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2 Chronicles 6-7-8-9, Bible Highlights: week starting november 30

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Highlights From Bible Reading: 2 Chronicles 6-9. Information for personal study.

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Research for Highlights of : 2 Chronicles 6-9


(2 CHRONICLES 6:4)

“He said: “May Jehovah the God of Israel be praised, the one who by his own mouth promised my father David and by his own hands has given fulfillment, saying,”

*** w05 12/1 p. 19 par. 7 Highlights From the Book of Second Chronicles ***
6:4. Heartfelt appreciation for Jehovah’s loving-kindness and goodness should move us to bless Jehovah—that is, praise him with affection and gratitude.

(2 CHRONICLES 6:29)

“whatever prayer, whatever request for favor may be made by any man or by all your people Israel (for each one knows his own plague and his own pain) when they spread out their hands toward this house,”

*** w10 12/1 p. 11 He Knows “the Heart of the Sons of Mankind” ***
Draw Close to God
He Knows “the Heart of the Sons of Mankind”
2 CHRONICLES 6:29, 30
WHO of us has not felt overwhelmed by life’s challenges and problems? At times, it may seem that there is no one who can truly grasp the struggles we face or the deep pain we feel. Yet, there is someone who fully understands our feelings—Jehovah God. We can find comfort in the words of Solomon found at 2 Chronicles 6:29, 30.
Solomon is offering a prayer at the inauguration of the temple in Jerusalem in 1026 B.C.E. In his prayer, perhaps ten minutes in duration, Solomon extols Jehovah as a God of loyalty, the Fulfiller of promises, and the Hearer of prayer.—1 Kings 8:23-53; 2 Chronicles 6:14-42.
Solomon implores God to hear the entreaty of his worshippers. (Verse 29) Although Solomon mentions many afflictions (verse 28), he notes that each worshipper knows “his own plague” and feels “his own pain.” One person might be grieved by one thing while another may carry a very different inward burden.
Whatever the case, God-fearing ones need not carry their burdens alone. In his prayer, Solomon has in mind the individual worshipper who may be moved to ‘spread out his palms,’ approaching Jehovah in heartfelt prayer. Perhaps Solomon recalls that his father, David, when greatly distressed, said: “Throw your burden upon Jehovah.”—Psalm 55:4, 22.
How will Jehovah respond to sincere pleas for help? Solomon beseeches Jehovah: “May you yourself hear from the heavens, the place of your dwelling, and you must forgive and give to each one according to all his ways.” (Verse 30) Solomon knows that the “Hearer of prayer” cares about his worshippers not just as a group but also as individuals. (Psalm 65:2) Jehovah provides the help needed, including forgiveness for the sinner who returns to God with all his heart.—2 Chronicles 6:36-39.
Why is Solomon sure that Jehovah will respond to the pleas of the repentant worshipper? Continuing his prayer, Solomon observes: “Because you [Jehovah] know his heart (for you yourself alone well know the heart of all the sons of mankind).” Jehovah is aware of the plague or pain that each faithful worshipper may carry in his heart, and his distress matters to Him.—Psalm 37:4.
We can draw comfort from Solomon’s prayer. Fellow humans may not fully understand our inner feelings—our “own plague” and our “own pain.” (Proverbs 14:10) But Jehovah knows our heart, and he deeply cares about us. Pouring out our heart to him in prayer can make our burdens easier to bear. “Throw all your anxiety upon him,” says the Bible, “because he cares for you.”—1 Peter 5:7.
[Footnote]
In Bible times, ‘spreading out the palms,’ holding out the hands with the palms facing upward, was a gesture of prayer.—2 Chronicles 6:13.

*** w08 3/15 pp. 12-13 pars. 5-6 Jehovah Hears Our Cries for Help ***
5 David’s son Solomon highlighted this fact at the dedication of the temple in Jerusalem. (Read 2 Chronicles 6:29-31.) He implored Jehovah to hear the prayer of each honesthearted one who approached Him concerning “his own plague and his own pain.” How would God react to the prayers of these distressed individuals? Solomon expressed his confidence that God would not only hear their prayers but also act in their behalf. Why? Because he truly knows what is in “the heart of the sons of mankind.”
6 We can likewise approach Jehovah in prayer concerning ‘our own plague and our own pain,’ our individual distresses. We should be comforted in knowing that he understands our distresses and that he cares about us.

