Biography of Gabriela Mistral… Leonardo da Vinci… Dmitri Mendeleev… Enrique Peña Nieto…

Biography of Gabriela Mistral

(1889/04/07 - 1957/01/10)

Gabriela Mistral

Lucila de Maria from the Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga

Chilean diplomat and poet

The experience is a lottery ticket purchased after the draw
Gabriela Mistral
Was born on April 7, 1889, in the city of vicuña, fourth region, Chile.
Daughter of Juan Jerónimo Godoy and Petronila Alcayaga, who baptized it with the name of Lucila. Three years after his father abandons the family.
Daughter of a rural teacher and with a half-sister of the same profession who taught him the first letters, entered La Union school, completing his basic education in vicuña, where the Director believed that he suffered from "mental retardation".
Nearly have to be self-taught because of the difficult economic situation of his family and the isolation of the region.
In 1904 he collaborated in the newspaper "Coquimbo", in La Serena, using the pseudonyms of "someone", "Soledad" and "soul".
At fifteen he began to work, at the company's school, neighboring village to vicuña.
At the age of 17 met Romelio Ureta, a railway employee, "the love of his life". During this period, he teaches at the school of La Cantera.
In 1907 he wrote for the newspapers "The voice of Elqui" and "La Reforma". A year later appears in the anthology "Coquimbana literature" of L. Carlos Soto Ayala, in which it devotes a short survey and selects three poetic prose of the author: "reverie", "by the sea" and "intimate letter".
On November 25, 1909, at 26 years of age, commits suicide in Coquimbo, Romelio Ureta. It is said that she removed railroad box money to help a friend and can not return it ended its life. In their pockets a card was found with the name of Lucila Godoy.
Early vocation by the Magisterium, he became Director of several tax schools.
His fame as a poet came in 1914, after having been awarded in some floral games by their sonnets of death, inspired by the suicide of his great love, the young Romelio Ureta. At this contest was presented under the pseudonym since then would accompany her throughout his life and who was conceived by the writer as a tribute to two poets who admired, Gabrielle D'Annunzio and Frédéric Mistral.
His first book of poems, desolation (1922), was followed by tenderness (1924), slash (1938), Lagar (1954) and others.
Inspector in the ladies Liceo de La Serena and outstanding educator, visited Mexico, United States and Europe studying the schools and educational methods in these countries. He was a visiting professor at the universities of Barnard, Middlebury, and Puerto Rico.
From 1933, and over a period of twenty years, he worked as consul of their country in cities like Madrid, Lisbon and Los Angeles, among others.
His poetry has been translated into English, French, Italian, German and Swedish being very influential in the creative work of many Latin American writers later, as Pablo Neruda and Octavio Paz. Its various poems written for children are recited and Sung in many different countries. In 1945 was the first Latin American writer who won the Nobel Prize for literature. In 1951, they awarded the National prize of literature of his country.
In 1928, and along with his close friend Palma Guillén Juan Miguel Godoy Mendoza, born in Barcelona in 1925, adopted son of his half brother Carlos Miguel Godoy and Marta Mendoza Catalan. The child accompanied Mistral in his travels and when they resided in Petropolis (Brazil), fell in love with is a young German that wanted to get married. Gabriela was opposed to the wedding and the young man committed suicide by ingesting arsenic on August 14, 1943.
Gabriela Mistral is intimately related with Doris Dana, which met in New York in 1946. Dana was Lesbian and 31 years younger than she. He was 27 years old when they met and Gabriela reminded him physically to the actress Katherine Hepburn. Her friend worked occasionally at the Department of State and despite not sharing language your intimate relationship lasted until the death of the poet. Doris Dana became executor of his work and also his main heir.
After a long illness, Gabriela Mistral died on 10 January 1957, at 4.10 p.m., at the General Hospital in Hempstead, newYork. She died alone, at all times was assisted by Doris Dana. Their remains receive the homage of the people of Chile, declaring three days of official mourning. The remains of Gabriela Mistral arrived in Chile on January 19, 1957 and mourned at the University of Chile, where 400 girls from high school No. 6, Gabriela was its first Director, did honor guard. She received burial in Montegrande and paid him tribute throughout the continent and in the majority of countries of the world.

