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Marketing corporate, Industrial, internal, Internet, Marketing MLM | Concepts of Marketing


Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

Table of contents

1. What are the ties of relationship
2. What are the ten commandments of customer
3. What are the brands
4. What is the Corporate Marketing
5. What is the Internet Marketing
6. What is the industrial Marketing
7. What is the internal Marketing
8. What is Marketing MLM
9. What is the Marketing Reputacional
10. What is a pet



Value refers to the perception that the reward exceeds the costs associated with the continuation of the business relationship.
For the seller, investments in building business relationships can be significant, but a highly committed buyer can be the most important asset of the seller. Seller can raise their tools and resources, create a strongly competitive position and enjoy the benefits of a long-term relationship without continue experimenting in search of cost of the buyer.
Buyers also enjoy the benefit of long-term business relationships. They can avoid the costs associated with the extensive product search procedures, receive preferential treatment of suppliers and can often achieve a reduction in total costs, even if the price is the same (or even higher) of the others charged.



Although the companies within its strategic plan, positioned customers above all, many times this sentence does not meet
The strategic plan of a company, which is its navigation chart, is full of good intentions and intentions. Business vision and mission are 'ideal' situations that fail to be met in many cases.
One of the aspects which are more empty, among which reads the strategic plan and reality, is the customer service. We all know that phrases such as the following are popular in the strategic missions, meetings of shareholders and boards of Directors: "our customers are the basis of our growth," "for them we work", "are the force that drives us forward"... But we also know that very few times this is true 100%.
Then put which is considered to be the ten commandments of customer service, complying fully with the high standards of quality of service can be the customer.

1. the customer above all

This is the metaphor of the first of the ten commandments of God "Love God above all things", in this case it is the client who we must bear in mind rather than nothing.

2 nothing is impossible when you want to

While many times the customers demand nearly impossible things, with a little effort and desire to serve you very well, you can get what they want.

3 it complies with everything what you promise

This one does that is in breach of (rather than of "You will not want to the neighbor's wife," I believe), there are many companies that try to, from deception, make sales or retain customers, but what happens when the customer realizes?

4. only there is a way to satisfy the customer, give you more than what you expect

Not surprisingly, I as a customer feel satisfied when I get more than I expected. How to achieve this? very well knowing our customers and focusing on your needs and desires.

5. for the customer, your marks the difference.

People who have direct contact with customers have a great responsibility, can make a customer return or never want to return, they make the difference. It may everything "behind the scenes" work swimmingly but if a dependent fails, probably the image that the client takes all business will be poor.

6 failure to a point means fail in everything

As it is expressed in the previous paragraph, maybe that everything works to perfection, we have controlled everything, but what happens if we fail at the time of delivery, if the merchandise arrives damaged or if at the time of packing the pair of shoes we were wrong and give a different number, all goes to the floor. The experiences of consumers should be fully satisfactory.

7. a dissatisfied employee creates unhappy customers.

Own employees are "customer first" of a company, if not satisfied with them, how pretend to satisfy external clients, therefore human resources policies must be in the hands of marketing strategies.

8 the customer makes judgment on the quality of service

Although there are performance indicators developed within the companies to measure the quality of the service, the only truth is that customers are who, in his mind and his feeling, those who qualify for it, if it is good again and not return if it is not.

9. by very good that it is a service, always can be improved.

Although the goals of service and customer satisfaction have been achieved, it is necessary to consider new targets, "competition does not give a truce"

10. when it comes to customer satisfaction, we are all a team

Work equipment must not only function to detect faults or to propose solutions and strategies, when so required, everyone in the Organization must be willing to work for the customer's satisfaction, dealt with a complaint, request or any other matter.



Everything is that consumers recognize as such. It is a product that has covered with a fabric cover so attractive to getting the product desired, prompted, is required, in preference to other products. Ultimately, the brand is the name, term, symbol or design, or a combination of them, assigned to a product or a service, it is your direct Manager. This is who should give it to know, identify and differentiate from the competition; It must guarantee their quality and constant improvement.
She promises in conjunction with the product the material reality and psychological reality, an image formed by a precise, loaded with emotional content: security, prestige for others, quality etc.
From this last definition is understandable that some brands have come to exceed the product they represent, giving them even his name and to define generic and non-specific products of a particular company. The reason why this has come to happen is because the brands are a warranty and, above all, an emotion. The products are rational, but brands are emotional. Therefore, generic advertising can be rational, but of the brand, should appeal to emotion because the brand is only an idea in the minds of buyers. This idea leads us to the next question "what have such a product having no others?". The answer is that it has added make it brand and values that make up your personality. People who choose brands, as well as friends by affinity. Also, consumers wary of unknown brands as he is suspicious of outsiders in general. Hence the importance of studying the public, find out his character and his way of being, and once known these, provide the brands that we want a personality in line with their potential user.

Features of brands

The brand is a notoriety. An unknown brand is a brand without value, consumers will prefer those products of well-known brands that guarantee you safety and quality. The notoriety is acquired by advertising, necessarily supported by the quality of the product and the test of time: the brand image should remain in the minds of consumers for an indefinite.
The brand is a reference value that identifies the product, allowing the comparison of this with other brands and the choice free among them.
The quality of a mark must be directly related to the quality of the product that protects, although not confused with her since the quality of a product not always can be seen with the naked eye; Sometimes, even with its use. On the other hand, the mark is an element recognized by consumers, who give the adjective "good" to certain brands and deny it to others. This title is not granted indiscriminately but that, on the contrary, is based on evidence, one of whom, perhaps the most important, is the quality of the product. Thereafter, the quality of the brand comes "alive" and becomes separated from the product.
The brand is a firm, is the claim of parenthood. It is an important symbol of warranty and liability.
Mark is a certain of progress. I.e. forced the manufacturer to improve without rest. So this should look at the market, not only in terms of the value for money in comparison with the competition, but also to meet the wishes of consumers, their way of being, his character. People choose brands for their affinity with his personality.
The brand has to be viva(nace, se desarrolla, se transforma, enferma y muere), so you need, where necessary, innovation (formal and/or conceptual). It is important to remember that brands can have image of modern or outdated. This has little to do with the time of its release but, on the other hand, relies heavily on the fact that have managed to communicate that they are able to keep abreast.
Once established the characteristics, he is accepted as true that brands tend to be volatile but is understood, and explains that they are worth so much money that the effort to keep them should not bargain media. This is the great challenge: keep alive always marks and get that marks scale positions and not look back before difficulties.