*** w04 1/1 p. 32 Does God Care About Us? ***
Does God Care About Us?
DO YOU find yourself laboring under an emotional load because of problems with your family, health, work, or other weighty responsibilities? Many people do. And who today is not affected by injustice, crime, and violence? Indeed, it is just as the Bible says: “All creation keeps on groaning together and being in pain together until now.” (Romans 8:22) No wonder that many people ask: ‘Does God care? Will he come to our aid?’
Wise King Solomon said to God in prayer: “You yourself alone well know the heart of the sons of mankind.” Solomon trusted that God not only knows us but also cares about us as individuals. He was able to ask God to “hear from the heavens” and to answer the prayers of each God-fearing individual who reveals to God “his own plague and his own pain.”—2 Chronicles 6:29, 30.
Today, Jehovah God still cares about us and invites us to call on him in prayer. (Psalm 50:15) He promises to respond to heartfelt prayers that are in harmony with his will. (Psalm 55:16, 22; Luke 11:5-13; 2 Corinthians 4:7) Yes, Jehovah listens to “whatever prayer, whatever request for favor there may occur on the part of any man or of all [his] people.” Hence, if we put our trust in God, pray for his help, and draw close to him, we will experience his loving care and guidance. (Proverbs 3:5, 6) The Bible writer James assures us: “Draw close to God, and he will draw close to you.”—James 4:8.

*** w97 4/15 p. 4 “The God of Peace” Cares for the Afflicted ***
Jehovah is not aloof concerning the adversities of his people. (Psalm 34:15) He is attentive to the needs not only of his servants as a group but also of each individual who fears him. When dedicating the temple in ancient Jerusalem, Solomon implored Jehovah to listen to “whatever prayer, whatever request for favor there may occur on the part of any man or of all your people Israel, because they know each one his own plague and his own pain.” (2 Chronicles 6:29) As Solomon acknowledged, each individual has his own unique affliction to endure. For one person it might be physical illness. For another, emotional distress. Some may be afflicted by the death of a loved one. Unemployment, economic hardship, and family problems are also common afflictions in these difficult times.

(2 CHRONICLES 6:30)

“then may you hear from the heavens, your dwelling place, and may you forgive; and reward each one according to all his ways, for you know his heart (you alone truly know the human heart),”

*** w10 12/1 p. 11 He Knows “the Heart of the Sons of Mankind” ***
Draw Close to God
He Knows “the Heart of the Sons of Mankind”
2 CHRONICLES 6:29, 30
WHO of us has not felt overwhelmed by life’s challenges and problems? At times, it may seem that there is no one who can truly grasp the struggles we face or the deep pain we feel. Yet, there is someone who fully understands our feelings—Jehovah God. We can find comfort in the words of Solomon found at 2 Chronicles 6:29, 30.
Solomon is offering a prayer at the inauguration of the temple in Jerusalem in 1026 B.C.E. In his prayer, perhaps ten minutes in duration, Solomon extols Jehovah as a God of loyalty, the Fulfiller of promises, and the Hearer of prayer.—1 Kings 8:23-53; 2 Chronicles 6:14-42.
Solomon implores God to hear the entreaty of his worshippers. (Verse 29) Although Solomon mentions many afflictions (verse 28), he notes that each worshipper knows “his own plague” and feels “his own pain.” One person might be grieved by one thing while another may carry a very different inward burden.
Whatever the case, God-fearing ones need not carry their burdens alone. In his prayer, Solomon has in mind the individual worshipper who may be moved to ‘spread out his palms,’ approaching Jehovah in heartfelt prayer. Perhaps Solomon recalls that his father, David, when greatly distressed, said: “Throw your burden upon Jehovah.”—Psalm 55:4, 22.
How will Jehovah respond to sincere pleas for help? Solomon beseeches Jehovah: “May you yourself hear from the heavens, the place of your dwelling, and you must forgive and give to each one according to all his ways.” (Verse 30) Solomon knows that the “Hearer of prayer” cares about his worshippers not just as a group but also as individuals. (Psalm 65:2) Jehovah provides the help needed, including forgiveness for the sinner who returns to God with all his heart.—2 Chronicles 6:36-39.
Why is Solomon sure that Jehovah will respond to the pleas of the repentant worshipper? Continuing his prayer, Solomon observes: “Because you [Jehovah] know his heart (for you yourself alone well know the heart of all the sons of mankind).” Jehovah is aware of the plague or pain that each faithful worshipper may carry in his heart, and his distress matters to Him.—Psalm 37:4.
We can draw comfort from Solomon’s prayer. Fellow humans may not fully understand our inner feelings—our “own plague” and our “own pain.” (Proverbs 14:10) But Jehovah knows our heart, and he deeply cares about us. Pouring out our heart to him in prayer can make our burdens easier to bear. “Throw all your anxiety upon him,” says the Bible, “because he cares for you.”—1 Peter 5:7.
[Footnote]
In Bible times, ‘spreading out the palms,’ holding out the hands with the palms facing upward, was a gesture of prayer.—2 Chronicles 6:13.