Biography of Leonardo da Vinci

(1452/04/15 - 1519/05/02)

Leonardo da Vinci

Florentine artist

He was born April 15, 1452 in Vinci, in the Valley of the Arno River, Tuscany, territory of the Republic of Florence and the Medici.
Illegitimate and firstborn son of the notary Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci and Caterina, a peasant woman. His baptism took place in the nearby Parish Church of Santa Croce, but both the father and the mother did not attend the not being married. Leonardo had no surname in the current sense, and "da Vinci" simply meaning "of Vinci": his full birth name was "Lionardo di be Piero da Vinci". The inclusion of the title of 'being' indicates that his father was a gentleman. His mother found a husband who accepted his "committed" situation. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano at home of his mother, and from 1457, at home from his father and grandparents. In 1452, his father Piero had married Albiera Giovanni Amadori, which had no children.
In 1460 he moved to Florence, where it was formed. Her stepmother died in 1464, when the family was already living in Florence, and was buried in San Biagio. Be Piero married three times over: in 1464, with Francesca di be Giuliano Lanfredini, who also died childless; with Margherita di Francesco di Jacopo di Guglielmo, in 1475, which finally gave him six children; He had six others with his fourth and last marriage. Leonardo had thus twelve half-brothers and half-sisters, all much younger than he (the last was born when Leonardo was forty years), and those who did not have much to do but large number of problems by the inheritance from his father.
Around 1466 attended the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, which starts in various activities, from the painting of altarpieces, and tables, to the development of large sculptural projects in marble and bronze. In 1472 he was admitted to the Guild of painters in Florence, and 1476 still refers to him as an Assistant of Verrocchio, in whose work the baptism of Christ (c. 1470, Uffizi, Florence), painted the angel kneeling on the left and the landscape of Leonardo shades. His first assignment was an altarpiece for the chapel of the Palazzo Vecchio, the City Council Florentine although it did not run.
Masterpiece, the adoration of the Magi (Uffizi), which left unfinished, commissioned its first are the monks of San Donato de Scopeto near Florence, to 1481. Other works of this period are: the Madonna Benois (c. 1478, Hermitage, Petersburgo), the portrait of Geneva from Benci (c. 1474, National Gallery, Washington), and the unfinished Saint Jerome (c. 1481, Pinacoteca Vaticana). In 1482, is placed at the service of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, after having written a letter in which the artist was offered as a painter, sculptor, architect, and engineer, inventor and hydraulic and where he claimed that he could build portable bridges, who knew the techniques to carry out bombing and Cannon, which could make boats as well as armoured vehicles, catapults and other machines of war and that could even be sculptures in marble Bronze and terracotta. He helped the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in his celebrated work divina proportione (1509). The most important work of the period in Milan are the two versions of the Virgin of the rocks (1483-1485, Louvre, Paris; 1490 decade - 1506-1508, National Gallery, London), where he applied the triangular compositional diagram enclosing the Virgin, child, St. John and the angel, and where the sfumatotechnique applied for the first time. From 1495 to 1497 works in his masterpiece the last supper, mural painting for the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. In addition, he has other paintings, drawings and models for the dome of the Cathedral of Milan. His largest Commission was bronze equestrian monument to Francesco Sforza, Ludovicofather colossal size, for its location in the courtyard of the Castle Sforzesco. However, in December 1499, the Sforza family was expelled from Milan by French troops. The statue was unfinished and was destroyed by French archers who used it as a target.