Brand identity

A mark is formed by the following elements:
Name or Fonotipo: consisting of the part of the brand that can be pronounced. It is the verbal brand identity.
Logo: It is the graphic representation of the name, the spelling itself that this is written. It is part of the visual identity of the brand.
Graphics: They are those drawings, colors or no unpronounceable representations. Complete the visual identity of the brand.
The entire brand, when it consists of three elements previously appointed, also is called.
It can be that the brand name is perhaps the most important part of it since that is by that denomination by which will ask the consumer at the time of purchase. For this reason, it is important to define the characteristics that must have this name:
As soon as possible. One or two words maximum; one or two syllables; In short oral and visual economy that facilitates reading and memory.
Easy reading and pronunciation. So that the consumer receives the impact of the announcement it is accurate that brand is easy to read and to speak of a single form. However, it is possible to achieve a great notoriety even when the brand name is uncomfortable for the consumer through major advertising investment of teaching.
Euphony. Hearing from a brand name should be pleasant to the ear of the consumer. The letters "l, r, t, d" are great listening while "g, k" letters cause displeasure. On the other hand, "x, k, j, t, w" mark give feeling of robustness.
Memorization. The brand name has to be able to memorize visual and/or auditory with ease.
Association or evocation. A brand name must be associated by consumers with product type that corresponds, evoking the product, to the sound produced by the effect of its use, recalling positive feelings for the product.
But associate or evoke should not be confused with describing since the brand does not describe the product but distinguishes it, therefore, the name should not do a description of the product, since it would limit the brand in the future against possible modifications or product development.
Distinction. The brand name must confer to the product distinction, differentiate it from the competition. You should also avoid mimicry and names of fashion. It was found that the strategy of differentiating a product is offering better results and benefits to businesses. This is because differentiation allows the company to be protected against competition. A company that successfully developed a strategy of differentiation may impose on its products priced higher than the competition. The strategy of differentiation also allows to achieve higher levels of customer loyalty.
Adaptation. The name must adapt to the needs of the packaging or labeling as well as any advertising medium.
Tuning with the public, both moral and aesthetic.
Protection by the law.
International level. I.e., that is valid the pronunciation for the different countries in which the product will be sold.
Brand image: it is the set of perceptions, associations, memories and damages the public processing in his head and whose synthesis is a mental image of the product, through their representation, value for money and advantages and satisfactions that they receive or think that they can receive through your name or advertising.
The brand image is a consequence of how it is perceived. It is a mental representation of attributes and perceived benefits of the brand. The perception of the marks has to do with the mental processes and the personality of the consumer, since the brain processes information received about the brands, coding them according to their external values; but each individual according to their personality, will print them a character, an interpretation of the reality communicated.
Brand image, ultimately serves to a certain company communicate its corporate culture and create a certain brand, logo and corporate identity, that you will be recognized, admired, accessed, used and taken into account thereafter by the society to which it is addressed. Without that image or recognition of your products or services, would not known any company nowadays.

Kinds of brands:

Brand family or single: when it is given a brand to a complete mixing of products or all products in a line in particular (general brand) example: IBM, GLORIA, FIAT.
Familiar brands help create brand loyalty, increasing the prestige of all products and extending their knowledge in general.
Individual brand: When products not linked to each other or differ greatly in price, quality, use and intentional market segment.
Example: Pringles, Pampers, Hys of Procter & Gamble.
Combined brand: Arise as opposed to individual brands, in which products have a brand individual but combined with a single root. Example: Nestlé, NESCAFÉ, Nesquik, Nestun.
Trademarks: Manufacturer makes their products silencing its origin to prepare them with the brand of that customer who purchases their production.
Large distribution chains or large customers get manufacturers these products with brands for their specific markets.
Example: Metro, Santa Isabel.
Mark commercial paper of fabrica: for the consumer. It provides information, warranty and safety quality and level of satisfaction; It allows him to recognize the product quickly in the linear and its existence in the majority of points of sale translates into a saving of time in his quest. On the other hand, the brands and its image allow consumers compare products offered, apparently, the same.
It is important to point out that, on many occasions, the consumer acquires a product more by their attributes and benefits, which by the symbolic value that the brand transferred him. They are brands that respond to the psychological needs of personal and social affirmation.
In terms of price there are no surprises, brands guarantee a level of satisfaction, a quality safety and a symbolic value, so consumers are willing to pay a higher price than that you would pay for a product similar but devoid of symbolic value, warranty and safety.

Disadvantages of the consumer to the brand:

A brand name product tends to have a higher price since that product has to make a large investment in advertising and promotion.
There are a large number of trademarks for the same product is difficult the choice of purchase.

For the Distributor.

Marks and factory have enabled the development of new forms of distribution as the Cash and Carry (supermarkets in which the retailer is served). Manufacturer-branded products are prevendidos by all the commercial and communications effort that its owners performed for its introduction, maintenance and development on the market, do not need arguments for sale. Ease of sale of these products reduces the number of sellers and the costs of management, reduction that translates into better service that generates loyalty. Its price is fixed, leaving the dealer a bottom margin, you get with their own brands. But compensates for it by the rotation of stocks that provide you with these brands. The demand for this type of marks tends to be stabilized, which allows a more accurate forecast of supply for the replacement of goods services distributor

For the manufacturer.

Brands manufacturers make them, but to keep them attuned with the taste of consumers, we must support them. Of a correct brand policy allows the creation of an own market composed of consumers true to what the brand offers. Mark has to be unique, based on a quality, tangible or intangible, that differentiate it from the competition and prove to be relevant and meaningful for the public to which it is directed.
Branded sale imposed by investing in advertising over time, to create the brand first and then keep it present in the minds of consumers in updated form. You must set a strategy and keep the consistency over time, to achieve a tuned with the public personality. The brand becomes a prevendedor by the desire which creates and expectations that promises to satisfy.
Mark obliges the manufacturer to give the product a continuity and a certain universality. It forces him to evolve technological and socially, slope of the market, its characteristics and needs, so it constantly should monitor the situation of your product in relation to the consumer. Also, you must pay constant attention to the price, especially in periods of strong competition, and ensure the return of the damaged goods as well as offer pre and post sales services.

Reasons not to use a brand:

The ownership of a mark has two responsibilities:
Promote the brand.
Maintain a constant production quality.
Many firms do not put mark to their products, because they are unable or not quieten such responsibilities.
There are products that do not have brand because it is not possible to physically differentiate them from those of another company. Example: the hooks to hang clothes, nails and raw materials (coal, cotton and wheat). The perishable nature of products such as fruits and vegetables tends to discourage the use of marks. However, you blemishes as well known in the United States as tomatoes and pineapples DOLE and CHIQUITA bananas show that brands can be successfully used even with perishable agricultural products.

Decisions relating to the brand:

Decision of adoption of brand: The company must decide first if it should put a brand name to your product. Companies that adopt a brand made it in order to protect yourself themselves and consumers against the inferior quality.
Brand sponsors decision: to give a product a brand name, manufacturer has three options in regarding the sponsorship of the brand. The product can be launched as a mark of manufacturer (also called national trade mark). Or manufacturer can sell the product to intermediaries, who then put a mark private (called also broker, distributor or dealer). Or manufacturer may make some products under its own brand name and some that are sold under private labels.
Brand quality decision: The manufacturer has to choose a level of quality and other attributes that support the position of the brand in the market goal.
Decision of individual or collective marks: A main advantage of a single brand name strategy is that the company not linked its reputation to the acceptance of a product. If the product fails, it does not compromise the name of the manufacturer.
By using a common name for all items, the cost of the product introduction will be less, since there is no need for research "name", or large advertising expenditures to create recognition and preference for the brand name. In addition, sales will be stronger if the manufacturer name is good.
Decision of brand extension: A brand extension strategy is any effort to use a successful brand name in order to launch the product modifications or new items. Enlargement of the brand entrepreneur saves the high cost of promoting new names and create an immediate identification of the product. But if this does not satisfy the expectations of the public, their attitude towards other products bearing the same mark will be negative.
Brands multiple decision: The multiple brand strategy consists of the seller to develop two or more brands in the same category of product.
Decision of brand repositioning: A competitor can have launched a mark next to the company's brand and thus reduce the share of this market. Or it is possible to change the preferences of the consumer, leaving the firm with less demand brand. Marketers should reposition existing brands before inserting new ones. In this way they can leverage existing brand recognition and loyalty of consumers created by previous marketing efforts.

