in their empirical search for determinants that define the decision-making process found that the Executive, Manager or director in their daily activities does not strictly all the stages of the administrative process. They also showed that the livelihood of a strategic problem solution alternatives do not follow the path of rationality and the calculability, but heuristics, intuition and creativity.
In this sense, is the research carried out by Henry Mintzberg, where he finds that the administrative process "in the best of cases indicates certain vague objectives managers have when they work".
This study is relevant to rescue some basic ideas that run counter to the stance of the classic administrativistas.
1. the Manager or Executive spends much time talking or negotiating process, by phone.
2. through this activity the Manager obtained a series of data and information on its intraorganizational context your department or office. Informal channels established between employees or those corresponding to another organizational area allow you to reduce the uncertainty in decision making, generating successful actions.
3. the Executive engaged in short time review of your correspondence, only plans some of its activities, usually acting on intuition, relying on their experience and their knowledge of the market.
4. managers focus their time and energy, value the sense of opportunity, enjoy the art of imprecision, and leverage change.
As you can see these features they outline a flexible style in decision-making and a distancing with the administrative process.
Adaptive philosophy proposed by creative management seeks to break the rigid frames suggested by some fashion administrative as the large listings of marketing or the recipes of what an administrator should do to be successful; the formulas of the strategic planning and strategic management, even though they had some successes, they were due to Instrumentation and the qualities of the managers who applied them and not to the method itself.
In short, it seems that in the context of the modernity of the administrators they become agents of change, but sustained in an illogical view of things, where creativity is its main element force. And systematic despair is your tool to manage time.
Under what is explained before we can say that the creative process is a preliminary step in the solution of problems within organizations.
It is a process of maturation of ideas that they will subsequently be possibly resolved under two-way, a creative and racionalizadora. The alternatives of solution will depend on the nature of the problem which faces who take the decision, its affinity to risk (Mac Crimmon and Wehrung, 1986) and all of the factors discussed by the followers of the school of Carnegie.

Why to study decision making?

It is no secret that the globalization of the economy has brought a large number of changes in the majority of countries being affected both at macro and micro level. In Mexico, I leave to protect the entrepreneur, which was forced to compete with producers from abroad, this situation to take decisions different from which were taken before trade liberalization to outperform the competition or at least stay in the market.
Problems in the global economy due to the fall of stock markets, influenced by the Asian tigers or the globalization of the Russian rouble has been in recent days, the same weight was devalued more than 20% what to caused all this? The answer to the question perhaps decisions made by investors.
This need to know decision is because managers now have the need to know aspects as important as the concept of decision, types of decisions, methodology and the decision factors. Since the quality of decisions and putting them into practice properly depends on the success of any company or institution.
We can say that decision-making is the process through which, you choose a course of action with a certain degree of uncertainty, in response to a decision problem; This problem arises, by the discrepancies that exist between such variable conditions of the environment and the goals of the organization.
Herbert Moskowitz and Gordon P. Wright is considered quite complex decision making; due to the influence of different factors such as: the society, environmental political economic and technological, also competitive factors. The same company influences the complexity, since you can set goals inconsistent with the employee; the responsibility and authority for decision making which can be quite diffuse and finally the dynamic and uncertain environment in which the organization operates hinders the normal decision-making process.

These authors include three types of decisions:

Decision-making under certainty: where all the facts are known with security and there is only one result for a decision.
Decisions without prior data or static: they are which are only taken once or there is no past experience.
Decisions using previous data or dynamic: a sequence of decisions interrelated simultaneously or several periods of time taken, the circumstances surrounding the decisions are always the same since it is possible to make use of past experience.
It is necessary to take into account that the decision-making, is an activity that is carried out to be able to solve problems, and that it is not necessary to be a manager of company to develop this feature, below are the activities that are part of the process in the solution of problems:
First: It starts with the identification of problems, i.e. all those activities to identify, define and diagnose problems are developed.
Second: As part of the solution and decision making and after having identified issues, proceeds to carry out those activities that aim to generate alternate solutions.
Third: Is the activities of selection, with which decision making is finished and consists of all the activities that are aimed to evaluate and choose between alternative solutions in relation to the problem or to the specific problems identified.
Fourth: In this final step, they come to, the activities that are aimed to implement the chosen solution.
Since many different methods to arrive at a decision, how can we determine which of them can be used at any given time. Paul E. Moody relates this question with the importance of the decision; because who makes decisions not only should make correct decisions, but they must also do so in a timely manner and with a minimum of cost. The importance of the decision is closely related to the position occupied in the organization who makes the decision. This author considers four factors to assess the importance of the decision:
1 size or duration of the commitment. If the decision involves the commitment of considerable capital or the contribution of a great effort from many people, then it is considered as an important decision, in the same way that the decision will be a great long term impact on the Organization as the relocation of a plant.
2. flexibility of plans: If the decision involves a course of action that is easily reversible then the decision assumes an important meaning. Example the sale of a land that not is being used.
3. certainty of the objectives and policies: If an organization is very volatile and has not established a historical pattern or if the nature of the obligation is such that the actions to follow they depend on a high degree of factors known only by the staff of high-level of the same then decisions take on great importance.
Example it would not be appropriate for financial directors declare the amount of dividends payable, based only on their financial information, since they may not be aware of an outlay of capital, which the CEO wants to make, but that has waited a proper utility that will justify the investment.
4. quantification of variables: when the costs associated with a decision may be defined accurately the decision has one minor importance. Example if you want to choose the method with which a part of the product to manufacture and referred to the time required for each method. But if it relates to the order of the design and manufacturing of a complex product and if the cost and only have an extintivo wide that she is subject to errors, then the decisions assume much greater importance.
Adaptive philosophy proposed by creative management seeks to break the rigid frames suggested by some fashion administrative as the large listings of marketing or the recipes of what an administrator should do to be successful; the formulas of the strategic planning and strategic management, even though they had some successes, they were due to Instrumentation and the qualities of the managers who applied them and not to the method itself.
The creative process is a first step in the solution of problems within organizations. It is a process of maturation of ideas that they will subsequently be possibly resolved under two-way, a creative and racionalizadora. The alternatives of solution will depend on the nature of the problem which faces who take the decision, its affinity to risk (Mac Crimmon and Wehrung, 1986) and all of the factors discussed by the followers of the school of Carnegie.
With respect to the Creative Manager can tell, which is an individual half mad, sane, analytical and with a great capacity to solve problems from a vision that would seem illogical in the eyes of which surround it.
In an innovative way it raises its unorthodox solution, but analyzed once observed that it was the product of his great experience and the knowledge that he has about their field of action. This approach you could condense on two ideas of William Ouchi and Harles H. Travel respectively:
"Emphasis in our technology, in the products we produce and the focus of the business must have innovation and creativity".
"Creativity is a prerequisite for the survival of developed economies and will become even more necessary as time elapses" (Fabian VILLEGAS, 1985).