In 1500 he returned to Florence. In 1502 he began to serve Caesar Borgia, Duke of Romagna, son of Pope Alexander VI. As architect and engineer of the Duke, he oversaw the works on the strengths of the Papal territories from the center of Italy. In 1503 was a member of the Commission of artists responsible for deciding on the appropriate location of the David of Michelangelo (1501-1504, Academy, Florence), and also served as engineer in the war against Pisa. At the end of this year it started to plan the decoration for the great Hall of the Palace of the Signoria with the subject of the battle of Anghiari. He made numerous drawings and completed a carton in 1505, but never came to make the painting on the wall. The carton was destroyed in the 17TH century. During his second Florentine period, he made several portraits, of which only the La Gioconda (1503-1506, Louvre, Paris), has been preserved also known as Monna Lisa. It seems that he felt a great fondness for this work since it took her with them on their journeys. The Mona Lisa, known as la Gioconda, that enigmatic face woman, actually existed: was Lisa Gherardini, second wife of Francesco del Giocondo, a wealthy Florentine silk merchant, according to the Florentine historian Giuseppe Pallanti, who concluded that the figure painted by Leonardo between 1503 and 1506 was real.
In 1506 he returned to Milan in the service of the French Governor Carlos II Chaumont, Amboise Marshal. A year later appointed him court painter of Louis XII of France, who resided at that time in the Italian city. During the following six years he spent his time between Milan and Florence. This time appears to be the second version of the Virgin of the rocks and Santa Ana, the Virgin and child (c. 1506-1513, Louvre, Paris). From 1514 to 1516 Leonardo lived in Rome under the patronage of Giuliano de Medici, brother of Pope Leo X. It is housed in the Belvedere Palace in the Vatican, focusing mainly on scientific and technical experiments.
Sublime painter, sculptor, engineer of cutting-edge, original inventor, musician, innovative architect, strategist bold, eccentric writer, demanding teacher... is considered one of the greatest geniuses of mankind. In the scientific part interest in anatomical studies of the human body, can be based on post-mortems of the bodies that carried out, while this practice was prohibited in the 15th century. It is believed that he could dissect some thirty bodies that drew much of the body's organs with detail and clarity.
Leonardo da Vinci was strictly vegetarian, called omnivores "devourers of corpses". It seems that it never had a relationship with women except for his friendship with Cecilia Gallerani. It kept a secret private life. In Florence, when Leonardo was an apprentice of Verrochio, has filed a complaint against the painter accusing him of pederast. Its guards got it fended off the public trial. His sexuality has been the subject of controversy and it seems that he had intimate relationships with his pupils Salai and Melzi. In 1476, Leonardo and the other three young men were charged with sodomy, although the charges were dismissed for lack of evidence. In any case, Leonardo remained unmarried and childless.
In 1516 he went to live in France, to the Court of François I, where he spent his last years in the castle of Cloux, near Amboise.
On April 23, 1519, wrote Testament notary Guglielmo Boreau, expressing his desire to be buried in the Church of Saint-Florentin, with a ceremony funeral accompanied by chaplains and Friars Minor, as well as sixty poor people, each with a torch. Leonardo died on 2 may of the same year in Amboise, Kingdom of France. He was buried in the cloister of the Church of Saint-Florentin in Amboise. Fifty years later, the tomb was violated and his remains were scattered during the religious struggle between Catholics and Huguenots.