Selection of brand name:

The typical selection process involves six steps:
1. the company identifies objectives or criteria for the brand name.
2. the company generated a list of potential brand names.
3. the names are classified up to select 10 to 20 that are more appropriate for deeper testing.
4. the company gets reactions from consumers or other brand names.
5. the firm runs a research of brand registered to ensure that each remaining brand name can register and obtain legal protection.
6. the company selects one of the names that have survived as the final mark for the product name.

Registration of marks:

The registration of a mark is important because it helps to differentiate products on the market. It is also the only way that the entrepreneur create an image and a style for their products; It is a key factor to achieve a position in the market. Registration is the only way to protect the brand created against possible copies of other entrepreneurs who want to take advantage of the prestige of this. With registration, the owner becomes the owner of the mark and is the only one authorized to be used for the following ten years, renewable on.
The trademark protection is territorial, i.e. If one registers a mark in Peru, it is protected only in this country. If a person wishes to preserve its brand in other States, you must register it in each and every one of the countries which want to receive protection.
In the Peru marks are recorded at INDECOPI, specifically in the distinctive signs Office, which is responsible for the registration of trademarks, names, and slogans, as well as designations of origin. Also undertakes to protect rights that generate these records.
To provide services to his office, the Office of Services Directorate, has three areas:
Area of marks
Area of registry and files
Area of infringements
Additionally INDECOPI offers an optional search service, which allows a person who wants to register a trademark found out if there are already different or similar registered marks.
The benefits of this service are reflected in time savings, since if the user checks that there is a similar or equal sign, it will not perform the registration process unnecessarily. Another saving is that of money, since it avoids the unnecessary spending by concept of distinctive signs.



The corporate marketing is a discipline of marketing which is engaged in establishing strategies of marketing within the same organization, with the aim of loyalty to the collaborators of the company and enhance your productivity.

Introduction to the Corporate Marketing

As a member of a society and a global economic system, now less that a company is never an isolated entity. In addition to a dynamic and internal complexity, it is subject to strong relationships with their environment, which is usually characterized by an extraordinary dynamism and complexity.
The strong competition, market variations, the advancement of technology and globalization, among other factors, molded an unpublished environment. Today a company can succeed and disappear tomorrow. The resonant case of corruption in United States Enron or Parmalat in Italy, the constant accusations by unfair competition which undergoes Microsoft or the countless allegations that receives Nike for the use of child labour in Asia. The media, lobbyists, government agencies or non-profit organizations do not allow margins for error.
However, there are ways to handle the rudder and reach fruition responsibly: a correct business management; be clear about the Mission of the company, and respect it; anticipate growth sustainable, not excessive; commit to protecting the environment; respect the rights of the employee; make conscious investments; prevent unfair competition; elude tax slips, whether movements in black or tax evasion... In short, act in a honest way, concerned a small SME or a large corporation.
However, this is not enough. Currently, there is an intangible capital, which is as important as the same heritage of the company: information. Having adequate and accurate information at the right time is the best way to move a company forward. Therefore information management is one of the main priorities of today's organizations.
And in this information management, training and give you the proper tools to employees - the real capital of the company - becomes indispensable to reach the desired destination. To fulfill the Mission of the company.

Everything communicates. All communicate.

The process of communication is the result of a kind of relationship between two subject, in which there is the intention and whose effectiveness depends on the proper use of the channels and the convergence of favorable conditions.
As any living entity, the company is no stranger to one of the famous American researcher Harold Lasswell paradigms: it is impossible not to communicate. Suppose that a crestfallen and taciturn guy enters a bar where there are several people. It has no intention of talking with anyone. Anyway it is communicating, but through non-verbal language: with gestures, looks, attitudes. The other attendees of the bar understand that the individual "communicates" zero intentions to talk. Not to say also that is.
With an organization takes place exactly the same. Any action which develops the company communicates always: products that sells, how that distributed them, their investments, their advertising, recruitment, the dress of employees, policy architecture of its buildings... But also not information or its omission also communicate. It does not say what happens also help to build a picture of the company, built both good and bad news: when there is an incident, when a company is recognized with an award, when there is hierarchical in the company changes, when there are salary increases... Any novelty or incidence, any attitude or decision taken by the company, whether or not communicated, just communicating. If a company does not speak, there will be someone who will do it for her. And quite possibly the competition.
Therefore, the way to communicate the image to the Organization to all its publics - staff of the company, clients, not customers, suppliers, government agencies, non-governmental entities and even own competition - is one only: the regulation of communication. And the establishment of common guidelines similar at all levels of the company.
In addition, you must provide suitable tools to make this possible: training, technology, material support, improvement, etc.
And most importantly: this must be quite involved across the enterprise, not just the Department of communication. The billing department, who shipped orders, the operator of service to the public, internal messages via email. All are emitting. They are all receivers.
Corporate marketing, or how selling the company in
Marketing is, for many, the great discipline of the 20th century. The main tool of the market society. It is more than a set of techniques used in the marketing and distribution of a product between different consumers.
How this discipline defined their "parents"?
"Marketing is the set of activities necessary to become effective demand for goods and services purchasing power." Peter Druker.
"Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through the creation and exchange of products and its evaluation with others." Philip Kotler.
Marketing (or, according to the Royal Academy, marketing) participates in all stages of the process of Constitution of a company, the design of a product or a service, always with the premise of creating and developing actions that keep alive the Organization, provide profitability and grow it. They are:
• Market research. It is a discipline that is dedicated to analyze the population, identification of the target audience, its economic characteristics, of consumption and its psycho-social aspirations.
But also analyzes the market: detects threats and opportunities, recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of your product or service to offer, and analyzes the impact of communications issued.
• Programming and product development. Marketing is also involved in the design of the product, the raw material, establishment of the price (determined by the cost of production and competition), design of the packaging, Anatomy, etc.
• Creation of distribution channels. Set and designed the logistics resources, points of sale, transport, dispensers, material support, etc.
• Integral communication. To publicize the launch of the new product or service through advertising, communication and image, public relations, direct marketing, promotion and merchandising is one of the main responsibilities of marketing.
• Organization of the sales department. Also participates in the establishment of an organizational structure for sale actual joy of product or service offered. All activities that governs the marketing, this is which is eminently directed to the internal audience. Anyway, although the importance of the Marketing Department is evident for the Organization of a structure of sales, the organization properly bliss of this area should be driven by own sales department.
And these activities, each directed towards the outside, must now add a new one, as indispensable as the previous ones: the corporate marketing. It is the implementation of many of these marketing techniques, but directed towards the own collaborators of the company, in order to retain them, generate the identification to the Organization in which work and do they feel at ease in it. Its objective is clear: a person who feels comfortable, which is known to be valued, that take it into account, that is informed, that is driven with different techniques, produces more and better. As a result, the company's profit increase.
As he has been said, to generate the identification to the company are applied internally many of the external marketing actions: to publicize the advantages of the company towards the company. Some examples:
• Market research. As well as in the external actions market research seeks to decipher the mood of consumers, trends, opportunities or threats, it is also possible to apply the same techniques to the inside and get results. A vital tool is the survey. With it you can learn opinions, values, mood and motivations of employees, as well as compliance with their superiors, comfort, the working environment, deficiencies, etc. Even the interdepartmental meetings can be used as a focus group, another market research tools. The following pages offer more examples of instruments that used the corporate marketing to meet the "inner pulse" company.
• Integral communication. One of the actions essential to create corporate identity within the own staff and to create identification between employees. To carry it out it is necessary to have an internal communications plan, whose origins are the objectives that are pursued to create the desired image and they branch is all the company's communication needs: channels, tools, human capital, budgets, values, etc. In these activities, they have to participate altogether and harmoniously the Department of human resources, the sales and marketing, and all the tools to be inspired by the Mission of the company.
How does it benefit the company?
The most evident advantages of the implementation of the corporate marketing within the company are:
• Creating a corporate identity, or what is the same, a personality and a philosophy, which are reflected in each of the actions of the contributors and each element of the company's communication. • Define the culture of inward, in order to establish standardized work habits that allow to obtain higher returns with the same workforce. • Dump, through a system of graphic, visual and style, this philosophy, personality and that culture, to transmit it and circulate it to all its publics (internal and external). • Regulate the workplace to maintain a climate of confidence and motivation. • Give voice and build consensus among the employees of the company. • Enable superior commanders to collect feedback, ideas and creativity of lower charges. • Allow all employees to better know their real possibilities for the future in the company and, thus, could better channel their concerns. • To control crisis situations. • Promote communication between all scales.
All this pursues a unique and great objective: that each and every one of the partners of the company are fully identified with her and hold her fidelity. That "you marry" her.
Understand that marketing has so much importance outside and inside the organization is to give a step forward, a way to tear down prejudices, deal with self-criticism and dare to innovate. Because marketing is today the company what the heart to humans: its driving force.
Thus, the corporate marketing is much more than communication. His goal also is to be the basis governing human resources management, techniques for maintaining high motivation, the proper management of information, the provision of tools to achieve effective communication or the provision of training courses, among many other functions that every day join an expanding discipline.
As tasks that perform various departments independently, but which pursue the same objective, it is vital that there is a coordination and a strict control of all that is emitted. This task is up to the Communications Department of the company.
Guidelines below to apply this discipline to the practical, every day of the collaborators. Guidelines to make internal marketing the real motor of every company.

