Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of André Breton
- Biography of Achille Campanile
- Biography of Georges Clémenceau
- Miles Davis biography
- Hilary Duff biography
- Alfredo Frassati biography
- Biography of John Paul I
- Biography of Edwin Hubble
- Biography of Elia Kazan
- Biography of Marcello Mastroianni
- Herman Melville biography
- Biography of Gamal Abd el Nasser
- Raffaele Paganini biography
- Gwyneth Paltrow biography
- Louis Pasteur biography
- Georg Simmel biography
- Biography of Giovan Pietro Vieusseux
- Biography of Dita Von Teese
- Biography of Naomi Watts
Biography of André Breton
19 February 1896
September 28, 1966
Who is Andre Breton?André Breton was born on 19 February 1896 in Tinchebray (France), the only son of Louis and Marguerite. He moved with his family to Pantin, a child attends the Saint Elisabeth religious Institute before joining the school district of the city, where it reveals an excellent student.
In 1907 he enrolled as external Chaptal Paris College, showing a particular aptitude for German language: it is in these years, inter alia, developing his passion for poetry; in 1912, Breton wrote two poems for "Vers l ' idéal", the magazine of the school where you signed with the pseudonym René Dobrant, an anagram of his name.
Poetry and art
Discovering the works of Huysmans, Mallarmé and Baudelaire, even comes close to figurative art and Paul Signac, Edouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard and Gustave Moreau. While politically shows involved from anarchism, André Breton in 1913 he enrolled at the University in the school of medicine and continues to write poetry (some published in the magazine "La Phalange"): this decides to bring them to the attention of Paul Valéry, for having an opinion.
Called up for military service in 1915, Breton writes the play "Décembre" which forwards to Apollinaire; the following year composed-while it is stationed as military nurses in Nantes-"Age," his first prose poem heavily influenced by Rimbaud. In this period he also speculates on psychiatry.
New friends and new arts
Back in Paris, he became friends with Apollinaire and met Jacques Vaché and Joseph Babinski, besides Philippe Soupault and Pierre Reverdy. Also writes about "Mercure de France", and maintains relations with Louis Aragon, in turn a student of medicine. It is thanks to him that in 1918 discovers the count of Lautréamont.
The following year revealed to Tristan Tzara involvement for the Dada Manifesto "3", and together with Soupault and Aragon founded the magazine "Littérature", that will also work Paul Morand, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob and Jean Giraudoux.
Meanwhile, at Au Sans Pareil out his first collection of poetry, Mont de pieté ", enriched by illustrations by André Derain. Passed the exam that allows him to become a doctor, Breton befriends Francis Picabia and adheres with conviction in 1920 to Dadaism.
Decides, therefore, to abandon his medical studies and working for Gaston Gallimard to subscription service of the "Nouvelle Revue Française". In addition, public "Champs magnetiques", Au Sans Pareil, but soon tired of the inconcludenza of Dadaism.
In 1921 accepts the proposal of Jacques Doucet to work as a librarian, and he married Simone Kahn: the wedding (which Paul Valéry witness) follows a honeymoon trip which took him to Vienna, where he met Sigmund Freud. In 1923, André Breton gives prints "Clair de terre", a collection of thirty poems and five stories with a portrait of the author performed by Picasso, and "Les Pas perdus", an anthology of articles.
The following year, signing the first manifesto of surrealism, which contribute-among others-including Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac Robert Desnos, and Benjamin Péret: ACE is attached "Poisson soluble", a collection of Breton. With his work and its various activities, Breton is considered one of the main theorists of the surrealist movement.
After closing "Littérature" and have founded another magazine, "La Révolution surréaliste", takes a stand against publicly Anatole France: but in the meantime, he married Simone goes into crisis. While the surrealist provocation becomes more politics (and stray Soupault, Naville and Artaud), Breton chose to come close to psychiatry, attending public lectures of the Sant'Anna hospital.