*** w08 3/15 pp. 12-13 pars. 5-6 Jehovah Hears Our Cries for Help ***
5 David’s son Solomon highlighted this fact at the dedication of the temple in Jerusalem. (Read 2 Chronicles 6:29-31.) He implored Jehovah to hear the prayer of each honesthearted one who approached Him concerning “his own plague and his own pain.” How would God react to the prayers of these distressed individuals? Solomon expressed his confidence that God would not only hear their prayers but also act in their behalf. Why? Because he truly knows what is in “the heart of the sons of mankind.”
6 We can likewise approach Jehovah in prayer concerning ‘our own plague and our own pain,’ our individual distresses. We should be comforted in knowing that he understands our distresses and that he cares about us.

*** w04 1/1 p. 32 Does God Care About Us? ***
Does God Care About Us?
DO YOU find yourself laboring under an emotional load because of problems with your family, health, work, or other weighty responsibilities? Many people do. And who today is not affected by injustice, crime, and violence? Indeed, it is just as the Bible says: “All creation keeps on groaning together and being in pain together until now.” (Romans 8:22) No wonder that many people ask: ‘Does God care? Will he come to our aid?’
Wise King Solomon said to God in prayer: “You yourself alone well know the heart of the sons of mankind.” Solomon trusted that God not only knows us but also cares about us as individuals. He was able to ask God to “hear from the heavens” and to answer the prayers of each God-fearing individual who reveals to God “his own plague and his own pain.”—2 Chronicles 6:29, 30.
Today, Jehovah God still cares about us and invites us to call on him in prayer. (Psalm 50:15) He promises to respond to heartfelt prayers that are in harmony with his will. (Psalm 55:16, 22; Luke 11:5-13; 2 Corinthians 4:7) Yes, Jehovah listens to “whatever prayer, whatever request for favor there may occur on the part of any man or of all [his] people.” Hence, if we put our trust in God, pray for his help, and draw close to him, we will experience his loving care and guidance. (Proverbs 3:5, 6) The Bible writer James assures us: “Draw close to God, and he will draw close to you.”—James 4:8.

(2 CHRONICLES 7:14)

“if my people on whom my name has been called humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn away from their evil ways, then I will hear from the heavens and forgive their sin and heal their land.”

*** g94 1/22 p. 19 How Can I Break Free From a Double Life? ***
Simply feeling bad about what you are doing is not enough, though. A young man named Robert, who got involved in a secret practice of drug abuse, admits: “I was miserable. I knew right from wrong. Still, I continued leading a double life.” Courageous action is thus needed! At 2 Chronicles 7:14, God said that if sinners would “humble themselves and pray and seek [his] face and turn back from their bad ways, then [he himself would] hear from the heavens and forgive their sin.”
‘Seeking God’s face’ means to approach him in prayer, confess your wrong, and beg for forgiveness. This may not be easy to do, but you will no doubt feel greatly relieved for having done so.

(2 CHRONICLES 8:2)

“Solʹo•mon rebuilt the cities that Hiʹram had given Solʹo•mon and settled Israelites there.”

*** it-1 p. 381 Cabul ***
In the parallel account of events following the completion of Solomon’s building project, 2 Chronicles 8:2 mentions cities “that Hiram had given to Solomon,” which cities Solomon rebuilt for use by the Israelites. Whether or not these were the same cities that Solomon had first presented as a gift to Hiram is not stated. If so, then this text would indicate that Hiram rejected the gift. It is also suggested by some that an exchange of gifts of cities was involved, though this is not mentioned in the account at First Kings 9.

*** it-1 p. 1121 Hiram ***
At the end of Solomon’s 20-year building project he gave Hiram 20 cities, but they proved most undesirable in Hiram’s eyes. (1Ki 9:10-13; see CABUL No. 2.) Whether Hiram returned these same cities or gave Solomon other cities is not certain. (2Ch 8:1, 2)

(2 CHRONICLES 8:3)

“Furthermore, Solʹo•mon went to Haʹmath-zoʹbah and captured it.”