Biography of Dmitri Mendeleev

(1834/02/08 - 02/02/1907)

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev

Russian chemist

He was born on February 8, 1834 in Tobolsk (Siberia).
He studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg and in 1859 at the University of Heidelberg, where he met the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro. He returned to Petersburgo and worked as Professor of chemistry at the Technical Institute in 1863 and Professor of general chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866.
He wrote two volumes of principles of chemistry (1868-1870). He attempted to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. In 1869 he published the first version of the periodic table. In 1871 he published a corrected version. He also did research in the study of chemical theory of the dissolution, the thermal expansion of liquids and the nature of the oil.
In 1887 began a solo balloon trip to conduct a study on a solar eclipse.
In 1893 he was appointed director of the Department of weights and measures in St. Petersburg.
Dmitri Mendeléiev died on February 2, 1907 in St. Petersburg.

Biography of Enrique Peña Nieto

(1966/07/20 - Unknown)

Enrique Peña Nieto

Mexican lawyer and politician

He was born July 20, 1966 in Atlacomulco, State of Mexico.
The eldest of the four sons of Gilberto Enrique Peña of the mallet, an engineer of the Comisión Federal de Electricidad, and Maria of the perpetual distress Ofelia Nieto Sanchez, master.
The family moved to the municipality of Toluca, where he studied high school at the Argos from Metepec College and high school in the Paideia Cultural Institute.
He studied law at Pan American University and a master's degree in business administration and Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.
Affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party since 1984. He joined the law firm Laffan Muse and Kaye, and collaborated in the Corporacion Industrial San Luis between 1985 and 1986. From this year and up to 1988 he works in the notary public number 96 of the Federal District forming part of the equipment of Fausto Rico Alvarez. In May 1990, was Secretary of the movement citizen of zone I of the National Steering Committee State of the Confederation of popular organizations. Then he was delegate of the front organizations and citizens in different municipalities of the State of Mexico and the PRI Electoral training center instructor. From April to July 1993 is Treasurer of the Committee of Finance directing State party in the campaign of a candidate for Governor Emilio Chuayffet Chemor. From 1993 to 1998, was private Secretary of the Secretary of Economic development of the Government of the State of Mexico, Juan José Guerra Abud, and Undersecretary of Government of the State of Mexico from 1999 to 2000. Until 2002 was Secretary of administration of the Government of the State of Mexico, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Social Security Institute of the State of Mexico and municipalities, President of the Inner Council of the Institute of health of the State of Mexico and Vice-Chairman of the Board of Government of the system for the Integral Development of the family (DIF) in the same State.
In 2003, was nominated candidate for local Deputy for the LV legislature for the District XIII, with headboard in Atlacomulco. For a year he is coordinator of the parliamentary group of the PRI in the LV legislature in the Chamber of deputies of the State of Mexico, chairing the Board of the Local Congress of policy coordination.
On July 3, 2005 he was elected Governor of the State of Mexico but results were challenged and until 12 August received the certification of majority which credited him as the elected Governor of the State of Mexico. The final tally, he received the votes of 49%, the 25.11% for was for Kaptur of the PRD and 25.6% for Rubén Mendoza of the bread. Since September 15, 2005 Peña Nieto serves as Governor of the State of Mexico and highlights its collaboration with the Government of the city of Mexico on issues of safety, environment, employment and transport. Peña Nieto proposed a national agreement to encourage the development of the country and accelerate the Educational reform and established an 11-point plan to combat insecurity.
In the case of Atenco, he was accused of repression and violation of human rights and had an impact on his political image. Security forces clashed with residents of the town of San Salvador Atenco in March 2006. In 2009 the Supreme Court you it exempted from charges. Very popular as Governor due to his daily presence in information spaces, especially those of Televisa, the largest chain in Mexico. He was Governor of the State of Mexico until September 2011.
The 27 November 2011, Peña Nieto is credited as a candidate of the PRI, for the upcoming presidential elections.
On July 1, 2012, as the candidate of the institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Enrique Peña Nieto, defeated in the presidential elections of Mexico, as they predicted the polls, with a comfortable victory over his rivals of López Obrador and Josefina Vázquez Mota.
The leader of the institutional Revolutionary Party was inducted December 1, 2012, as the new President of Mexico, taking over from 'Pan' Felipe Calderón, which made it surrender of insignia and flags in a ceremony at the National Palace.
In 1993 he married Mónica Pretelini with whom he had three children: Paulina, Alejandro and Nicole; He also had a son with Maritza Díaz Hernández, born in 2005, while he was married to Monica. During the same period he fathered another son who died as a baby with an undisclosed partner. His wife died on January 11, 2007 due to a cardiac arrhythmia caused by a seizure. During a political campaign in the State of Mexico in 2008, hired the actress Angélica Rivera Hurtado, year in which also began a romantic relationship that he married on November 27, 2010 at the Cathedral of Toluca.
A nodule in the thyroid gland considered benign of which was operated on July 24, 2013 was discovered in July 2013.

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