ITEM 13

Delegation | Definition

Perhaps the first thing that must be very clear about is what exactly the delegation. With very little sincerity is said that it is one of the solutions to lighten the work of a busy executive, but as it is usually done shows that all aspects of the process have not been fully understood. Delegation can be defined as follows:
• Delegate or be delegated; designation or appointment of a person as a delegate or representative. Entrust Authority to a delegate.
• Act of sending someone on Commission.
• Deliver or assign anything or goal to someone
And a delegate is:
• A person sent or a member to act on behalf of or represent another or others; a person who commits authority or power to exercise on behalf of those for which he is appointed; a representative, a Commissioner.
• One or more persons chosen and sent by an association or groups of men to act on their behalf, and in accordance with its instructions, in any conference or meeting that cannot be present throughout the group.
These definitions speak of the authority, but not extreme responsibility, which are inherent to effective delegation.
• RESPONSIBILITY: When is delegated responsibility to a subordinate perform a job, is delegating something is part of the activity of the Organization and it is expected that this person carried out in order to achieve specific results in a particular time, using certain resources.
• AUTHORITY: When delegates authority to a subordinate you this by granting the power to control resources and make changes in their name in order to get the suggested results.
• EXTREME responsibility: you can delegate responsibility and authority, but may not delegate the extreme responsibility. You will share the consequences of the actions of his subordinates. So although he or she receive all the blame should fail or praise where they have brought success, you are who has extreme responsibility for everything you have been able to do.
Members of the delegation that we have mentioned can make you think that the delegation is too risky. So we can ask ourselves: "why that is necessary the delegation?
The main response to this is that the vast majority of managers does not have enough time or energy to carry out everything that falls within its scope of responsibility. It should be delegated or will be so overloaded work that will be less effective as management and less accomplished as a person. If subordinates accept some of the tasks that have been given or that you state doing, will have more time to plan, innovate, interact with other departments, or examine the strategy.
The delegation is required if you want to use the techniques and knowledge of their subordinates to complete. Promotion of its staff is one of his main responsibilities as directors, and the delegation is a way to ensure that this takes place in a controlled manner useful, it is also true teamwork of his Department to improve if people assume responsibilities and contribute usefully to the work of the Department and of the company.

WHICH TASKS MUST BE DELEGATED?

Before delegating a task, should have it very well defined. It can be that you are experiencing something that have happened to you, and unless you understand perfectly what is asked, won't it be to consistently explain to another person. Perhaps you will have to ask the person that I delegate this task to you, but they have to be absolutely sure of what you have to do.
There are a few tasks that cannot be delegated, but others can make them many things of which it is responsible. At this point I guess that sufficient competent persons has available to accept a delegation.
Most personnel tasks have to ask you to intervene at some stage. We have already mentioned the interviews. They are responsibility and duty management, but in a large enterprise cannot be a boss make all this for all its employees.
Failures and disciplinary procedures should also be your responsibility. They should not happen very often because they would become a very heavy burden. They must inform Fund of which are potential problem areas so that, if the issue of hands escapes you, know what is happening. If the problem is not serious, its executives can face it and inform you regularly.
Prepare or advise your staff, especially should inform to you, it is one of his main responsibilities, since the promotion of persons working for you is absolutely crucial for the future progress of your organization.
The remaining tasks are that can be delegated. If you are especially good at something, this is precisely what to delegate. Little won doing yourself, and being competent in this field can pass that knowledge or technique to another person. You will be aware of the dangers, the time required to carry out the task and the resources you need. These tasks are those which expand the capacity of their subordinates and therefore formed part of the development process.

ITEM 14

Organizational development (OD) | Definition

Organizational development is human development. However, the human element we often ignore and put more emphasis on new production methods or quantitative systems that promise to magically increase productivity without the involvement of employees.
Any kind of change in our lives or within the Organization will always bring concerns, so the best is to know adapt and enrumbar towards the best way, in the most appropriate manner and unless problems are generated only they will cause that process do not succeed and therefore a better well-being is not
In many companies, to make decisions of changes, only a couple of boards of administrative staff, are enough to analyze some data presented by experts and announce people from floor, without many formalities or ADO, the new changes that will be implemented. However, experience has shown that this does not work as well.
The true essence and the organizational development process, is deeply humanistic. The process of change begins in the individual, then your environment is your family or work group, and finally takes place at the organizational level. However, usually the processes of organizational change in the industries are conceived and generated at the level of Executive groups and hence cascading down through the hierarchy.
A measure which are going to grow, they are learning new things, that we are adapting to new forms of life, is present a term which is impossible to hide for all of us: change. Organizational development (DO) based their design on this term and how any company should adapt in the best way to not to have any kind of trauma.

Characteristic of organizational development

Just as in our adolescent change of voice or raised a few centimetres more, a company is bound to change its policy or its goals with the employee. The big difference is that the changes described at the beginning of this paragraph were mandatory, natural, in contrast changes in the company are planned to improve the efficiency of it in the long run, through constructive interventions in processes and business structures.

Organizational development course

It is here where many ideas which were the Organization's change and move to the land of DO; no longer working individually, the relations are now group; formerly worked under the parameter autoridad-obediencia, now there is confidence between members of a group; before authority was delegated, there is interdependence and shared responsibility.
Likewise, there was a division of labour and hierarchical supervision, now there is participation and multi-cluster responsibility; before decision was centralized, is now widely shared responsibility and control; before the settlement of disputes was through repression and hostility, now disputes are solved through negotiation.
Organizational culture: change organizations required to change their culture, i.e. systems in which men live and work (beliefs, expectations and values).
Organizational change: the general environment surrounding a company is dynamic and must learn to adapt to the changes which may arise, whether scientific, technological, economic, social, political, transformations, etc., inside or outside companies.
Permanent adaptation and change: all of us, as well as organizations, we are living dynamic systems and therefore we suffer moments of adaptation, adjustment and reorganization. In organizing this change must be planned and not the result of chance.
Organizacion-ambiente interaction: the Organization must constantly adapt to conditions which introduces innovation, with a minimum of time and cost.
Individuo-organizacion interaction: we as human beings, have skills that allow us to change, and the environment of the Organization must be the favourable so we exploited our abilities, satisfying our needs and taking a more active role in the Mission of a company.
Individual and organizational goals: C is based on the idea that you can get that the goals of individuals are integrated with the Organization's objectives.
Organizational development, is an integrated effort of planned change that includes the Organization as a whole

The organizational development process

Collection and analysis of data: is at this time which include techniques and methods to describe the enterprise system and the relationships between its elements and ways of identifying problems and major issues.
Business diagnosis: is mainly directed towards the process of solving problems. It seeks to identify concerns, problems and their consequences, establishing priorities, goals and objectives. At this stage occur plans for its implementation.
Action of intervention: is the last stage in the process of DO, where it is implemented. Selects the most appropriate intervention (group management, feedback data, expansion of cargo) to solve a specific business problem.