The tools and the resources of the corporate marketing

The management of information

The unit of work in a company is the information. It is what it feeds it daily so that it can function, the raw material for an effective decision making and is the most important factor for success in business and for a proper motivation of the collaborators.
A good information management promotes obtaining the objectives which the company draws annually. All employees of the company require it to perform their daily work. For this reason, have it at hand, know where to look and have the appropriate tools favor a better achievement of results.
We must try not to fall into the error of that "information" is everything. They are the events of relevance which communication to a group of individuals may be of interest, either for a decision making or to know the situation of the environment. Discriminate what information and what not - then communicate it to the corresponding public - is a good way to start to manage the information within the context of the company.
To identify what information and what not, the objective pursued can be classified. It may result from self-interest, for example to imply a certain image in their environment or requirements imposed, formal or not, by the economic agents that have interests in the company. Within this last entry we could include:
• Mandatory financial and economic information.
• Institutional information to agents that operates, such as financial institutions, shareholders, suppliers, etc.
In terms of the information derived from the interest in establishing an image, we could consider:
• Public relations activities.
• Advertising and promotion in the field of marketing, both • communication internally.

What is needed for a proper management?

Specialists recommend that a Department is responsible for the internal management of the information. That is, in many cases, the task of the Department of human resources, although other companies prefer this task the Department of communication make it. Keep employees abreast of what is happening in the organization is a way of reducing uncertainty, give more peace of mind. Manage information in times of crisis is much more important, because that eliminates undesirable rumours that, like all rumor, repetition do become reality. And many times (i.e. not nearly all) rumors are false or exaggerated. For all this, provide the appropriate information, tell the right and important, aside from the trivial, and communicate it to the corresponding people (which you are to use) is the correct way to manage internal information.

Does purpose pursue the management of the information in the internal aspect?

The management of the information serves to reduce barriers in communication. Bigger is a company, more barriers exist and, therefore, more coordinated should be its communication. Communicating is pursues the objective that staff support the business project and what to the whole of the company: objectives, mission, its media, its staff and its hierarchical controls. It gets a proper management of information:
• The involvement of people. Allows a better understanding of the company, as well as the innovations that happen. Reduces uncertainty, anxiety and stress. In addition, it gives to understand that it is measured at the receiver, integrates, recognizes its place within the Organization and reinforces the group cohesion.
• The harmony of the company's shares. Facilitates the fulfilment of the General objectives: a company that advises its staff what happens, and informs him without differentiations, helps all its components go the same direction.
• A change in attitudes. In times of crisis, as successful, communication allows modifications will assimilate and promotes cultural change. For example, communicate to staff a news positive as the purchase of a new company, or even declining sales, integrated into the receiver with the results of the company and predisposes it to accept the new guidelines.
• And an increase in productivity. Internal communication, in this case more concerning the training aspect, also helps to improve the quality of the work of the employee: instructions, procedures and rules favor the optimization of time and resources. In addition, made the staff with respect to the objectives of the company's profitability. For example, the establishment of groups of improvement (see page 19) increases the productivity of the employee and in turn increases the involvement and identification with the company.