*** it-1 p. 1025 Hamath-zobah ***
HAMATH-ZOBAH
(Haʹmath-zoʹbah).
This place was apparently conquered by Solomon and thus figuring in his only military engagement alluded to in Scripture. (2Ch 8:3) The exact identity of Hamath-zobah is uncertain. Hamath and Zobah may have been adjoining kingdoms (compare 1Ch 18:9; 2Ch 8:4), whence the compound name “Hamath-zobah.” That two neighboring geographic locations may be joined in this way is illustrated by 1 Chronicles 6:78. The literal Hebrew of this text reads “the Jordan Jericho,” or “the Jordan of Jericho,” and is usually rendered “the Jordan at [by] Jericho.”—NW, RS, KJ.

*** it-2 p. 1240 Zobah ***
The compound form “Hamath-zobah” may designate adjoining kingdoms named Hamath and Zobah. (2Ch 8:3)

(2 CHRONICLES 8:4)

“Then he built up Tadʹmor in the wilderness and all the storage cities that he had built in Haʹmath.”

*** w99 1/15 p. 28 “The Dark-Haired Mistress of the Syrian Wild” ***
A City at the Edge of a Desert
Zenobia’s city, Palmyra, was situated about 130 miles [210 km] northeast of Damascus, at the northern edge of the Syrian Desert where the Anti-Lebanon mountains drop off into the plain. This oasis city was about halfway between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and the Euphrates River to the east. King Solomon may have known it as Tadmor, a place that was vital to his kingdom’s welfare on two counts: as a garrison for the defense of the northern frontier and as a crucial link in the chain of caravan towns. Therefore, Solomon “rebuilt Tadmor in the wilderness.”—2 Chronicles 8:4.
The history of the thousand years following King Solomon’s reign is silent about Tadmor. If correctly identified with Palmyra, its climb to prominence began after Syria became an outpost province of the Roman Empire in 64 B.C.E.

*** it-2 pp. 1061-1062 Tadmor ***
TADMOR
(Tadʹmor).
A wilderness location where Solomon did building work sometime after 1017 B.C.E. (2Ch 8:1, 4) Tadmor is commonly identified with the city known to the Greeks and Romans as Palmyra. Its ruins lie in an oasis on the northern edge of the Syrian Desert about 210 km (130 mi) NE of Damascus. A nearby village is still called Tudmur by the Arabs. If correctly identified with Palmyra, Tadmor may have served as a garrison city for defending the distant northern border of Solomon’s kingdom and also as an important caravan stop.—See TAMAR No. 4.

(2 CHRONICLES 8:10)

“There were 250 chiefs of the deputies of King Solʹo•mon, the foremen over the people.”

*** w05 12/1 p. 19 par. 2 Highlights From the Book of Second Chronicles ***
2:18; 8:10—These verses state that the number of deputies serving as overseers and as foremen over the labor force was 3,600 plus 250, whereas according to 1 Kings 5:16; 9:23, they numbered 3,300 plus 550. Why do the numbers differ? The difference seems to be in the way the deputies are classified. It may be that Second Chronicles differentiates between 3,600 non-Israelites and 250 Israelite deputies, while First Kings distinguishes 3,300 foremen from 550 chief supervisors of higher rank. In any case, the total number of those serving as deputies was 3,850.

*** it-1 p. 615 Deputy ***
“Princely deputies” also served as foremen and overseers of the labor force engaged in construction during Solomon’s reign. It seems that the two accounts of these deputies in First Kings and Second Chronicles differed only in methods of classification, the first listing 3,300 plus 550 for a total of 3,850 (1Ki 5:16; 9:23), and the second giving 3,600 plus 250, which also totals 3,850. (2Ch 2:18; 8:10) Scholars (Ewald, Keil, Michaelis) suggest that the Chronicles figures distinguish between the 3,600 non-Israelite and the 250 Israelite deputies, whereas in Kings the distinction in deputies is between 3,300 subordinate foremen and 550 chief supervisors, this latter figure including 300 non-Israelites.

(2 CHRONICLES 8:18)

“Hiʹram sent him ships and experienced seamen by means of his own servants. They went with Solʹo•mon’s servants to Oʹphir and took from there 450 talents of gold and brought it to King Solʹo•mon.”

*** it-1 p. 796 Ezion-geber ***
It may be noted that both in Solomon’s case and in that of Jehoshaphat some of the ships were intended to go not only to Ophir but also to Tarshish. (2Ch 9:21; 20:36, 37) Since the evidence is strong that Tarshish was in Spain, some have doubted that ships sailing from Ezion-geber could have made such a trip in ancient times. As to this, see the article TARSHISH No. 4, where the possibility of the existence of a Nile–Red Sea canal is presented. Such a canal might also explain how King Hiram could send not only men but “ships” to Ezion-geber and Eloth (Elath) for Solomon’s use. (2Ch 8:17, 18) On the other hand, it has also been suggested that these ships may have been sent to a point on the Philistine coast, dismantled, and transported overland to the Gulf of ʽAqaba, where they were reconstructed. Those holding this view point out that the Crusaders later used a similar method. Whether by some Nile–Red Sea canal or by an overland route, it seems likely that at least timber was supplied from forest lands elsewhere, since the region around Ezion-geber has palm groves but no trees suitable for ship construction.