ITEM 15

Personal development | Definition

The personal development of itself, implies a self-knowledge, self-esteem, self direction and self-efficacy, which leads to a life of personal well-being, family, labour and social, which aims to achieve a path of transformation and personal excellence to be leaders in the new century. Succeed or to succeed always has been that man has in mind at the beginning of any project or work, this is why the development of the individual has managed to get a transcendental and important position in recent decades, appearing multitude of authors that speak of how to make a being as a whole and complete so that it can carry out with success everything you undertake.
It has been shown that if we care about the quality the activities we do will take place in a climate of trust and communication interacting with less stress; achieving healthy and productive results.
The primary aim of research is to determine the important thing is the personal growth in human beings. Among the most important to be treated are: human potential that is nothing other than the need for auto recovery. Also will discuss auto knowledge, self esteem, the process of recovery, among others.
In addition, the research also seeks to know the steps that must be carried out to achieve a good personal development and in turn get to have a life of quality and success.!
He is expected that the personal perspectives of the reader are exceeded in the course of the development of the research work, and be very useful to the development of their lives.

DEFINITION OF PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT

"It is an experience of individual and group interaction through which subjects who participate in them, develop or optimize skills and skills for open and direct communication, interpersonal relationships and decision making, allowing you to learn a little more about himself and his bandmates, to grow and be more human." (Brito Challa, 1992 human relations. P. 112)
Each individual is called to develop; Since its inception, a set of skills has been given to everyone, like a germ, and qualities to make them bear fruit. Endowed with intelligence and freedom, man is responsible for its development. Man can grow, exercise more, be more human: that is the Supreme purpose of the personal development.

CURRENTS AND APPROACHES TO PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT

HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY OR THIRD FORCE

It is the integration of various theories or approaches, where the center of this integrity is the man himself. Take Existentialism as a philosophy and Phenomenology as a way to interpret behavior, as well as incorporate Freudian concepts and behavioral methods. It is interrogative and eclectic, utilizing theoretical concepts and practical procedures to the extent that is necessary; taking into account the context of the relationship where the conduct occurs, under that man learns of interaction with others, i.e. experience, does not establish rigid patterns, as it allows to take into account the human variability.

EXISTENTIALISM

Appears at the end of the 19th century and begins in the twentieth century, it integrates concepts from theology, philosophy, psychiatry and psychology, in order to understand behavior and the human emotions. It conceives of man as "reality itself."

PHENOMENOLOGY

This is a school of philosophy and psychology; It appears at the end of the nineteenth century and begins in the 20th century. It highlights the human experience as a starting point for any search for the truth. That truth exists as it is perceived by the field of perception of each person and the individual has needs that represent actions necessary to maintain or strengthen their own I phenomenal. The man is basically good, and that can develop their potential and achieve same a reorganization of their perceptions of the world that surrounds it.

CARL ROGERS

Part of Existentialism and phenomenology extends its concepts to different kinds of human relationships, education, psychology and guidance. In terms of personality, Rogers is based on the so-called "Self-theory", or theory of itself, because it gives emphasis to the self concept or concept if same, separates the Behaviorism and Orthodox psychoanalysis, because the first is only interested in observable behavior, and the second does not take into account the individual experiences but interprets them and has a particular and biological vision of man.
For one reach "being what one truly is" requires learning, a car total discovery that occurs internally (subjective).

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

It is a theory of individual and group behavior, is based on the assumption that the individual can learn to know himself, think, if it, make their own decisions and express their feelings authentically.
He argues that the (current) misconduct, can be considered as a result of irrational decisions of childhood. These can be changed, re-decidiendo on them, that the (current) misconduct, come from an inappropriate learning, which can be corrected through an apprenticeship (the A.T. is a learning model).
Also the A.T, holding that each individual has a plan of life or life argument, traced through his childhood unconsciously affecting to deny their autonomy; However, this can be recovered through the redecision and learning.

HUMAN POTENTIAL

"When our attitudes outweigh our abilities, even the impossible is possible." John C Maxwell (2000, p57).
In the last century one of the psychologists began to give importance to human potential and made it clear in its expressions, was Willians Lames, who pointed out: "the average individual uses only a part of the totality of its potential. Compared to what it should be, we are halfway; our firewood is wet, our scheme, restrained: we are using only a part of our mental and physical reserves ¨ (Frank Goble, 1997)
If a person is known and includes himself, understands their own basic needs and their true motivation, so that you can meet those needs, at the same time are trained to understand the other more effectively and interact with them.

SELF-KNOWLEDGE

CONCEPT OF SELF (SELF-ESTEEM)

Many authors have referred to the perception that we have of ourselves in different ways, such as: "Concept itself," "I," "argument of life," "self," "auto image", "self-esteem" "inner world," "image," etc.
However, all agree that each individual possesses a system of ideas, attitudes, values and commitment that will affect, to regulate and to regulate their conduct and attitudes towards life, love, family, couple and all human actions.

NEED FOR SELF-ESTEEM AND FEATURES

The need for self-esteem is described as an inner experience, in which people feel the need to be valuable, worthy of respect and admiration; Therefore, when self-esteem needs are satisfied feelings of self-confidence, auto value, strength, ability and respect increase so that the change in attitude is notorious.

PERSONAL ASSESSMENT PROCESS

It is a continuous process of self knowledge, self concept, self assessment, self acceptance and self respect, in order to improve the communication if itself and with the environment.
This personal assessment process begins before the knowledge of the person, since parents begin to form an idea of the child will be and what this new be means in their lives. These and many other thoughts begin to shape the environment where the person will be developed.

THE PROCESS OF BECOMING A PERSON

Become a person. Rogers argues that this is something provisional and not definitive, that is the product of the observations of experiences shared with their customers. The possibility of finding their own reality (know yourself) can be terrifying and frustrating. Many individuals expect to discover the worst, but there is also a hidden fear in the fact that it can discover the best.
The roles that are taken are related to the concept we have of ourselves. Position or role that we assume is formed from our childhood, through the relationships we establish with the cultural, social and family environment. It is not easy to identify and be aware of the roles that we assume, the roles usually carry messages go to bed or undercover can be transmitted not only verbally but facial expressions, body postures, tone of voice and gestures.