The internal communications plan

So all internal communication is consistent, go in the same direction and directly relates to the external communication, must establish a foundation that it supports everything: the internal communication plan. This plan is the key to properly manage corporate information, one that is related to messages that are broadcast to the outside from the company.
This plan enables you to determine communication goals based on the company's own mission. Various departments must be involved in its design. Firstly, the general direction is who should determine the most important guidelines, who marks the path to follow and then the departments involved will be responsible for developing according to its specificity. What departments are recommended to participate in the establishment of the plan?
• Human resources. Being the Department that manages the development of internal communication, the promotion of training and motivation plans is who knows the daily life of employees, and who more guidelines can give the plan to mold it to reality, the practice and the daily pulse of the organization.
• Communication. Usually, the departments of communication not only have incidence in the design of the external messages, to be contact with the advertising agencies and external partners, but that also, by having people specialized in communication, is responsible for determining general criteria of internal communication. It is responsible for establishing the more technical guidelines, who provides definitions, symbols, identity and creativity.
• Marketing. It is the Department that has more impact in the creation of the plan, being the most experienced in the design of strategic procedures. Its importance can be increased, moreover, because many companies do not have communication Department, going to fulfill these functions the Department of marketing or sub-dependent departments. According to the budget, will be devoted to determine certain tools for the development of internal corporate marketing.
• Commercial. It is logical that commercial Department also participates in the design of the internal communications plan, since the commercial network is one of the key parts of any company and is therefore essential for be faithful and to identify with her. By its nature, contributions from the commercial Department are more focused on your personal motivation, incentive programs and lifelong learning.
Although these are the departments that have more impact in the creation of the plan, of course that any partner with initiative or good ideas should be heard, and their well received contributions. The company should provide your staff the tools they need so they can do it.
The essence of the internal communications plan is indicative of the spirit and values of the company, that prioritizes and that leaves in the background. Its implementation follows the human resources policy and how much importance is attached to the communication. An internal communication plan provides:
• The policy on communication flows. A company can give you more preponderance to the horizontal or the vertical communication. In the first case it is more than one rigid company with very jagged and hierarchical structures. There is too much division of tasks and the rise or a request made by a collaborator under the pyramid become very difficult. The current trend points to a company organised in this manner does not favor the exchange of idea between the different hierarchies. Therefore, the internal communications plan also determines, in some ways, if the company wants to be versatile, rigid, vertical or horizontal. A concrete example of horizontal organization are the technology or Internet companies something logical for an organization whose environment changes on an ongoing basis. Upper and lower controls must work at the same time, without too much intermediaries, so large or small. Microsoft is a good example of this.
• Tools. Even if you have a planned and well coordinated strategy between departments, if there is an effective and efficient infrastructure, the internal communications plan is useless. Tools to provide can be oral, written and audiovisual. Anyway, is whether or not enough resources, there is always a factor that can not miss: the will. Regular meetings, listening and attention of the petitions are a way of providing tools for internal communication. But today the technology is crucial: who has it for the design of the plan will not have much less success than expected.
For a good coordination, the departments involved must define a Manager to manage the tools, update, solve problems and take initiatives. It is to be, at least, a representative of each Department.
The budget allocated to the development of internal communication tools is also a clue about policy, mission and company culture.
• The identity. Corporate culture, the verbal identity, graphic symbols, logo, chromatic identity, mission, the enterprise infrastructure... All this, Joan Costa called the vectors of identity, applies both to internal as for external communication. If it is that these vectors have already been established in advance, the internal communications plan must respect certain guidelines and propose others related to its function, as for example determine equal definitions to be used by all contributors, and avoiding fragmented messages. On the other hand, when these vectors are created at the same time setting the internal communication plan (something that usually happens in the newly created companies that properly plan its communication, advised by agencies or experts), will have close relationship with the establishment of the identity of the company. This last possibility is the most recommended, now if all part of a same point, all elements will have much greater consistency.
• Motivational programs. It is true that informed employees of the company, give them voice and give them tools to communicate is a way to increase motivation. When the company set the strategies of motivation of collaborators, the communication plan should be much to do this. Not only to communicate what are the ways of motivating, but also to help determine those same programs. Techniques and ways to motivate staff are offered in subsequent pages.
• Training. Training schemes are, in a way, part of the motivation. Incentives to improve the educational level in the employee, its specialization and stimulate awareness of new trends, it makes the employee want to implement what they learned at work, motivated and produces more and better. A permanent monitoring of training - task that must carry out the Department of human resources - is essential to know the impact and the effectiveness of the courses.
The structure in which the internal communications plan is based are the tools with which it has. For the proper management, it is good to know, and also determine who can make use of them and what is the right time to use them. Below we list an organization regular communication channels, that allow a correct management of the information.
The tools of communication in organizations to carry out the internal communications Plan
Where and how spreading the information that you want to share? Today, technology allows us to provide a wide range of possibilities. Electronic and audiovisual, along with mass printing systems, are tools that can communicate to a large number of people. Currently a complex issue with attractive PowerPoint slides can be explained. Or also, across the enterprise can be aware of something new thanks to e-mail, the heir of the old memorandum. Other media which the company uses to communicate are:
Written channels. • Intranet. It is a system of internal communication through the Internet. It's a web page that only employees of the company have access. It has the advantage of the daily update, the immediacy and the possibility of receiving immediate feedback. However, for optimum use, it is necessary to provide it with human and technological resources that allow a daily update. Large corporations have a Department which is only dedicated to collecting information from across the enterprise and spread it on the Intranet page. One of the disadvantages of this channel is that people who have computer accessible only to.
• Newsletter. It is a monthly, bimonthly or quarterly publication which gives to the news of the company. It is published in digital format (PDF) or printed. It is important that this medium respects the frequency proposed early on, since otherwise the receivers lose the interest or forget it.
• Email. Currently, the internal communication channel "Star". Although only available to computer users, its advantages lie in the immediacy, the possibility of sharing files and the use of other functions, such as the calendar, go to meetings and the agenda. By contrast, excessive use generates a depersonalization which does not promote human relations, because many times sent an e-mail to communicate something that it would be better to tell him personally or, at most, by phone. The email has the disadvantage of ambiguity. The Council is not to abuse it and use it when it is strictly necessary.
• Suggestion box. It is a tool that facilitates the upward communication, i.e., that communicate lower company levels to the top. Its altruistic purpose is obvious, but if not it encourages daily use may fall into oblivion. It is therefore convenient to motivate employees to participate in Exchange for a draw or a salary bonus to the best proposal or one that has been implanted.
• Surveys of attitudes. Probe in which managers may know the opinion that they have subordinates. It should preferably be anonymous, with a predominance of closed questions and having a periodicity that is respected. Ignacio Gil in new people in the company management recommended that his consistency is annual.
• Organization chart. The structure of the company, from the upper to the lower controls unveiled. There is the case of companies that are reluctant to publish its organization chart, even internally, due to strategic issues. To avoid suspicion, the best is that it is available to all employees, and to be renewed whenever there is a change of personnel. Currently is being imposed charts interactive, available in digital format use, where it is possible to know the curriculum of each employee along with his photograph. It is a way of facilitating the task of the collaborators and favor the interrelation between them, especially if it's a large company.
• Informational boards. They are classic slates that are used to fix news, social news, ads, searches, etc. To optimize its use, best is to put a plank on each floor of the establishment and determine a Manager engaged in paste, remove and enforce publication time-lapse.
• Procedure manuals or training. Created to optimize certain activities of daily work, and eminently educational use, manuals of procedures provide guidelines to standardise tasks and thus, optimize it and make it more productive. They must be accompanied by courses of training and ongoing support with specialists in human resources, otherwise their impact on the improvement of the work is minimal. Many companies also have guides of welcome for new employees: this facilitates entry into the - relatively difficult moment for a new employee - company-, improving the knowledge about it and is an element that the new contributor can read many times want to clear doubts.
• Book of style. All the tools written, this is the most complex, since you must write especially for the company, and approval of their content had to intervene several people, usually from the senior. It is the manual of the communications procedure of the company. It regulates those carried out in the other channels, both written as oral and audiovisual. Its objective is to establish precise guidelines of communication to establish common criteria. In addition, it is a tool that helps enterprise data search in general, because it also fulfills the function of compendium of information relating to it. An element that can be all that allows to facilitate communication, since the social benefits of the employee, the mission and the definition of the company, tips, writing, spelling, and even tips for the application of the mark. As a procedure manual, the publication of a book of style must also be accompanied by training courses and of a permanent advice for optimal use.
Oral channel. • Departmental meetings. Those that are organized between members of a same Department, to address issues of work or to solve minor inconveniences while medien members of the senior positions. • Interdepartmental meetings. Which are organized between members of two or more departments. Although also mounted for labour purposes, its use is frequent to encourage interaction between areas, and to meet and improve relations, especially if it's two departments working together. The informal meetings (organized in another area that is not in the company) facilitates the interrelation and causes a more pleasant meeting.
• Meetings of the heads of Department. "Top-down communication" meetings in which the senior communicate news of the Department or the company, presents new projects, requests feedback on the daily work or the management itself.
• Project groups. Activities or meetings aimed to promote new initiatives in the enterprise, to optimize resources and results. These groups tend to have people from different departments, since they require different skills to carry it out. For example, a telephone company to implement a new ADSL Internet service. This requires the participation of technicians in telephony and electronics, systems analysts, graduates in management of business, lawyers, publishers, etc.
• Improvement groups. They are groups specially created for the search for solutions to the problems that arise daily, especially the small inconveniences. It is a kind of Committee concerned resolve small issues, from the purchase of lamps for offices to the drafting of a proposal to update the software of the company. Tends to be composed of employees of medium and lower charges.
Audiovisual channels. • Slides. Traditional transparencies have given way to practical PowerPoint presentations projected through a canyon to a screen. Due to their versatility, they are very practical to present new projects or to display results. It allows you to include pictures, sounds and even videos. • Tapes and videos. Support tools, usually involved training, very useful because of its didactic character. The attention of the person is better captured and can be supported with bibliographic material or evaluations. They are also used in the presentation of projects and results.
All these tools should be regulated by the Department of human resources and the communication altogether, if exist both in the company.