*** it-2 p. 558 Ophir ***
Later, the trading fleet of David’s son Solomon regularly brought back from Ophir 420 talents of gold. (1Ki 9:26-28) The parallel account at 2 Chronicles 8:18 reads 450 talents. Some scholars have suggested that this difference came about when letters of the alphabet served as figures—that an ancient copyist could have mistaken the Hebrew numeral letter nun (נ), representing 50, for the letter kaph (כ), standing for 20, or vice versa. However, the evidence is that all numbers in the Hebrew Scriptures were spelled out, rather than represented by letters. A more probable explanation, therefore, is that both figures are correct and that the gross amount brought was 450 talents, of which 420 were clear gain.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:1)

“Now the queen of Sheʹba heard the report about Solʹo•mon, so she came to Jerusalem to test Solʹo•mon with perplexing questions. She was accompanied by a very impressive entourage, with camels carrying balsam oil and great quantities of gold and precious stones. She went in to Solʹo•mon and spoke to him about everything that was close to her heart.”

*** it-1 p. 140 Arabia ***
Because of the great superiority of the camel over the ass for extended desert travel, its domestication is considered to have accomplished somewhat of an economic revolution for Arabia, contributing to the development of the so-called “Spice Kingdoms” of South Arabia.
Camel caravans out of the more fertile S wound along the desert routes that ran parallel to the Red Sea, moving from oasis to oasis and from well to well until reaching the Sinai Peninsula, from which point they could branch off to Egypt or continue up into Palestine or to Damascus. Besides their highly prized spices and aromatic resins, such as frankincense and myrrh (Isa 60:6), they might carry gold and algum wood from Ophir (1Ki 9:28; 10:11) and precious gems, as did the queen of Sheba on her visit to King Solomon. (1Ki 10:1-10, 15; 2Ch 9:1-9, 14)

(2 CHRONICLES 9:4)

“the food of his table, the seating of his servants, the table service of his waiters and their attire, his cupbearers and their attire, and his burnt sacrifices that he regularly offered up at the house of Jehovah, she was left completely breathless.”

*** w99 11/1 p. 23 When Generosity Abounds ***
During Solomon’s glorious reign, “all the kings of the earth” who heard of him came to visit him. Yet, the Bible names only one ruler—the queen of Sheba. (2 Chronicles 9:23) What a sacrifice she made! But she was richly rewarded—so much so that by the end of her visit, she was left “breathless and amazed.”—2 Chronicles 9:4, Today’s English Version.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:9)

“Then she gave the king 120 talents of gold and a great quantity of balsam oil and precious stones. Never again was such balsam oil brought in as what the queen of Sheʹba gave to King Solʹo•mon.”

*** it-2 p. 913 Sheba ***
2Ch 9:1-9) The queen gave Solomon 120 talents of gold (valued now at $46,242,000) as well as balsam oil and precious stones.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:11)

“The king made from the algum timbers stairs for the house of Jehovah and for the king’s house, as well as harps and stringed instruments for the singers. Nothing like them had ever been seen before in the land of Judah.”

*** it-1 p. 72 Algum ***
ALGUM
[Heb., ʼal•gum•mimʹ (2Ch 2:8; 9:10, 11); ʼal•mug•gimʹ (1Ki 10:11, 12)].
A tree included by Solomon in his request to Hiram of Tyre for timbers for the construction of the temple and from which stairs and supports as well as harps and stringed instruments were constructed.
The algum tree of this account cannot be identified with certainty. It is traditionally suggested to be the red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus) now found in India and Sri Lanka, although some favor the white sandalwood (Santalum album), perhaps because of Josephus’ statement that it is whitish in color. (Jewish Antiquities, VIII, 177 [vii, 1]) The red sandalwood grows to heights of about 7.5 to 9 m (25 to 30 ft) and has a hard, fine-grained, reddish-brown wood that takes a high polish. It is suggested as suitable for musical instruments of the type mentioned in the Bible account. The wood has a sweet scent and is highly resistant to insects.
The red sandalwood does not grow in Lebanon at the present time. However, the record is not definite whether the “algum” trees were native to Lebanon or not. At any rate, Hiram later saw fit to bring them from Ophir, and here again, the timbers may have been imports even in Ophir, as it was in position to act as a trading center dealing with India, Egypt, and other places in Africa. (1Ki 10:11, 22) The rarity and preciousness of the wood delivered by Hiram is indicated by the statement that “timbers of algum trees like this have not come in nor have they been seen down to this day.”—1Ki 10:12.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:12)

“King Solʹo•mon also gave the queen of Sheʹba whatever she desired and asked for, more than what she had brought to the king. Then she left and returned to her own land, together with her servants.”