ROLES TO BE ASSUMED

ACCUSER - RECRIMINADOR ROLE
Attitudes: Hostile, aggressive, dominant and uncompromising. It does not accept that another may be different or better than him. Does not take into account the other. It devalues it, and thus, expected to feel important.
Basic sentiment: Anger / fear.
Operation itself: don't know your needs. It has no contact yes same, nor does it with others. Repeat behaviour of key figures in the past; probably parents authoritarian, punishments and desvalorizadotes; He has developed defensive mechanisms very offensive to others, using a threatening tone and assaulting physically or verbally to others. His attitude reflects impairment of itself and the fear of rejection.
ROLE OF CONCILIATOR - SUPPLICANT
Attitudes: Passive, complains, he lays blame, it devalues himself. Not taken into account and gives too much importance to the other.
Basic sentiment: Fear.
Operation of itself: denies their needs, does not take them into account. Do not trust your capabilities. Relate through pity, he assumes the position of victim. You can't put limits on others and fears that they leave it or leave it. Feeling weak, he hopes to be able to control and dominate others, it causes shame.
SUPER REASONABLE ROLE - COMPUTER
Attitudes: It is cold, distant and calculating. It is intellectual, logical and reasonable. It is rigid and uncompromising, it always believed to be right.
Basic sentiment: Fear.
Operation of itself: Evade their feelings and avoid contact with itself. He denies his own needs. Isolated and avoid depressed or get excited. Does not take into account their feelings and those of others. Appears as a very controlled person, that knows it and disqualifies another.
IRRELEVANT ROLE - IMPERTINENT
Attitudes: Confuse, absent-minded, irresponsible, inappropriate, in time, never out of place. Nothing seems to care.
Basic sentiment: Anger - fear.
Operation of itself: has No conscience in the form of your needs. You lack location and rooting. Lives permanently bonds of acceptance and rejection. It is identified with the destitute, persecuted and marginalized, because he feels so.
ROLE CONGRUENT - SLIMMING
Attitudes: Responsible, consistent, creative, proactive, with high achievement motivation. He expresses what he feels, he is in touch with their needs and those of the others. It does not protect, interfere or block. It is direct, competent.
Operation of itself: is clear and aware of their needs. It seeks to use its own resources to meet them; that is, that it does not expect others to do things for him. It expresses and says that thinks, feels and wants to establish an open and clear communication. It places limits on the other. He cares and wants to himself. Responsible for the consequences of their actions.
PERSONAL EXCELLENCE
Personal excellence is defined as a path, a mental attitude and a position towards life, where the human being feels capable and always looking for the best.
In other words, it can be defined as the way in which the individual makes things developing full potential as possible, without wasting time in search for excuses or reasons to demonstrate that something can be.
Miguel Angel Cornejo, all the secrets of excellence, (1999) "... "The only way to stop achieve convert our wealth potential in real is precisely through the hard work and quality."
CONCEPT
All individuals who become aware of what is, feels, thinks, makes, wants to, and is in a giving account itself, and what surrounds him; What matters is being and should not be, this involves the self concept and self esteem.
SELF-ESTEEM
"It's dignity and ability. Rating itself, is the only way to attract the assessment of others. No one can understand you, love or value yourself more than you. Who does not believe in itself does not deserve to succeed." Suryavan Solar (2002, p183).
HOMING
The auto address involves being clear in relation to the goals and objectives to be achieved, refusing in a high degree of performance and planning actions will be carried out, resisting to the difficulties, auto evaluated to understand what is useful or not, thus, is self regulates the conduct and, therefore, learn from the experience beginning a new cycle, thinking with vision for the future.
AUTOEFICIENCIA
The individual must be able to use well and timely the skills, integrating them to achieve the desired goal, thus leading to high performance. The performance is productive, when in addition to having the ability, we are confident and we believe have the capacity and necessary safety stop to achieve self-efficacy; It is imperative to be consistent in the three previous steps; i.e., self-knowledge, self-esteem and self-management, since people that little feed his self-confidence leave their goals when they encounter the first obstacles or barriers.
Personal development, is not more than a process that begins when we abandon the false facades, masks or roles with which we have faced life, fully experience our feelings and make the discovery of itself on the experience.
Between currents and approaches mentioned psychology humanistic or third force resulting from the integration of several theories or approaches, where integrity is the man; Existentialism says that it integrates concepts from theology, philosophy Psychiatry and psychology, in order to understand behavior and human emotions.
Human potential is nothing more than to realize the potential and attitudes that each one of us have to exploit it and put it into action; self-esteem is the perception that we have of ourselves.
Also spoke of the process that we must pass to become successful people, among which engages the self-image, self-esteem, self-worth and self-respect for themselves, among others.
Finally, the most important aspect that every human being must feed, protect, care for, improve and grow, Yes; that is our inner person. For that it is necessary to embark on a path of true and optimal personal growth and accomplishment.