Addresses in internal communication flow

The hierarchical organization of the company determines the main channels of communication, as well as the management of the information. The most common classification establishes the differentiation between vertical communication which in turn can be up or down, and horizontal communication.
• Downward vertical communication. It is which is established between a remote control and its descendents. Its contents refer to instructions to perform the tasks, information on the status of the work carried out, feedback to the employee about their performance, coordination between the various departments and employees, maintain high motivation or keep informed people about the variables of the company. At this level of communication, the medium used is very important for a proper information and an effective understanding. For example, to report on a very important change for the company, the best is convening a meeting with Department-wide. To give a not so relevant news, it is enough with an email.
• Upward vertical communication. It is one in which the lower controls communicate with their superiors. It provides feedback requiring managers to know if the communication that they emit is effective and serves to give a voice to employees, who can bring initiatives and express their concerns. Upward communication allows you to meet the needs and expectations of the people, facilitating their satisfaction. Tools of upward communication are mailbox of suggestions, surveys of attitudes, departmental meetings and e-mails. When concerns are personal, the best thing to keep the privacy is through a personal meeting between the employee and his boss.
• Horizontal communication. It is the exchange of messages between members of the same hierarchical level. The Exchange may be among a group of work colleagues
The companies are likely to encourage more between a vertical style or horizontal one. The traditional company tends to verticality: there are many hierarchical ranks in the Organization, it is inevitable to be slow with the communication and feedback that is received is not faithful. Although now e-mail allows sending instant messages in both directions - up and down-, the real result of this interaction is seen in what they do top managers with this information. Obviously, is not a traditional company priority upward feedback.
Meanwhile, in the new companies, the trend is reduce the number of hierarchies and delegate more responsibilities to the employees. In this case, the communication ends up being more fluid, the tools that are used are more dynamic and modern and the feedback is virtually immediate. By assuming more responsibilities and participate with more emphasis on the results of the company, the employee feels more motivated to take initiatives and to produce better.



Internet marketing is the study of techniques for using the Internet to advertise and sell products and services. Internet Marketing includes per-click advertising, mass notices on web pages, email submissions, search engine marketing (including search engine optimization) and marketing of logs.

Definition and scope of the Internet Marketing

The marketing in the world is a component of electronic commerce. You can include the management of content, public relations, service to customer and sales. E-commerce and Internet marketing have become popular to the extent that Internet providers are becoming more accessible. More than one third of consumers who have Internet access in their homes claim to have used the Internet as a means to make their purchases.
It is one of the four paradigms of marketing, according to Phillip Kotler, a company should choose as a basis for the implementation of a strategy.
Result of the application of technologies of information for traditional marketing

History of Internet Marketing

Internet marketing had its origin at the beginning of the 1990s in the form of simple web pages, containing only text and which offered information products. Then it evolved into complete ads with graphics. The most recent step in this development was the creation of full business operating from the Internet to promote and sell their products and services.

The 4 F's of Marketing Online

As says Paul Fleming in "Talk of the interactive marketing", the 4 F's Internet marketing would be:
• Flow: According to Fleming, flow is "the mental state that enters an Internet user to dive into a website that offers you an experience full of interactivity and added value"
• Functionality: If the customer has entered in a State of flux, it is on track to be picked up, but so does not break the flow of the relationship, is to provide the presence functionality online, i.e., build pages taking into account the limitations of the technology. It refers to an attractive homepage, with clear and useful for user navigation.
• Feedback: The relationship has begun to build. The user is in a State of flux and also not exasperating in its navigation. It has the time to continue talking and take advantage of the information through the user's knowledge. Internet gives the opportunity to ask the customer what you like and what you would like to improve. Ultimately, dialogue with the customer to know him better and to build a relationship based on their needs to customize according to this page after each contact.
• Loyalty: The Internet offers the creation of communities of users who contribute content so that a dialogue with customers, who may thus be more faithful.

Business models

Internet marketing is associated with several business models. The main include the model business to business (B2B) and business to consumer (B2C) model. B2B (for its acronym in English Business to Business) consists of companies that do business with each other, whereas B2C involves selling directly to the end consumer. When originated the marketing on the Internet B2C was the first to appear. B2B transactions were more complex and came later. A third and not so common business model is that of user to user (P2P) where individuals exchange goods among them. An example of P2P is Bittorrent, which is built on a platform of users who share files or files.

Benefits of marketing

Some of the benefits associated with marketing on the Internet is the availability of information. Consumers can enter online and learn about products, as well as buy them 24 hours a day. Companies that use the marketing on the Internet can save money because of a reduced need for a sales force. Internet marketing can help you expand from a local market to a national and even international market.
We talk about results, return on investment, or ROI marketing internet marketing marketing marketing. One of the advantages that this channel is the ease of analysis and optimization of campaigns. At all times we have investment and control of the budget for the campaign, and based on this made structural changes while it is running.
To be able to understand and leverage internet marketing is necessary to know the funnel conversion of our product, which usually has several stages.
1) printing of creativity.
Printing of creativity, in which we show the surfer on the Web product or service that we offer. The person who surf the internet sees our advertising and have the option of performing the required action or ignore it (in the majority of cases is a click that will lead to the target site).
(2) Click on creativity.
Click on creativity, in all cases of performance, the aim of creativity marketing campaigns is the click, we are already talking about search engines, email or banner, the advertiser intends the user to click and be redirected to a page within the site of the brand.
(3) registering as a user.
Registering as a user, once the potential client is in the site, now aims to meet him, and for this the best thing you can do is introduce you to a registration form that you leave your information and we can assign you a user profile. Usually the form should not be very long now that could intimidate potential customers and this won't want to continue browsing our site, but it is common to find options for registration in which email and names are required. Once we have these data from the client, we can communicate with him in relation to our offer of value.
(4) acquisition intended.
Intention of acquisition, at the moment we have interested potential customers, and he has shown interest, purchase intent, is the test that we have to spend to be able to say that the objective this compliment. A purchase intent is when the potential customer enters a payment to the site of the mark method and attempts to obtain the product or service it offers.
There are several reasons why this intention can be frustrated, and now is the opportunity to our customer service department to help our potential customers to make it one, and better still, in a happy and satisfied customer.
(5) acquisition.
Acquisition, not only we have managed to be of interest to someone with our marketing action, but that we have also taken him to the site.
Not only that we have taken him to the site, but we have also registered it as a potential client.
We have not only interested him as a potential customer, but it has also attempted to make a purchase.
And finally, it has not only tried to make a purchase, but it has also succeeded with success!
Congratulations! We have had a successful marketing action.

Analysis of results
Now, let's take a little monetary eyes what you just did.
Suppose that the budget for this action is $100 and we have obtained the following results:
100 impressions
25 clicks
15 number of records
10 number of purchase attempts
5 amount of acquisitions

We can say that the results of the campaign, in absolute terms, are those shown in the above table.
Now, which is to say that we have had for example, 15 records? Is it much? are you a little? What we do know is that it is not enough, because anyway we are going to want to have more, or in other words the campania objectives requiring better results. This is one of the pillars of our marketing, in that if it gives results, will always want more. Returning to the example of 15 records. We don't say that we have achieved 15 records with $100, but that each has cost US $6.67 ($100/15), or that our cost for registration is $6.67. In the same way, our cost of acquisition is $20 ($100/20).
To make the calculation of the ROI, that ultimately we are talking about when we do performance marketing, we need to know is what counts for us each acquisition or purchase.
Suppose that for every new client we sell, on average, a total of $35, we can say that each client gives us a value of $35.
If we know that our cost of acquisition of each new customer is $20, and that each of them is worth for us $35, then we say that our ROI is 1.75 or 175% (benefit/cost) and basically what we have achieved with our campaign is a gain of $75, thus multiplying our initial budget by 1.75 or increasing it by 175%.

