Fernando de Magallanes… Francisco de Paula Santander… Johann Wolfgang von Goethe… Biographies Multiposts

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Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Fernando de Magallanes
  2. Biography of Andrés Manuel López Obrador
  3. Biography of Francisco de Paula Santander
  4. Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Biography of Fernando de Magallanes

(Unknown - 1521/04/27)

Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese Navigator
He was born in the Portuguese region of Trás-os-Montes to 1480.
He received his education in the Portuguese court, where he learned geography and nautical.
In the year 1505 he participated in the expedition of Francisco de Almeida to India, where he received reports on the Moluccan Islands (known as the Spice Islands or spices). He took part in the campaign for North Africa (1513), where wounded him.
In 1517 it came to Seville with cosmographer Rui Faleiro. Convinced that the Moluccas were situated within the Spanish demarcation that had set the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), offered to the King of Spain Carlos I projects to explore East to the Portuguese King had rejected. I wanted to reach the Islands by a Western route of Spanish jurisdiction, through a passage or Strait to the South of South America.
Approved March 22, 1518 he signed a capitulation in Valladolid, which was named captain general of the Navy and Governor of all the land that you will find. On August 10, 1519, departed with five ships: the Trinity, ship captain; the conception, with Juan Sebastián Elcano as Petty Officer; the San Antonio, Santiago and Victoria, which was the only one who returned to Spain, and about 250 men.
On September 20, 1519 was heading to South America. He entered the Bay of Río de Janeiro, explored the Plata estuary , and on 31 March 1520 they reached the Bay of San Julian, where they spent five months. There were quelling a mutiny and lost two ships: the Santiago in exploration work and the San Antonio that he defected. October 21, they entered the Straitthat Magellan called All Saints, and came to the Pacific Ocean on November 28.
They went up along the Chilean coast until placed on the 32 ° latitude, where he tacked toward the West and penetrated into the Pacific Ocean. They sailed almost without provisions and with the crew suffering from scurvy, until January 24, 1521 approached the Mariana Islands, who called from the robbers, where is provisioned. On 16 March they arrived at the Visayas Islands, which they called San Lázaro, located in the center of the archipelago of the later known as Philippine Islands.
He died April 27, 1521, during a battle with the Indians led by chieftain Lapu-Lapu in Mactanisland. The journey continued under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano.
The only surviving ship returned loaded with spices to the Spanish port of Seville, September 8, 1522, after having gone around the world. This demonstrated the sphericity of the Earth and opened for Spain the routes from the East.

Biography of Andrés Manuel López Obrador

(1953-11-13 - Unknown)

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Mexican politician
He was born on November 13, 1953 in Villa of Tepetitán, Macuspana, Tabasco, southeastern Mexican State.
Son of Andres Manuel Lopez Roman and Manuela Obrador González, daughter of a Spanish originally from Santander and exiled in Mexico by the Spanish civil war, José Obrador Revueltas, who are filing in the port of Veracruz, where he met his wife Gertrudis González.
Degree in Political science and Public administration from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In 1976 he begins his political career when he supports the candidacy of the poet Carlos Pellicer for Senator by the State. Since it came into the ranks of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1976, shortly after finishing his studies of political science at the capital, Lopez Obrador starred in a dazzling ascent.
In 1977 he was director of the Instituto Indigenista de Tabasco, where included the edition of books in indigenous languages and the project of the Chontal ridges. Obrador came to preside over the PRI in Tabasco in 19In 1984 he assumed the direction of Social Promotion of the National consumer Institute. From this period are his books The first steps and splendour in the shade.
In 1988 left the PRI to found a year later the Party of the democratic revolution (PRD) together with other recognized former PRI members, including three-time candidate for the Presidency of Mexico Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas. He published the book 'Tabasco, victim of a fraud'. He led an exodus to the City of Mexico by irregularities by the PRI in the municipal elections of 19In 1994 their supporters again launch his candidacy as Governor. In those years became famous also for the taking of oil wells together of supporters in protest for what they considered an ecological abuse of the Pemexoil company, leaving very few benefits to local communities and what he then called fraud in the elections.
In 1995 starts a second March for democracy, preceded by a National Proclamation posed as to the defence of national sovereignty, democracy and economic development with social meaning, to prevent the privatization of PEMEX and "first eat and then pay". On 9 May of the same year, participates in the creation of an National Democratic Alliance initiative to achieve a Mexico more democratic and more just, they say.
On April 17, 1996 he contended for the National presidency of the party of the democratic revolution, where he served from August 2, 1996 to April 10, 19In September 1999, it presents the book 'FOBAPROA, open file'. On 29 March 2000 gets his record before the Electoral Institute of the Federal District as a candidate for Head of Government of the Federal District, position he got. Its social programs presented with the discourse of "first the poor" have characterized his Government, which has earned him the label of populist, authoritarian, paternalistic and messianic.
On September 5, 2006, he rejected the ruling of the Electoral Tribunal, which declared President of the Republic to his rival, the governing Felipe Calderón, after two months in which allegations of fraud and mass protests occurred. According to the final tally of votes submitted by the Court, Calderon won in the elections of July 2, 2006, 14.916.927 votes, and Lopez Obrador 14.683.096, which represents a difference of 0.56 per cent in favour of the first.
After the announcement by the Court, the President-elect called for unity of the country and invited political opponents to the dialogue. "Everyone called them to join forces to guide the life of Mexico to the values that we share", said Calderon, who invited all the political groups, trade unions and social organizations to participate in the design of its Government programme.
On July 2, 2007 he presented his book "the Mafia robbed us Presidency" on his campaign and the presidential election.
On July 25, 2010 announced his participation in the presidential election of 20At the Metropolitan Theatre, took office on March 11, 2012 how official candidate of the Citizen movement party to the Presidency of Mexico in the elections of July 1, one of the parties that make up the Progressive movement.
On November 20, 2012, he was appointed President of the National Council of the party politician MORENA (national regeneration movement).
Rocio Beltran Medina (1979-2003) of spouse and Beatriz Gutierrez Müller (2006). He is a widower since January 2003, had three children.