16 ITEM

Empathy | Definition

"Walk awhile with my shoes"
Indian proverb.
This time we will talk of "Empathy", which is not anything else but "the skill that has an individual infer thoughts and feelings of others, which creates feelings of sympathy, understanding and tenderness".
Many disciplines have been considered a very important and relevant phenomenon including psychology assigned, a cultural mediator role, to assess the social conduct. It has been a subject of interest both for clinical psychology such as educational, social and personality.
Some doctrinaire define it as cognitive ability, which is inherent in an individual, taking the perspective of the other or to understand some of its structures in the world, without necessarily adopt this same perspective, is placed in the shoes of another and although don't think just like they know or understand what they feel knowing that each individual possesses an own script. For others the empathy is empirical, it is as an experience from the emotions of others through the perspectives taken from these and sympathy, defined as an emotional component of empathy.
In summary we can say that it is not another thing but the ability to be aware of, recognize, understand and appreciate the feelings of others". In other words, being empathic is the be able to 'read' emotionally to the people.
Empathy is linked with other skills or important behavior capabilities which include: quality of relationship, developing moral, aggressiveness and altruism. Also includes an emotional response directed towards another person according to the perception and assessment of the well-being of this and a range of empathetic feelings as we've previously said sympathy, compassion and tenderness.
Scholars in the field have established that there can be an empathy that encompasses answers with affective and cognitive patterns. Consequently this resulting in two distinctions: "cognitive empathy", is an understanding of the internal state from another person, "emotional empathy" (or emotional), which involves an emotional reaction by the individual who observes the experiences of others and is placed in the same place.
For the purposes of a better understanding of the concept given above, it is necessary to distinguish between capacity and empathic tendency.
A capacity, is characteristic of each individual who has the ability to connect with mental activities, can take the perspective of others or attend their own internal States... Theories that relate to the development of empathy in children, by establishing that virtually from birth, the infant is able to experience a State of personal grief in response to the distress of others, even of their mother when they are in the womb have been established. However the child's cognitive skills develop with age, as well as the feelings of sympathy and the taking of roles, but at the same time decrease the ability of personal grief. Finally we will grow, we lose that ability we possess innate way of placing us in the place of others.
The functions of empathy range from motivation, which amplifies or intensifies the motivation to alleviate the need for another person. Information about the extent to which one values the welfare of other people and want to alleviate your need.
There is a relationship between "Being" and "Empathy" since people are predisposed to empathize with those who consider similar or goals similar to theirs, that found such similarity as a result of their interaction, understanding this relationship can lead us to understand why increasing empathy in certain situations in comparison with others , as for example: increases when the person experiences distress; motivating to give either a selfish help or aid to reduce the own anguish and affection empathetic support altruistic or aid designed to reduce the distress of others. The personal anguish increases if one of the subjects involved in the process empathetic has self - discrepancy (negative affective States), however, the affection empathetic only increases if the subject shares the emotional vulnerability of the other person. One of the subjects experienced the anguish of another, occurs when empathy and altruistic behaviors since this anguish revives. The relationship between self-shared States and the emotional effects of empathy might lead us to understand the interpersonal motivation.
People who orient their attention on understanding the feelings of others and emotionally engage with them, experience an empathetic interest and offer more help than those who focus on the processes of thought. It is likely that a person experiencing empathy on the other hand, reacts in altruistic, however, does not always occur in this way. Could this be due to that there are situational factors such as the presence of third parties, ambiguous situations, etc; That it will promote or inhibit the altruistic behavior. The highest relationship between empathy and altruism occurs when there is a relationship between people and one of them needs help.
Within the empathy we can see that many times it may be that we experience this feeling of understanding others but is showing us other circumstances that can lead to that despite the empathetic feeling, I Act selfish reasons since we see the cost of support and in this case we are faced with a conflict of interest between the own well-being and that of others therefore within our society even when people experience this feeling does not behave as such, because that struggle of interests that arise. Since the high cost of aid diverted attention to consider others.
Empathy must be presented in pairs, where each member tries to infer accurately thoughts and feelings of the other. Since then this inference relation a proportional to the kind of relationship of couples, it is necessary that they are based on sincerity, ability of communication and overall performance of these when couples resolve conflicts in a direct and open way, achieved a better diagnosis of the situation and tend to develop more understanding of feelings and thoughts in their discussions.
The relationship between empathy and quality of relationships are mostly positive, if confronted topics are more mundane, less conflict and less threatening to the relationship; and the relationship could be negative if the content of the confrontation is more important, more confrontational and more threatening.
Also considers that personal knowledge about the other increases empathy, so it would be more in friends than strangers. The physical attractiveness would also be a factor to consider.
Empathy is an affective response - cognitive in virtue that is activated by the State of need of another person and its intensity is related to the speed and intensity of the subsequent aid, which also depends on the information about the thoughts and feelings of the other and how much we value the well-being of these. Empathy is important because repecute largely on the Repertoire of social behaviors, such as relationship of couple, friendship, aggression, altruistic behavior and attitude toward strangers.
Empathy is mostly driven by an altruistic desire to relieve the State of necessity that is a person and not only such as they have established some specialists the selfish desire to improve our own State of sadness or distress that could lead to perceiving someone in need.
We tend more to empathize with strangers than friends because there is a greater exchange of information with the first and also because of the stored information that makes these. This would allow more quickly and accurately infer thoughts and feelings of the other making it easier to interpret situations in which must be empathetic.
He is considered that it is a subjective, since it is dependent on the individual manifesting the given characteristics of perception and cognitive phenomenon involves not only the acquisition of immediate information of the environment, but it plays an important role the information obtained through previous experiences and the relationship that is established between the two.
Empathy is key within the progress of new sciences that have sprung up in the contemporary period between this "Emotional intelligence" considering it as a characteristic feature of successful relationships. It is something like our social conscience, because through it you can appreciate the feelings and needs of others, giving rise to the emotional warmth, commitment, affection and sensitivity. We can highlight it their importance in different aspects, among them: from the social point of view. A failure in our empathic ability is the result of an emotional deafness, and as a result, failures in our ability are evident to interpret adequately the needs of others, those that underlie the express people's feelings. Why empathy is something like a social compass, allowing us to navigate wisely in the sea of our relations. We must pay attention to do no wrong course and arrive at our best roads.
Empathy allows us to see situations through the windows of others. Many times we think we understand others, but it is not so; Since we simply observed surface form. The worst happens when we confront its position with ours and we cannot "see" more beyond our own perspective and the seemingly "obvious". Posture, tone or intensity of voice, the look, a gesture and even the same silence, all are carriers of great information, which is always there, to be decoded and give the proper interpretation. In fact, we cannot read minds, but there are many subtle signs, sometimes "invisible" in appearance, which we must learn to "read". These are all mechanisms that allow us to enter in contact with each other and in some other way or understand what they are feeling in a particular situation. Some of the features that presents an empathetic individual can be ability to read situations as they take place, adjusting to them as they need it; knowing that a situation is not static, they profit from the feedback, whenever they know that ignore various signals receiving can be harmful in their relationship. They have a good ability to listen, right to read "tracks" non-verbal; knows when to speak and when not, all of which pave you the way to influence and regulate in a constructive way the emotions of others, thus benefiting their interpersonal relationships. They can be good negotiators, facing a scenario where all parties win.
Persons who do not possess the skills mentioned above have difficulties to "read" and interpret correctly the emotions of others, can't hear, and are often inefficient reading non-verbal signals, reason by which can demonstrate a social blunder, to appear as subjects cold and insensitive. This is derived from the principle that insensitivity to the emotions of others undermines interpersonal relations. Individuals who manifest inability empathic can't read their social radar, why that sometimes inadvertently damage the emotional intimacy of those who try, because to not validate the feelings and emotions of the other, this feels upset, hurt or ignored, bringing a failure in their interpersonal relationships. Any type of relationship, amical, marital, family or work, may be affected by this ability. In fact, different investigations show that it is a skill essential in many occupations, especially in those that have to do with the deal to the public, sales, public relations, human resources and administration, to name a few.
The truth is that their applications may be different, in the formation of leaders, in studies of identification of organizational needs and/or market, organizational consulting, psychotherapy, medicine, among others. In all these is a crucial skill for achieving excellence. From other shoes when we talk about empathy does not necessarily mean agreeing with each other, leaving aside our own convictions and assume as their own from the other. On the contrary, it is a skill which can be in full disagreement with someone, yet still be empathetic and respect their position, accepting as legitimate their own motivations. Through the reading of the needs of others, we can adjust our actions and whenever we proceed with sincere interest that will have an impact for the benefit of our personal relationships. But this is something which must be vigilant at all times, because what works with one person doesn't necessarily work for another, or indeed, at a time works with a person may not serve on other. Empathy is a subtle weapon in our relationships we can use self-serving and others, who are not to destroy but to make bloom profitable relations in areas of our growth as human beings.
We must perform a self-analysis and take into account that whenever we approach people we expect of them attention and understanding but how many times is it the us, amid all our haste and concerns become selfish and forget that others also have something important to tell us, here is where you can find another large values that has empathy when it helps us to recover the interest in people who us rodena and to consolidate the relationship we have with every one of them.
The reality that surrounds the empathy is not be the product of the good humor that we wake up, as neither of the affection that unites us to the people. If this combination is common, we would always be available to listen to others and would momentarily leave our occupations, thoughts and concerns to cater to those who surround us, rarely or almost never the circumstances are so favourable, therefore we must take into account that it is a value that is usually lived, and which is independent of our State of mood or interior layout. For the purposes of being empathic must overcome certain obstacles as: fatigue, bad humor, headache and the concerns in the work and study. At home it is noticeable when parents pay little attention to the "small" problems or joys of his children, with your attitude - and often unintentionally - seek to avoid this hassle and tactlessness to withdraw into themselves; as the couple when some sight words, gestures or guttural sounds in response; When we have so many problems, and what we least want is to hear how well or how bad that happens to others. We must not be carried away by our spirit and remain stubborn in our world, so behaving uncaring and unkind to others, want to be understood without understanding the other. Therefore, empathy means generosity and genuine understanding: to forget ourselves and make the effort to consider the issues and feelings that others want to participate we. We must not establish differences between people, and be energetic and take it as an attitude of our personality always open and willing to understand the needs of others.
The empathy gives us an endless possibilities, first toward our fellowmen, who seek with whom to share and trust concerns, joys, triumphs and failures, be heard and understood. In this way we have an unbeatable opportunity to ensure the well-being, development and improvement of the people, which expresses the deep respect we owe them. The main advantage of empathy is that it allows us a better relationship with the people who surround us, through the daily deal, we are able to improve family, obtaining greater collaboration and understanding between all; with the partner relationship is becoming more stable and cheerful; with friends, it ensures a lasting friendship; with the known opens the possibility to new friendships; in the company helps achieve higher productivity to interested employees and partners; the school gets better performance by the relationship that it has with students and among themselves.
The leaders of excellence must possess this ability since it is a great collaborator in the ability to motivate and positively manage people; teach to have that interest in others and live it, is the best way to convey leadership. The value of empathy to live is something simple if we stop to think a little in others as a result, we will learn to act favorably in all circumstances. Therefore we must be aware and take care of the small details that will reaffirm this value tips to be EMPATHETIC smile always, this creates an atmosphere of confidence and cordiality. Manifest serenity and lost as you disarm to the most exalted.
First considered how important the Affairs of others and then own. After hearing, the person who has approached you surely will have the ability to understand your situation and mood, so it will be willing to help you. Prevents premature on people judge because that will cause a change in your interior layout (don't think: "and get this annoying", "again with the same", "Let me in peace", "other interruption") if someone is approaching you, is because you need with whom to speak... Do not disappoint them. If you don't have time or it is a bad time, express it with courtesy and gentleness with assertiveness, however, don't spend much time to chat with the person. Learn to listen, to avoid show hurry, boredom, fatigue, give clear-cut answers or distracted with other things; In addition to being a lack of respect, you can self-control and show interest in people.
It infuses mood with words, a pat on the shoulder or a gesture friendly, especially if you have problems. Finally we can say that empathy is a necessary value in all our life roles, since without it, it is quite difficult to establish lasting interpersonal relationships, we should worry every day to cultivate this value, for the benefit of others and own, when we cultivate it brings others such as trust, friendship, understanding, generosity, respect and communication. We try to do so even if modern life in many opportunities not permitted by us due to the haste in which we live.
"Three-quarters of the miseries and bad understood in the world would end if people were put in the shoes of his adversaries and understood their point of view" Mahatma Gandhi