Limitations of marketing

The limitations of Internet marketing can create problems for both companies and consumers. Slow Internet connections may cause difficulties. If companies put too much information on its web pages, end users may have difficulties to download the page. In addition, Internet marketing allows buyers touch or try products before you buy them.

Security issues in marketing

Both for businesses and for consumers who participate in the e-business, security is an issue of importance. Many consumers have doubts about whether purchasing products online that they do not trust to deliver your personal information is keep private. Recently, some companies that do business online have been found giving or selling their own customer information. Several of these companies have guarantees on its web pages, declaring that their consumer information will remain private. By selling its customer information these companies break their own privacy commitments, published on their websites. Some of the companies that buy this information empowers users to be removed from the lists. However many consumers are unaware that their information is being disseminated and they cannot stop the transfer of information between companies.
Security issues are of great importance and online companies have been working hard to create solutions. Data encryption is one of the main methods for dealing with the problems of privacy and security on the Internet. The encryption can be defined as the conversion of data in coded numbers. These figures do not can be easily intercepted unless an individual is authorized by the program or the company that performed in encryption. In general, much stronger encryption, better is the data protection. However, the better is the cipher code, more expensive returns data encryption.

Impact on the marketing industry

Internet marketing has had a broad impact in diverse industries including music, banking and second-hand markets. In the music industry many consumers have begun to buy and download MP3s on the Internet instead of buying music at support CD. The debate on the legality of downloading MP3 files has become a capital concern for those in the music industry.
Internet marketing has also affected the banking industry. More and more banks are offering the possibility to do banking online. It is believed that online banking has been attractive to consumers since it is more convenient to visit a bank branch. Currently more than 50 million adults in the U.S. use banking online. Banking online is the Internet's fastest growing activity. The increase in Internet connection speeds is the main reason for this growth. Of those individuals who use the Internet in the United States, 44% perform banking transactions online.
With the increase in the popularity of the online auctions, second-hand markets or flea markets are reeling. Only objects that were previously only achieved at flea markets are being sold on Ebay.com at present. EBay.com has also affected prices in the industry. Buyers and sellers often seek prices on the website before going to the flea market and the price published on Ebay.com frequently is the final price of the sale. More and more sellers of flea markets are putting their articles on the Internet and operating their businesses from home.



The marketing of industrial products presents some peculiarities in comparison with services marketing and consumer products. Industrial products are purchased by professionals who are governed by objective criteria when making a purchase decision. Therefore, marketing must be oriented to highlight the technical features of the product in relation to its selling price. In this sense, are highly prized by buyers of the same technical specifications: speed, consumption, power, resistance, etc. Many times, these are accompanied with statistics, charts, or diagrams that make it easier to understand.
It is also typically emphasize the services to the product offered by the company selling:
• Installation and maintenance.
• After-sales service.
• Availability of spare parts and accessories.
• Period of reaction for a claim.
The marketing of industrial products is a marketing communication which aims to provide accurate information about the product. In this way, the most common activities performed by marketers are as follows:
• Edition of technical product catalogs.
• Mailings of brochures, leaflets or brochures informing about product news.
• Assistance to fairs.
• Inclusion of professional publications advertising: ads, advertorials, inserts, etc.
• Invitation to events:
or 'Open House' or open day.
or technical conferences. They usually consist of a set of talks given by experts relating to the sector to which products are directed.
or shipping of tickets or passes for fairs which will attend the company.



Internal marketing to one who is in charge of promoting the brand values and the image of a company among employees is called. The internal marketing seeks that workers be best identified with the products or services of the company, its philosophy and its brand values accordingly to improve your motivation and your loyalty to the company. The benefits for the company consist in addition that the coherence between its internal and external image will be detectable by their customers by making it then more credible. This ties in with the theory of "internal clients" based on treating subordinates and collaborators with the same attention and level of service provided to the customers.
In the majority of occasions, the efforts of the companies are limited to the foreign sale of the brand forgetting their own workers who barely know it. Moreover, the traditional mechanisms of internal communication (newsletters, bulletin announcements, etc.) are not useful for this purpose because they are not intended to convince but simply to communicate. To perform a correct internal marketing, it is necessary:
• Choose the appropriate time. Any time is good to promote the company's image but there are some especially propitious: launch of a marketing campaign, change the corporate image, moments of crisis that required are new boost, etc.
• seek consistency between the external and internal marketing. It is imperative that messages that are shedding abroad are consistent with inmates in order to ensure its effectiveness.
• survive at the time. Brand values must be present in all the activities of the employees. To this end, it is necessary to practice a policy of gentle but extensive communication.
• direct communication. It is important to know the degree of understanding of the brand that employees have and be able to detect as well possible distortions with respect to the actual message. This allows to make a communication plan adapted to the shortcomings of the same. For this reason, it is advisable to a previous study using different means such as surveys, informal meetings, etc.
• design the message depending on the type of organization. In these cases, it is advisable to appeal to the moral values but with emphasis on belief rather than intentions.
• Select the appropriate communication channel. It may be through statements of landmark personnel within the company (President, Director General), for example, on the occasion of conventions, departmental meetings, etc. or using traditional media. However, if what you want is to change deeply rooted mental structures, should be imaginative in the means used: corporate videos, large posters and communications via e-mail, unscheduled meetings, etc.
• develop, in the end, a strategic plan which envisages a budget and a realistic lead times. You must keep track of the extent of implementation, recognition and acceptance of the plan and make any corrections that are necessary at all times.
Involvement of the management of the company and acceptance of the main pictures it is essential to ensure the success of internal marketing campaign. To do this, we recommend multifunctional meetings and the creation of multidisciplinary teams for their design as for its implementation and monitoring.



Multilevel marketing (also called marketing networks, network marketing, marketing MLM, MLM) is a business model and a good example of direct marketing in which a person is associated with a parent as an independent company or franchisee and receive compensation based on the sale of products or services and other members associated with such person. This resembles the franchises in which royalties are paid for operations of franchisees and their area or region.

History of the MLM

MLM had during its inception a serious image problem because of the difficulties of making clear distinctions between legitimate network marketing and the 'pyramid schemes' Ponzi schemes.
Amway (the pioneer company of the multilevel, founded in 1959 in Ada (Michigan) and since then leading global marketing network with an annual turnover exceeding $ 6 billion and more than 4 million distributors in 80 countries and territories), was processed by the Department of Justice of the United States in the 1970s winning demand and establishing laws to determine the legal business network. Today, many businesses multilevel legally operating in different parts of the world.
This strategy of multilevel companies to sue has been repeated in different countries, sometimes takes this as a delegitimisation attempt, although finally the judges always have given rulings favorable to these companies, this has led to the fixing of the various laws that regulate and differ between illegal pyramid schemes and multilevel systems. In the case of Spain is the own retail trade law which establishes the definitions of both systems and the illegality of the pyramid schemes.

MLM vs pyramid

Critics allege that some companies get their benefits above all, attracting new participants and not based on selling products, but the criticism against mentions that this is precisely one of the characteristics that differentiate the pyramid schemes that pay the incorporation of new partners to the pyramid, while only multilevel systems pay for the movement of goods. Note that in pyramidal system only the first distributors to reach a Virgin area might be rich because they have the opportunity to get enough customers to build a big enough network. As the market becomes saturated distributors, each time is more difficult to sell the product and acquire new customers. If it attracts new distributors in a market already saturated with the promise that they will be rich, newly recruited distributors are being swindled.