*** w99 11/1 p. 20 When Generosity Abounds ***
The queen of Sheba was obviously a wealthy and generous woman. What is more, her generosity was returned to her. “King Solomon,” the Bible says, “gave the queen of Sheba all her delight for which she had asked, besides the value of what she brought to the king.” (2 Chronicles 9:12) True, it may have been the custom for royalty to exchange gifts; yet, the Bible specifically mentions Solomon’s “openhandedness.” (1 Kings 10:13) Solomon himself wrote: “The generous soul will itself be made fat, and the one freely watering others will himself also be freely watered.”—Proverbs 11:25.

*** it-2 p. 913 Sheba ***
Solomon gave her gifts that apparently exceeded the value of the treasures she brought, and then she returned to her own land.—2Ch 9:12, AT, Mo.

*** g87 11/22 p. 4 The Greater Happiness of Giving—Do You Experience It? ***
When the unnamed queen of Sheba traveled to Jerusalem to visit King Solomon, she was moved by his God-given wisdom and pronounced his servants happy for being able to hear and benefit from this wisest of men. So moved was she that she presented Solomon with gifts of 120 talents of gold (worth about $50,000,000) as well as precious stones and much-prized balsam oil. She may have depleted her tiny kingdom’s treasury by a considerable sum, but doubtless she experienced the joy of giving. Solomon too was to experience the joy of giving, for he gave her gifts in return that apparently exceeded the value of the treasures she had given him.—2 Chronicles 9:12; American Translation, Moffatt.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:13)

“And the weight of the gold that came to Solʹo•mon in one year amounted to 666 talents of gold,”

*** it-2 p. 990 Solomon ***
Solomon’s annual revenue of gold came to be 666 talents (c. $256,643,000), aside from silver and gold and other items brought in by merchants. (1Ki 10:14, 15; 2Ch 9:13, 14)

(2 CHRONICLES 9:15)

“King Solʹo•mon made 200 large shields of alloyed gold (600 shekels of alloyed gold went on each shield)”

*** it-1 p. 171 Arms, Armor ***
The smaller “shield” or “buckler” (Heb., ma•ghenʹ) was customarily carried by archers and is usually associated with light weapons such as the bow. For instance, it was carried by Benjaminite bowmen of Judean King Asa’s military force. (2Ch 14:8) The smaller shield was usually round and more common than the large shield, probably being used chiefly in hand-to-hand fighting. That the Hebrew tsin•nahʹ and ma•ghenʹ differed considerably in size seems to be indicated by the gold shields Solomon made, the large shield being overlaid with four times as much gold as the smaller shield, or buckler. (1Ki 10:16, 17; 2Ch 9:15, 16) Ma•ghenʹ, like tsin•nahʹ, seems to be used as part of a formula for weapons of war.—2Ch 14:8; 17:17; 32:5.

*** it-1 p. 1156 House of the Forest of Lebanon ***
After Solomon finished the house, he placed in it 200 large shields of alloyed gold, each overlaid with 600 shekels of gold (worth c. $77,000), and 300 bucklers of alloyed gold, each plated with three minas of gold (worth c. $19,300). This would be over 21 million dollars’ worth of gold on the shields and bucklers. Besides this, there was an unstated number of gold vessels used in the house. (1Ki 10:16, 17, 21; 2Ch 9:15, 16, 20) These gold shields were carried away by Shishak king of Egypt during the reign of Solomon’s son Rehoboam.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:16)

“and 300 bucklers of alloyed gold (three miʹnas of gold went on each buckler). Then the king put them in the House of the Forest of Lebʹa•non.”

