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(27/09/1783 - 1824/07/19)
Agustín de Iturbide
He was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid(Michoacan, Mexico). Son of a wealthy Spanish named Joaquín de Iturbide and the michoacana Josefa María de Arámburu.
Military and Mexican politician
He studied in the Seminary of his native city and later joined the colonial army as second lieutenant of the provincial Regiment.
Accepted the Government of Viceroy Garibay when Iturrigaray was defeated in 1808. Second Lieutenant of the Army being Spanish refused to cooperate with the rebellion of the priest Miguel Hidalgo and participated in the arrest of the conspirators in Valladolid in 1809. A year later, when Hidalgo broke into the city, he decided to escape. That year also participated in the battle of Monte de las Cruces and promoted to captain. In 1811 he was appointed to the South of the country and fought the insurgent guerrillas Albino García, he took in 1812, and Ramón Rayón, which defeated at the bridge of Salvatierra in 1813. That year he began to exercise as a Colonel and he was appointed commander general of the province of Guanajuato, where he continued pursuing the rebels and began to be known as 'the iron Dragon'.
In 1815, as Commander general of the army of the North, he beat José María Morelos, but failed before the brothers Rayon in Coporo. Because of complaints made by the merchants of Guanajuato, it was ceased in 1816 by the Viceroy Calleja accused of embezzlement and abuse of authority; Although he was acquitted thanks to the support of the auditor of war Bataller. He took part in 1820 in the so-called conspiracy of professed to oppose the implementation of the Constitution of 1812 in Mexico, after the success of the liberal statement of Rafael del Riego in Spain. That same year, the viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca appointed him Commander of the South, with the mission to seek an approach to Vicente Guerrero and Asensio, who kept the (insurgency) insurgency in those territories.
With the support of the Bishops of Guadalajara and Puebla, Spanish merchants and the Creole landowners opposed to liberalism, he was able to furnish a numerous army and, after reaching an agreement with Guerrero on February 24, 1821, in the town of Iguala, published a political program that became known as Plan of Iguala (or the Three guarantees) , in which proclaimed their objectives: religion, independence and union. On February 25, 1822, a Constituent Congresswas elected, but a mutiny of the regiment of Celaya, in may 1822, he gave power to Iturbide, so was proclaimed Emperor with the name of Agustín I. When the Chamber was dissolved, created a founding Board in October, cracked down on Republicans and ceased the General Antonio López de Santa Anna, Governor of Veracruz in November.
A month later came the insurrection of Guadalupe Victoria and Santa Anna, who achieved the support of the majority of the army, forced to abdicate and Iturbide to restore Congress March 19, 1823. In April the Empire was abolished and in May left the country heading to Europe. After a short stay in Liorna (Italy), he settled in London and 13 February 1824 sent an exhibition to the Mexican Congress, announcing his intention to return to the country.
When he reached Sotola Marina, Tamaulipas, Le 18 juillet, was made prisoner, and executed in Padilla a day later.