ITEM 17

Empowerment | Definition

The need of Empowerment comes in a productive medium-sized company, where Mr. Marvin Pitts was the protagonist in his effort to take the company to be one of the most productive and increase these feelings of triumph in the minds of employees, logically difficult task for which it has no bases of how you should act to make employees feel empowered to make decisions and contribute ideas that improve continuously.
Marvin had been in charge of the General management and had acquired good reputation in this post, which led him to believe that "the lack of leadership at the top was generally the cause of the problems of a company" and, incidentally also noticed that "mode of thinking that you have success in the past is not that will take you to success in the future".
A business consultant did a study that determined that the business world had changed so rapidly that a Manager no longer could think at all by itself only. The Board of Directors had insisted to Marvin so he hired the consultant, but as Marvin is the person who doesn't like asking for help, but, in cases extreme Bacillus before doing so until he decided to, surprise it took when he discovered that the consultant was not more than a woman, felt disappointed worse had no other way to move forward.
The Manager giving powers was the Lady Sandy Fitzwilliam, Manager of a manufacturing company and distributor of textiles, this Manager had an extraordinary success, empowering their staff. Marvin explains you to Sandy that had modernized the company, worse employees refused to take initiative. Sandy by means of examples explained you that the fault is not employees, but the manager not to anything so that employees feel like owners of the business.
At the same time explain you that empowerment is not giving power to the people, people already have enough power for their knowledge, we empower to make employees release that power. "Empowerment carries with it a basic sense of ownership" and begins with the belief system of senior management. Most of the companies are organized to catch people doing things as wrong, not to reward her for doing things right.
Empower is a question that starts from the top and is driven by values, unless empowerment starts at the Summit does not go to any part.
The function of a manager who grants faculties consists of coordinating efforts, acquire resources, make strategic planning, working with customers, train staff and things like that. Everything is heading to help employees become more efficient.

A company must be:

1-oriented customers
The sophistication of today's consumers and the variety of products available, any little sensitive organization to the wishes and needs of customers, was considered to be second class and destined to disappear from the world of business.
2. efficient in cost
Costs along with terrible battles of price increases, have forced many companies to cut their margins to a fraction of what it had been before and having to do a lot more with a lot less to be able to survive.
3. fast and flexible
In what it takes to climb up and down the decision-making hierarchies, the customer gets tired and goes. The customer is not interested who is the Manager, only that resolve you the problem, and while less time and employees involved better.
4 continuously improve
Everyone in the company must accept the fact that the company is today better than yesterday and tomorrow better than today. Empowered employees make a company better and route to permanent and continuous improvements.
Sandy told Marvin that they would wage a long journey to the country of faculties where mainly learn with colleagues (employees) of your company that were already empowered.
In the billing department I speak with Mr Robert Borders, the young explained it to Marvin that empower takes its time, because requests employees to accept something they do not know, do not have experience and much less has been granted powers. But then owners feel and feel empowered.

1. the first key is to share information with all

Old hierarchical Chief subordinate organizations are not very useful in commercial organisations, all depends on teamwork.
When information is retained throughout the world starts to do all kinds of thinking and guesses, and conversely there is no better way to show you that if you have confidence, who share with them sensitive information, "those without information can not act with responsibility, those who have information are forced to act in a responsible manner." The second person with whom I speak Marvin was Lady Jane Wo, the production area.

2. the second key is to create autonomy through borders.

This means that individuals have to learn new ways of working and thinking together. An analogy of this is times of trucks of horses a farmer missed the reins the neck of the animal and left that this would lead to his house. This was good because the horse knew the way. But one thing I was not towards when it undertook a journey along a new path.
This means that without rules that guide employees return to fall into their old habits when they are not entitled. The borders have the ability to channel the energy in a particular direction.
Areas of borders which create autonomy
• Purpose in business is you?
• Values what are their operational guides?
• What is your vision of the future?
• Goals what, when, where, and as you do what it does?
• Roles who makes every thing?
• Organizational structure and systems how you support what you want to do?
All the above mentioned structures cannot be created at the same time, they must make them insofar as they will need.
Companies must draw a compelling vision that must be created by senior management. A compelling vision includes the first three areas of borders of the above-mentioned list, since these Captivate emotionally or intellectually to the members of the Organization and crystallizes their needs, desires, values and beliefs. How to create a compelling vision to paint a picture of the future.
Create autonomy through borders
• Is based on information sharing
• Clarifies the vision
• Helps to translate the vision into roles and goals
• Defines values and rules that support the desired actions
• Develops structures and procedures that empower people
• Remind us that you it's a journey.
With the third person that Marvin speak was with Billy Abrams service customer.

3. the third key is to replace the hierarchy with self-directed teams.