*** it-1 p. 171 Arms, Armor ***
The smaller “shield” or “buckler” (Heb., ma•ghenʹ) was customarily carried by archers and is usually associated with light weapons such as the bow. For instance, it was carried by Benjaminite bowmen of Judean King Asa’s military force. (2Ch 14:8) The smaller shield was usually round and more common than the large shield, probably being used chiefly in hand-to-hand fighting. That the Hebrew tsin•nahʹ and ma•ghenʹ differed considerably in size seems to be indicated by the gold shields Solomon made, the large shield being overlaid with four times as much gold as the smaller shield, or buckler. (1Ki 10:16, 17; 2Ch 9:15, 16) Ma•ghenʹ, like tsin•nahʹ, seems to be used as part of a formula for weapons of war.—2Ch 14:8; 17:17; 32:5.

*** it-1 p. 1156 House of the Forest of Lebanon ***
After Solomon finished the house, he placed in it 200 large shields of alloyed gold, each overlaid with 600 shekels of gold (worth c. $77,000), and 300 bucklers of alloyed gold, each plated with three minas of gold (worth c. $19,300). This would be over 21 million dollars’ worth of gold on the shields and bucklers. Besides this, there was an unstated number of gold vessels used in the house. (1Ki 10:16, 17, 21; 2Ch 9:15, 16, 20) These gold shields were carried away by Shishak king of Egypt during the reign of Solomon’s son Rehoboam.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:17)

“The king also made a great ivory throne and overlaid it with pure gold.”

*** it-2 p. 1097 Throne ***
It was ‘a great ivory throne overlaid with refined gold with a round canopy behind it and armrests.’ Although ivory could have been the basic material in this royal chair, the construction technique generally followed at the temple would seem to indicate that it was made of wood, overlaid with refined gold and richly ornamented with inlaid panels of ivory. To the observer, such a throne would appear to be made entirely of ivory and gold. After mentioning six steps leading to the throne, the record continues: “Two lions were standing beside the armrests. And there were twelve lions standing there upon the six steps, on this side and on that side.” (2Ch 9:17-19) The symbolism of the lion denoting ruling authority is appropriate. (Ge 49:9, 10; Re 5:5) The 12 lions appear to have corresponded to the 12 tribes of Israel, possibly symbolizing their subjection to and support of the ruler on this throne. Attached in some way to the throne was a footstool of gold. By its description this ivory-and-gold throne—in its lofty, canopied position with the majestic lions in front—transcends any throne of that time period, whether discovered by archaeologists, depicted on the monuments, or described in the inscriptions. As the chronicler truthfully observed: “No other kingdom had any made just like it.”—2Ch 9:19.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:18)

“There were six steps to the throne, and there was a gold footstool attached to the throne, and there were armrests on both sides of the seat, and two lions were standing beside the armrests.”

*** it-2 p. 1097 Throne ***
It was ‘a great ivory throne overlaid with refined gold with a round canopy behind it and armrests.’ Although ivory could have been the basic material in this royal chair, the construction technique generally followed at the temple would seem to indicate that it was made of wood, overlaid with refined gold and richly ornamented with inlaid panels of ivory. To the observer, such a throne would appear to be made entirely of ivory and gold. After mentioning six steps leading to the throne, the record continues: “Two lions were standing beside the armrests. And there were twelve lions standing there upon the six steps, on this side and on that side.” (2Ch 9:17-19) The symbolism of the lion denoting ruling authority is appropriate. (Ge 49:9, 10; Re 5:5) The 12 lions appear to have corresponded to the 12 tribes of Israel, possibly symbolizing their subjection to and support of the ruler on this throne. Attached in some way to the throne was a footstool of gold. By its description this ivory-and-gold throne—in its lofty, canopied position with the majestic lions in front—transcends any throne of that time period, whether discovered by archaeologists, depicted on the monuments, or described in the inscriptions. As the chronicler truthfully observed: “No other kingdom had any made just like it.”—2Ch 9:19.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:19)

“And there were 12 lions standing on the six steps, one at each end of the six steps. No other kingdom had made anything like it.”

*** it-2 p. 1097 Throne ***
It was ‘a great ivory throne overlaid with refined gold with a round canopy behind it and armrests.’ Although ivory could have been the basic material in this royal chair, the construction technique generally followed at the temple would seem to indicate that it was made of wood, overlaid with refined gold and richly ornamented with inlaid panels of ivory. To the observer, such a throne would appear to be made entirely of ivory and gold. After mentioning six steps leading to the throne, the record continues: “Two lions were standing beside the armrests. And there were twelve lions standing there upon the six steps, on this side and on that side.” (2Ch 9:17-19) The symbolism of the lion denoting ruling authority is appropriate. (Ge 49:9, 10; Re 5:5) The 12 lions appear to have corresponded to the 12 tribes of Israel, possibly symbolizing their subjection to and support of the ruler on this throne. Attached in some way to the throne was a footstool of gold. By its description this ivory-and-gold throne—in its lofty, canopied position with the majestic lions in front—transcends any throne of that time period, whether discovered by archaeologists, depicted on the monuments, or described in the inscriptions. As the chronicler truthfully observed: “No other kingdom had any made just like it.”—2Ch 9:19.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:21)

“For the king’s ships would go to Tarʹshish with the servants of Hiʹram. Once every three years, the ships of Tarʹshish would come loaded with gold and silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.”