Marketing companies

Some significant multi-level marketing companies may be listed in the dmoz (dmoz Open Directory project). Oriflame is an example of a company of network marketing in Spain and Forever Freedom International and Vip Connectz in United States.

Legal compensation plans

Over the decades the companies have designed different MLM compensation plans. There is personal gain from the sale of products and, in addition, proceeds by setting up a network according to the following compensation plans:
• Phased plan. Also called Breakaway. It is the oldest and most used so far. It is the most used plan and the only one that has proven its success. Distributors earn a Commission from their personal sales (discount on volume of sales) and sales of its groups that exist below them, until they match them on the step (hence its name). Companies as Herbalife, Amway or Forever Living fly is Spain with this model.
• Plan matrix. This plan limited the width of each level in a group of distributors, forcing strong distributors thus pile to their new recruits under people who did the work of sponsoring them. Also called Matrix. Very popular in Australian company created in the 1990s.
• Binary plan. This plan just two legs the width of each level. The main advantage is that there are no steps or levels. Partners earn the same thing of all its distributors regardless of the level in which they find themselves. It promotes teamwork. The binary pay for balance between sales of each leg or line (left and right) the problem arises enn the difficulty of getting the balance between both feet. Use it companies such as www.bestway.es and www.myffi.biz

Illegal structures

This type of structure have nothing to do with Marketing MLM or network marketing, however it is important to describe them to see the difference:
• Structure lift or pyramidal. In this last, its legality is questioned and consists of a "game board" in which each distributor pays to participate or receive bonus. This scheme, is considered to be a fraud, giving the money to the founder of the business and leaving in the last bankruptcy coming.
It should be noted that in the scheme of an elevator or pyramid does not exist a product, it's money in Exchange for money without receiving any product to change and this makes it illegal.

The multilevel trade legislation

Some countries have provided this mechanism of trade legislation. Spain retailer 7/1996 applies the law of management of trade, where the article 22legaliza multilevel marketing and article 23 prohibits the pyramids.
There are global organizations, such as the WFDSA, which protect the consumer - founded in 1978, the WFDSA is a voluntary, non-governmental organization representing the direct selling industry globally as a Federation of national direct sales (ADL) associations. There are currently more than 50 AVD represented in the Federation and in 1997 its members worldwide retail sales were estimated at more than 80,000 million dollars (U.S.A.) through the activities of more than 25 million independent sellers.



Definition of reputational Marketing

Based on the holistic proposed by Kotler, we can say that Marketing Reputacional represents the incorporation of the vision and tools of marketing strategies of CSR organizations aiming to build and increase the reputation of all stakeholders that comprise it. Marketing Reputacional is based on the absolute integration of CSR as a model of management and organizations. Still in the essence of its mission. Dialogue from organizations with its various stakeholders should be aimed at the construction and increase the mutual reputation. Declining values, attributes, and more related actions according to its position for each of them. Always in coherent and credible with respect to the mission and vision of the organization said.

The origins of the Marketing

The origins of marketing are inevitably associated with a proper name: Philip Kotler. Considered the father of the marketing, the more recognised authority in this matter, in addition to working as a consultant for large companies like General Motors, General Electrics, IBM and Bank of America, among many others, or be practising as Professor (currently) from the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, the Chicago expert has published more than 20 books that at the same time, they have been translated into more than 20 languages. Theirs are considered the most important works in the field of marketing. 'Address of marketing'; 'Fundamentals of marketing'; 'According to Kotler Marketing' or 'Marketing Management' are only some of the titles that make up its extensive bibliography. Kotler defined the Marketing in the following way: "Is the technique of business administration which allows to anticipate the structure of the market demand chosen, to conceive, promote and distribute the goods or services that meet her or stimulate, at the same time maximizing the profits of the company." Kotler 4 model defined in 1967, P's that have marked an epoch in marketing:
• Product
• Price
• Square (place)
• Promotion

Marketing today: the 4 P's to the 6 C's

Without, however, today the 4 P's are being replaced by the C client. Even the same Kotler speaks of a transfer of a model of marketing focused on the product/company to one that focuses on the consumer. The C of the client, in turn, brings with it more c's, such as the cost, convenience and communication c. In addition to the strategy of Kotler, you should emphasize the incorporation of Marketing Reputacional within organizations, which is articulated through the model of the 6 C´s that started to be mentioned before:
• Client (or consumer). Understand the customer, meet their needs and motivations is one of the keys of marketing today. It's focus on the marketing strategy of the company to the customer. This means that companies must start by focusing your target.
• Consistency. It refers to the comprehensive marketing, ranging from the advertising of the company or brand to the packaging and sale promotions. I.e., it is essential to maintain, as a company, consistency in communication.
• Creativity. Creativity in a company or product is essential. It is the image, the distinctive mark of the company or the product. It is the first and most important resource used to attract attention. Creativity informs, persuades, and recalls. Creativity gets our company or product are present in the minds of potential customers.
• Culture. As well as the customer c, culture implies the knowledge of the culture of our clients. This implies a prior research allowing to be based on the conclusions of the same with respect to culture, to the way of thinking and seeing a product that every consumer has.
• Communication. Good communication establishes relationships between company and customer.
• Change. Marketing, to be effective, must be in continuous change. You must change the rhythm which makes it society. In this sense, marketing is a process of development always at the expense of the economy, the market and consumers in the society in which it is framed.
Just as we speak of society 2.0, we must think about organizations 2.0, where the reputation associated with sustainability represents that space of identification, interaction and recognition among all stakeholders.



A pet is an animal, person or animated object that is chosen as a representative visual, identifier or symbol to represent a group of people, an institution, a company, a brand, or an event.
To make pet, it is customary to use the more or less transformed image of an animal that has a relationship, sometimes quite remote, with the group or the event that represents.
The word is of recent origin and comes from the Provencal mascoto, meaning spell. It was popularized when the French composer Edmond Audran wrote the operetta "La Mascotte", premiered in Paris on December 30, 1880, which was more than one year in cartel continuously due to the great success obtained.

Pet-friendly sporting events

Summer Olympic Games




Mexico 1968

Trono-Jaguar *

In the form of Red jaguar throne

Munich 1972


Dog Dachshund

Montreal 1976



Moscow 1980


Brown bear

The 1984

Eagle Sam

Bald Eagle

Seoul 1988



Barcelona 1992


Catalan Sheepdog

Atlanta 1996


Abstract figure

Sydney 2000







Athens 2004

Athena and Phoebus


Beijing 2008




Panda bear


Olympic flame





  • (*) - Unofficial mascot

Winter Olympic Games




Grenoble 1968

Schuss *


Innsbruck 1976



Lake Placid 1980



Sarajevo 1984



Calgary 1988

Hidy and Howdy

Polar bears

Albertville 1992


Male star

Lillehammer 1994

Håkon and Kristin


Nagano 1998


Four owls

Salt Lake City 2002


Snow rabbit




Brown bear

Turin 2006




Ice cube

Vancouver 2010


"Sea bear"
(orca and Kermode bear mix)


Big foot


"Animal spirit"
(thunderbird and black bear mix)

  • (*) - Unofficial mascot

Soccer World Cup




England 1966



Mexico 1970


Child with Hat rancher


Tip and Tap

Boys footballers

Argentina 1978


Gaucho child

Spain 1982



Mexico 1986


Jalapeño Chile

Italy 1990


Footballer represented with bars

United States 1994



France 1998



Korea/Japan 2002

ATO, Kaz and Nik

Futuristic abstract figures

Germany 2006


Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.


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