A self-directed team has a group of employees that is responsible for a whole process of product. They plan to run and directed work from the beginning to the end.
Empowerment comes from teach other things they can do to depend less than us.
Replace the hierarchy with self-directed teams:
• Empowered teams can do rather than empowered individuals.
• Employees don't start knowing how to work in a team
• The insastifacion is a natural step in the process
• All must be trained in computer skills
• Commitment and support should come from the Summit
• Teams with information and skill can replace the old hierarchy.
Empowerment in the dispatch Department.
Give people information to act then expect to make the magic happen. Once information is shared and begins to develop the confidence, high standards can be established. One can speak of closing the gaps between what is happening today from the point of view of costs, utilities and others, and or it is possible tomorrow, and makes sense for everyone.
All "mistake" is an opportunity to increase performance. People not can innovate while this occupied trying to protect themselves. On the other hand, the permission to take risks, to make mistakes and to question the way how the things in the past, have been doing gives employees freedom to learn and to use their talent.
The new borders would help all learn to act with responsibility and autonomy. Being empowered means that one has the freedom to act; It also means that one is responsible for another.
Operational rules
• Putting customers first and foremost.
• Show the financial interests of the company.
• Be flexible to make quality decisions.
• Keep others in the company informed.
Benefits of self-directed teams
• Increased satisfaction in employment.
• Change in attitude of having to do a thing to want to do it.
• Greater involvement of employees.
• Greater communication between employees and managers.
• More efficient decision-making process.
• Improved quality.
• Reduced operating costs.
• A more profitable organization.
The game of empowerment plan
• Share information on the performance of the company; Help employees understand the business.
• Build confidence by sharing information.
• Establish possibilities of self-control.
• See mistakes as opportunities to learn.
• Finish with mindset hierarchical; Help employees to behave as the owner.
Create autonomy through borders.
• Clarify the big picture and the small pictures.
• Clarify goals and panels.
• Define values and rules that underpin the actions.
• Create rules and procedures that support the faculties.
• Provide the necessary training.
• Hold employees accountable for results.
Replace her old hierarchy with self-directed teams.
• Providing information and training in skills for empowered teams.
• Provide livelihoods and stimuli for change.
• Use diversity as an asset of a team.
• Gradually give control to the teams.
• Recognize that it will have some tough times.

18 ITEM

Empowerment and women's leadership | Definition

The empowermnet and women's leadership is vital for countries to achieve economic and social balance. The absence of data is not a limiting factor for this assertion, but if to have accurate information.
The nature of "Empowerment" events, are very important so that women are aware that they are not alone in their struggle for better conditions.
The available data allows us to assert that gender equity and the increase in the participation of women in the areas of labour, social and political is a prerequisite to begin the long and arduous road that transport us to minimize the levels of poverty, which in many cases is the result of ignorance, partly product of discrimination and gender inequality.
To achieve the objective the governmental responsibility is only 50%; the other 50% is obligation to society. Both sectors should be conexamente involved in the change process.
These changes must be in two lines:
Structural: They involve changes in existing legal and economic structures. Achieve this objective lies primarily in different areas of the Government sector, i.e. in the political will of the Executive, legislative and judicial power;.
Cultural: They involve changes in public perception. Achieve this goal lies primarily with civil society, i.e. the social communicators, publicitas, professors, doctors, companies and society in general.
In both cases you must originate in an inner attitude of men and women determined to fight for change and make it.
We are all aware of the need for reforms at the level of governmental and legislative in the countries of the hemisphere, so that women can be a more decisive force in social development and therefore economic growth.
However, based on the equation of the 50-50 we we can not ignore is the participation of men and women to the same binding.
We are often the same parents, educators, programs of television, commercials, songs and other so many realities of day to day who perpetuate patterns and values in the consciousness of our children. In this tenor is us made obvious that the above equation has not manifested itself as the place: "half and half".
The integration of the different sectors (Government and society) and the convergence of these using channels of "two-way communication" is the most feasible and expedient way to reach commitments by both parties. As a tangible product would emerge the execution of programs, constitutional changes and enforceable laws.
At the same time, the responsibilities of citizens were strengthened.
Today we have a significant and growing number of women in public positions. We have pointed out on other occasions studies of the United Nations, which point out that the number of women who hold legislative positions in emerging countries rather than increase has declined in recent years.
The rate of female empowermnet, internationally known for its acronym in English GEM, is still a relatively crude indicator since it cannot measure intangibles like social pressure that impedes, obstructs and even prevents the lawful exercise of the rights of women. More importantly, this index can not capture significant aspects of the position of women in their home and community, especially in rural areas, where activities that plays are unpaid or informal sector of the economy.
The anonymity and privacy of the sphere in which many women spend their lives relieved seconds planes is very worrying. His contribution to the companies and institutions to which they belong are so ignored, as contributions to his country. It is also significant considering that the local representation of women in the Government is an indicator of the idiosyncrasy of the country, reflecting in positive or negative way in social development and economic growth. It is not to have more or less women in public positions. It's work that the gender perspective is taken into account and it does not shine directly on structural and consequently cultural changes.
Managerial and executive performance of women perhaps translates small salaries, but great progress for the country.
What is crucial is not get certain per cent of representative positions in the political and economic arena, but to provide equity options among men and women. The exclusion may be caused by structural barriers preventing women access to these arenas. Or they may be the result of the choice of both men and women about their desire for social roles. This is an issue that the people of each country must define on their societies.

19 ITEM

Intelligent Enterprise | Definition

Since a few years ago and due to the challenges that have that face companies (situation of continuous change, globalization, greater national and international competitiveness) is has been proposing the necessity to implement not only continuous, if not rather constant changes adaptation to environments in a permanent state of imbalance.
The old concept of business strategy has evolved, and is as well as a relatively static model, based primarily on a formal planning, top to bottom, we pass to another completely different and emerging, which has been adapted, in a precise way to certain uncertainties (technology, innovation, different types of markets, etc.).
It is as well as the analysis of the resources of the enterprise (knowledge and human capital) acquires more relevance that already possesses, resources that the company must acquire to improve not only their competitive position, if not also the measures and actions that tend take to support them and improve them already that otherwise these tenderian towards deterioration and wear.

What is the Intelligent Enterprise?

A smart company is that company:
"In which each of its employees, at all levels, has a clear definition of its VISION and mission and, through them, it is able to maintain over time."
"Which adapts to the changes which require amendments to the circumstances and getting people that constitutes it a permanent desire to overcome, because it makes learning its way of being, generating new knowledge".
A smart company is built mainly with the quality of its human resources.
This calls for some employees to assume the role of being transformational leaders, becoming capable of not only people train their subordinates, if not also who is able to delegate to them certain activities, always orienting the results based on the objectives of the company, learning to work as a team through effective communication, and assuming that this learning is a continuous and creative activity of the human components of the company , and which must be transformed continuously in response to the needs of the same individuals that make it up and also the same company or organization and other individuals with whom it relates (clients, suppliers, social groups, etc.).
You have to make it very clear that any company that decides to approach this process must undergo a qualitative change, for this way can design and execute the emerging strategy model, which is needed to create or modify the company's vision, and therefore its mission.

What are the characteristics of an "Intelligent Enterprise"?