*** it-1 p. 119 Ape ***
APE
[Heb., qohph].
The apes imported by King Solomon may have been a species of long-tailed monkeys referred to by ancient writers as being native to Ethiopia. (1Ki 10:22; 2Ch 9:21) The fact that the Hebrew word qohph may be related to the Sanskrit word kapi and that peacocks are considered to be native to SE Asia has given rise to the conclusion that the apes were brought by Solomon’s fleet from India or Sri Lanka. However, the imported items need not necessarily have come directly from the country of origin nor from the same land, in view of the indications that commercial intercourse existed between India and Africa even before Solomon’s time.—See PEACOCK; TARSHISH No. 4.

*** it-1 p. 796 Ezion-geber ***
It may be noted that both in Solomon’s case and in that of Jehoshaphat some of the ships were intended to go not only to Ophir but also to Tarshish. (2Ch 9:21; 20:36, 37) Since the evidence is strong that Tarshish was in Spain, some have doubted that ships sailing from Ezion-geber could have made such a trip in ancient times. As to this, see the article TARSHISH No. 4, where the possibility of the existence of a Nile–Red Sea canal is presented. Such a canal might also explain how King Hiram could send not only men but “ships” to Ezion-geber and Eloth (Elath) for Solomon’s use. (2Ch 8:17, 18) On the other hand, it has also been suggested that these ships may have been sent to a point on the Philistine coast, dismantled, and transported overland to the Gulf of ʽAqaba, where they were reconstructed. Those holding this view point out that the Crusaders later used a similar method. Whether by some Nile–Red Sea canal or by an overland route, it seems likely that at least timber was supplied from forest lands elsewhere, since the region around Ezion-geber has palm groves but no trees suitable for ship construction.

*** it-2 pp. 1066-1067 Tarshish ***
It is generally believed that the term “ships of Tarshish” in course of time came to stand for a type of ship, as one lexicon puts it: “large, sea-going vessels, fit to ply to Tarshish.” (A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, by Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 1980, p. 1077) In a similar way, the name Indiamen originally was derived from the name applied to large British ships engaged in trade with India and in time came to apply to ships of that type no matter what their origin or destination. Thus 1 Kings 22:48 shows that King Jehoshaphat (936-911 B.C.E.) “made Tarshish ships to go to Ophir for gold.”
The Chronicles account, however, states that Solomon’s ships used for the triannual voyages “were going to Tarshish” (2Ch 9:21); also that Jehoshaphat’s ships were designed “to go to Tarshish” and, when wrecked, “did not retain strength to go to Tarshish.” (2Ch 20:36, 37) This would indicate that Ophir was not the only port of call of the Israelite “ships of Tarshish,” but that they also navigated Mediterranean waters. This, of course, poses a problem, since the launching site of at least some of these vessels is shown to have been Ezion-geber on the Gulf of ʽAqaba. (1Ki 9:26) For the ships to reach the Mediterranean Sea, they would either have to traverse a canal from the Red Sea to the Nile River and then into the Mediterranean or else circumnavigate the continent of Africa. While it is by no means possible to determine now the details of navigational routes (including canals) available or employed in Solomon’s and in Jehoshaphat’s time, there is likewise no need to view the record of their maritime projects as unfeasible.

(2 CHRONICLES 9:29)

“As for the rest of the history of Solʹo•mon, from beginning to end, is it not written among the words of Nathan the prophet, in the prophecy of A•hiʹjah the Shiʹlo•nite, and in the record of visions of Idʹdo the visionary concerning Jer•o•boʹam the son of Neʹbat?”

*** w12 2/15 p. 25 Nathan—Loyal Advocate of Pure Worship ***
Nathan is also identified with the composition of an account regarding “the affairs of Solomon.” (2 Chron. 9:29) Very likely, this means that Nathan continued to be active in affairs of the royal court even after David’s death.

*** it-1 p. 64 Ahijah ***
“The prophecy of Ahijah,” one of the written records including Solomon’s affairs, survived to the time of Ezra’s compilation of Chronicles.—2Ch 9:29.

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