Biography of Francisco de Paula Santander

(1792/04/02 - 1840/05/06)

Francisco de Paula Santander
Military and Colombian politician
He was born on April 2, 1792 in Our Lady of the Rosary of Cúcuta (Colombia). Son of Juan Agustin Santander and Colmenares, Governor of the province of San Faustino de los Rios and grower of cocoa, and Antonia Manuela de Omaña y Rodríguez.
He studied in Bogotá and in 1810 he enlisted the liberator army.
He was Vice-President of the newly emancipated Nueva Granada (1819-1821) and the Republic of Gran Colombia (1821). Temporarily assumed the Executive instead of Simón Bolívar, who continued in front of the independence army. He was instrumental in the Battle of Boyacá and was promoted by Bolívar to general of division.
From 1826 began to notice their rods with the Liberator. Santander defended a liberal policy and wanted to keep the Constitution of 1821, while Bolívar promoted the implementation of a Constitution more conservative and centralist. Indicted in foiled attack against Bolivar (September 1828), was banished. When Simon died, he held the Presidency of the newly established Republic of New Granada (which arose after the demise of the Republic of Gran Colombia) between 1832 and 18His Government launched an effective administration and promoted public education.
Francisco de Paula Santander died on 6 May 1840 in Bogota.

Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

(1749/08/28 - 1832/03/22)