• Definition and statement of:
or Vision: it involved the values that the company wants to hold and must be transmitted and shared by all members of the organization.
or mission: is the set of strategies and tactics to make the Vision a reality.
or have a commitment to the values that sustain it.
• Proper use of human resources, taking into account the learning capacity of people in all and each one of the levels of the organization.
• Openness to lifelong learning.
• Capacity:
or overcome difficulties.
or recognize threats and seize new opportunities.
or make efficient decisions.
or learn together
or teamwork: "Learning to learn in group".
• What you want to be
• How you want to be
• Where you want to go.

How a company can face the accelerated changes of sociales-politicos - economic that surround us?

These changes demand constant and rapid adjustments.
Our great strength should be clinging to be flexible enough to abandon old paradigms and adapt ourselves to new schemes.
"The ability to learn faster than the competitors may be the only sustainable competitive advantage." (Arie Geus)
This is the cornerstone of a smart company.

How can achieved be a smart company?

Just only to achieve smart organizations should not keep them. For this reason, systems thinking tools are used.
Systems thinking is a point of observation and a set of reflective skills; a method of learning that includes processes, language, and technology.
Four routes are opened to initiate and achieve this transformation process.
1. the internal regulations of the company should commit it to develop, maintain, facilitate, and use human capabilities essential for all those linked to the company, as much as possible.
2. by means of training and education, extend the essential human capabilities including the skills, knowledge, understanding and attitudes to understand the needs of others and to be able to work with them.
3. using training and development, form a whole with all these resources so that they become skills useful for the company and for their competitiveness.
4. develop new principles and analysis in depth to put into practice the foregoing more productive and human
Peter Senge, author of the book "The fifth discipline" which says:
"A smart company is one that is organized in a manner consistent with human nature..."
This author also indicates to this happening five types of competencies should be developed:
• Quality of judgment. We must think of the organizations and their environments as systems in which there are connections so that action in one part affects the system as a whole. It allows us the long-term vision and see everyone and non-parties.
• Personal domain. It is the competition to clarify and deepen the personal vision, capturing reality more clearly, to see relationships rather than isolated resources and guidelines or structure rather than isolated events.
• Manage mental models. Out our internal visions of the world, how it works, once on the surface, subjecting them to scrutiny. It requires the practice of the conversation that balances the inquiry of the positions of others and defend ours, i.e. expose our thinking and be open to others.
• Harmonize personal visions. It is leadership to build a vision shared by all the company. The visions are always personal and so have to be harmonized by those who lead, not by means of the "command and control" but because all the company wants it.
• Learning teamwork. The smart teams are formed by intelligent people. The group work can not must crush the individual.
To develop and implement all of the above, the company may need the help of a facilitator so then these changes can be assumed by the company.

20 ITEM

Work equipment | Definition

Culture refers to the values, beliefs and principles that constitute the Foundation of the management system of an organization.
The cultural perspective has focused on the core values, beliefs and assumptions that are present in the organizations, behavior patterns that result from these meanings or shared purposes and symbols that express linkages between assumptions, values and conduct for members of an organization.
The culture of an organization is its "usual and traditional thinking and doing things, shared to a greater or lesser degree all members and that they must learn their new members and accept at least in part, in order to be accepted into the service of firm". In this sense, culture covers a wide range of behavior: the methods of production, skills and know-how of work, attitudes toward discipline and punishment, customs and habits of behavior management, the objectives of the company, its way of doing business, payment methods, the values that are given to different types of work the convictions with respect to joint consultation, democratic life and less conscious taboos and convictions. The culture is innate part for those who have been with the institution for some time. Ignorance of the culture points to newcomers, while poorly adapted members are recognized as those who reject or otherwise are unable to use the culture of the institution, make relationships required to assume functions within a social structure; the quality of these relations is governed by the degree to which interested individuals have absorbed the culture of the Organization to be able to act within the same general code.
The culture of the organization consists of media or techniques that are available to the individual to manage their relationships and which depends on their way between and with the other members and groups.
The roots of the culture in organizations include the symbolic interactive perspective, both a social and anthropological approach. The cultural reality is socially constructed and social interaction takes place through the exchange of symbols that have a sense of shared a set of social actors.
From this perspective, myths, archetypes and the histories and ideologies are often as useful to explain the behavior of people like features more objective organizations because they have and enunciating clearly the identity of the members of the organization.
Members of a work team also have their standards, beliefs and values, the culture of a team includes traditions precedents and practices established since long ago have become accustomed means of interact. These are the rules and guidelines that say how members participate, and do and what not to do when tasks arise to solve.

Formation and development of work teams

A team is a social entity highly organized and oriented towards the achievement of a common task. Comprises it a small number of people who embrace and Exchange roles and functions with flexibility, in accordance with a procedure, and have abilities to manage its process affective partner in a climate of respect and trust.
The team, involves the dynamic formation of its members channelled in a task and the achievement of objectives and personal satisfactions openly recognized, which favors an authentic interpersonal relationship.
To make effective teamwork, each of its members must be aware of the underlying motivations of others and wish that other members worry about the objectives of the team. This should work together in solving problems studied and defined each other rather than predetermined solutions.

Development of work teams

In the development of work teams are generated stages of ripening process that starts with the unit, continues with the contradependencia, leads people to independence and ultimately integrates them through interdependence.

Stage of dependence

The first stage to undertake by the members of the team is the acceptance of his experience of being dependent on the formal authority, it says the name "hierarchical dependency", traditionally used in organizations.
The State of dependency is characterized by uncertainty and anxiety of the people to ignorance of the objectives and expectations of the formal leader, who assumes, by its endowment of power, the Organization and the direction of the life of the group.
The behavior of the team is geared towards demanding clear instructions of what to do, how to do it. The consequences of a situation as well is not expected, namely: the lack of collaboration and dissatisfaction, which have an impact on productivity. If the formal leader has the sensitivity needed to identify the negative effects which will produce this state of affairs on the results of the institution, he will seek a change, but when it is not wanted an external person who helps the team and establish their fears.

Contradependencia stage

This is the stage of the maturation process that requires more openness and availability by leaders and supervisors, since the members of the group will begin to express not only their views regarding the work, but it expressed moods more and more naturally and will address their needs or non-conformities with less fear.
The leader must use his ability to listen to the views of others, dialogue with them in order to clarify possible differences and negotiate the terms of one larger commitment, from the distinction between needs and desires, both the institution and the individuals.
This stage is characterized by contradictions through which the group looking for their identity and the roots of its commitment to the institution. Thus promotes the sense of social responsibility management.

Stage of independence

The team feels relaxed and seemingly cohesive. This distension symptom is search typical unanimity or consensus in decision-making, as if the expression of disagreement put again questioned the basic Pact of independence.
At this stage the members of the team question is about the implications of their integration.
Once more the team seeks, amid confusion and opposing opinions, what is the level of genuine participation that allow at the same time cooperate and not lose individuality. When this is possible the team achieved a complete communication.

Stage of interdependence

At this stage the members of the team is acutely aware of the capacity of each members skills available, and of acceptance of himself and others with all its possibilities and limitations.
Given their interdependence, the team is able to take charge of itself and thus express their autonomy. You know to assess their own progress, check its operation, adjust the tensions that arise and actively intervene to modify the situation when this is not successful or productive.
Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.

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