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It should be noted that when we speak of time is will be making reference to the activity of the phenomena for a period ranging from one to several days. Meanwhile, when it comes to an extended period of time more, as be thirty years or more, it will speak in terms of climate. Climatology deals with studying phenomena in longer times and meteorology is that deals with them when it comes to a short term.
The differences in terms of solar energy will be which motivate changes in time. In each season of the year will be measured several local variables such as weather: temperature, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, humidity, wind, the amount of rain and then once each one of these is known can be others which result from them such as: the vapour pressure and the wind chill.
There are many instruments that are used in this sense: weather stations, satellites, stations on ships, computers that perform calculations using predictive models, among others.
Then, these conditions will apply the laws of physics and it predicts the time with a projection of 12, 24, 48, 72 or 96 hours.
Almost all power causing the atmospheric changes comes from radiation from the Sun, although the Sun's rays not hot direct air from the atmosphere but they do so indirectly, by first heating the lithosphere and hydrosphere and once both heated transfer its heat to the atmosphere.
It is also important to mention that there are other sources of thermal energy that can heat the atmosphere besides the Sun's radiation: volcanic eruptions, the perspiration of the flora and fauna and hot spots from the bottom of the oceans. Now, all of them together do not exceed the energy of the Sun.
Article contributed by the team of collaborators.