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
German dramatist, novelist, and poet
He was born August 28, 1749 in the bosom of a family of middle class of Main Frankfurt.
Johann Caspar Goethe, his father, a lawyer and an illustrated man, withdrew from public life and educated his children himself. His mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor, was the daughter of a former Mayor of Frankfurt, which linked him with patricia bourgeoisie of his city. All the children of the marriage, with the exception of Goethe and his sister, Cornelia Friederike Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at early ages.
Goethe was all: critical, theatrical entrepreneur, journalist, politician, diplomat, painter, pedagogue, philosopher, historian, opera librettist, he did more than just first steps in science and finally was novelist, memorialist, playwright and poet. Endowed with great intelligence and an exemplary spiritual balance – achieved through a rigorous discipline-became living in the paradigm of a certain European ideal based on culture and universal curiosity.
He studied law at the University of Leipzig; where interested is in literature and painting. His early works include a comedy in verse of an Act, the whim of the lover (1767), and a tragedy in verse, the accomplices (1768). He studied occultism, Astrology and Alchemy. Katharina von Klettenberg, a friend of her mother, introduced him in religious mysticism.
In Strasbourg, he met Friederike Brion, who inspired him most of his female characters. Later he started a friendship with the philosopher and critic Johann Gottfried von Herder. After graduating in law and return to Frankfurt, he wrote the tragedy Götz von Berlichingen (1773). Along with the manifesto on the style and the German art (1773), which contributed Goethe, Herder (with two trials in which he praised Ossian and Shakespeare) and others, the drama opened the important German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang (storm and impulse), forerunner of German romanticism.
His work could reflect more unleashed passions, but he lived his life as a great bourgeois without allowing that their wishes will take you to the abyss where would stop some of its most famous characters. It is said that mid-1772 Goethe met one such Charlotte Buff, wife of an official of surname Kestner. He fell in love with her and suffered by the impossibility of that love. The poet took two years in to overcome his failure, and perhaps their relationship with Maximiliana Brentano acted as palliative against the penalty of that impossible relationship.
In 1774, and in a few months, Goethe wrote the sorrows of Young Werther. The tragic story became the emblematic work of romanticism. Although it was censored by the religious sectors to justify suicide, the novel was unprecedented; even Napoleon confessed to having read more than eight times. Between 1772 and 1775 he writes dramas Clavijo (1774) and Stella (1775) and many short essays on literary and theological themes. While trying to open a law firm in Frankfurt, in the spring of 1775, unsuccessfully pledged with Lili Schönemann, daughter of a banker in the city, but social and lifestyle differences ended up breaking the commitment.
In 1775 Charles Augustus, heir to the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, invited Goethe to live and work in Weimar, his capital, which was then one of the intellectual and literary centers of Germany. Since 1775, and until his death, he settled here. Experience in public administration, which included destinations in important positions in the Government of Weimar as well as a period of private counselor, gave him a broad knowledge of the practical affairs. In 1782 was added the particle von to his name by the same Duke Charles Augustus despite the protests of the nobility.
He studied mineralogy, geology , and Osteology. He wrote little during the first ten years of their stay in Weimar, except for some magnificent poems inspired by Charlotte von Stein, which include the lyric "night Walker song" and the ballad "the King of the Elves". He began the composition of some of his most famous works, as the drama in prose Iphigenia in Tauris (1787) and Egmont and Faustocharacter dramas, that would then subject to changes as a result of the next important event in his life: his stay in Italy from 1786 to 1788.
After visiting several cities in the North, he settled in Rome, where he remained until 17He studied art, architecture and literature of Greece and Rome. Since then his work developing universal and timeless themes, including a version in yambicos verses, Iphigenia in Tauris, dramas Egmont (1788) and Torquato Tasso (1790); and a work about Faust, part of which appeared as a fragment (1790). These works led to the German literature discipline ideas and ways that initiated the so called classical period.
He returned to Weimar in 1788 finding opposition to his new literary principles and earned the enmity of some circles of the Court to live with a young, Christiane Vulpius, who gave him a son in 1789.
Goethe himself waited to be renowned as a scientist. Biology has acknowledged his long debt to him, especially by the concept of morphology, which is fundamental to the theory of evolution. He thought that his work more important era Zur Farbenlehre, 1810, The theory of colours of Goethe, which tried to discredit the Newtonianscience. He directed the Ducal theatre of 1791-1813.
He met Friedrich von Schiller, German dramatist. The relationship, which lasted from 1794 until the death of Schiller in 1805, was momentous for Goethe. The main productions were contributions to the newspaper of Schiller, the hours, which included Elegies Roman (1795), a series of tender loving poems inspired by his relationship with Christiane Vulpius; the novel the years of learning from Wilhelm Meister (1796) and the epic Idyll in verse Hermann and Dorothea (1798). Schiller encouraged Goethe also to come back to work in Faust, whose first part was published in 18The period from 1805 until his death in Weimar, was very productive.
In 1806 he married Christiane Vulpius. Between 1805 and 1832 writings include novels the elective affinities (1809) and the formative years of Wilhelm Meister (1821, revised in 1829); an account of his journey through Italy, Italians travel (1816); Poetry and truth, his autobiography (1811-1833), a collection of poems, Divan of East and West (1819), which attempt to the marriage of East and West, and the second part of his dramatic poem Faust (published posthumously in 1832).
It is said it was the last Renaissance man because the extent of their knowledge and the variety of interests emparentaron it with figures such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, to quote two geniuses absolute and multifaceted. The German manuscript of the writer and scientific legacy Johann Wolfgang von Goethe part since 2002 of the World heritage of the UNESCO World memory.
The legacy of Goethe includes, among other manuscripts, a last version to clean of the second part of "Faust" and the "Divan of East and West".
He joined Freemasonry on 11 February 1783, although for the Masonic writer Lorenzo Frau Abrines (in the encyclopedic dictionary of Freemasonry, p.508), was initiated on June 23, 1780, at 31 years of age in the Loggia "Amalia" that downed columns two years later. On 2 March 1782 Goethe was elected master at the same time that duque Carlos Augusto and a such Loder. According to Frau, it is known that on 23 March 1830 the lodge "Amalia" held the Masonic 50th anniversary of Goethe whose reason this composed the verses entitled for the feast of San Juan of 1830.
Deceased Goethe on March 22, 1832 of an acute myocardial infarction, in Weimar, Germany, the lodge performed the ceremony of mourning on 9 November of the same year.