In 1927 he met Suzanne Muzard, which falls in love with (the married the following year, after having divorced Simon) and writes the "Introduction au discours sur le peu de réalité". After having conducted a survey on sexuality published in "La Révolution surréaliste", become a friend of Salvador Dali and Georges Sadoul, and fell in love with the cinema.
Launches "Surrèalisme au service de la Révolution", a new magazine whose first issue was released in the summer of 1930, and publishes "collections", "travaux Ralentir L ' Immaculée Conception" and "libre". Later, the Nazi expansion and the approach of the war changed his plans: drafted after the invasion of Poland by Germany, working as a military doctor in Poitiers; then, publish the "Anthologie de l'humour noir", a work which is banned after Hitler in Paris.
Breton, whose name is entered in the list of Communists, decides to go into exile. He took refuge in the South of France in Martigues by his friend Pierre Mabille, then moves to Marseille and on board a ship goes to Martinique, where he met Aimé Césaire. From there he moved to New York, where he is also helped by Peggy Guggenheim, which contributes to its maintenance budget.
Afterwards, knows who marries Elisa Claro: after a journey through Canada, Haiti and Santo Domingo, the two return to France. In Paris, however, Andre Breton no longer feels at ease, even for the many changes that have affected the intellectual scope.
The last years
In 1947 organized an exhibition together with Duchamp that would revive the surrealism, but the result is not the best. In 1960 subscribes to the "Manifeste des 121" that is opposed to the war in Algeria.
André Breton died on 28 September 1966 in Paris, where he had been taken after being stricken by a respiratory crisis while in Saint-Cirq-Lapopie on vacation.
Biography of Achille Campanile
28 October 1899
January 4, 1977
Who is Achille Campanile?Open a book means plunging into the realm of the absurd but it seems ... not at all absurd. Then in many of his tales of surprise to laugh for reasons that don't really "do" laugh or find funny descriptions completely normal that we perceive to be ... fun. In short, we face perhaps the greatest humorist of the twentieth century, at least in Italy.
The secret lies in the language of Achille Campanile: the flatter and simple as possible; the most normal, the most existing language newspaper away from tinsel and literary ephemera. But with an evocative capacity of particular humorous absolutely powerful. To quote Umberto Eco, reported the own language of Campanile, "take the teasing language means taking it" to "the letter, resulting in alienation effects".
Born in Rome on 28 September 1899 (although some biographies, significant and important, give the birth year as 1900), Achille Campanile began writing at an early age. The beginnings with the journalism Forum and the national Idea and then decanting, full fascism. But even the theatre with the first Tragedies in two lines, in which the taste for puns and surreal atmosphere.
Passionate praise and fierce criticism accompanied the first performances of "love to do this and more" in 19Finally the novels as a means to tell superior to all others, "But what is this love" to "Danny", from "La moglie ingenua e il marito malato" up to "the hero", as well as several collections of short stories. Many appeared before being published on the columns of the most important newspapers such as La Stampa, La Gazzetta del Popolo, Milan evening.
Achille Campanile won the Viareggio Award twice, in 1933 with "Chant on the street corner" and forty years later with "conversation manual". He was a tireless worker, sometimes worked late into the night. He wrote with a pen, developing the notes took on cards of all sizes, even on tram tickets, and where were the pockets of wedges his clothes.
Lived between Rome and Milan until transfer in recent years, its Como residence near Velletri, in order to please his wife Celsa and his son Gaetano. Here leave the Monocle and fancy clothes, do you grow a long beard and flowing and takes on the appearance of an old patriarch.
He continues to write as much to fill the shelves of her studio in short stories, novels and new works. His conquest of the territory of authentic literary values, which today are widely acknowledged, has been slow; also because he was a man, "outside the fray", not worried about getting into petty literary Chronicle.
Achille Campanile died in Lariano (Rm) on January 4, 1977, leaving us as a testament, in addition to his many works, the sign of immortality.
Biography of Georges Clémenceau
September 28 1841
November 24, 1929
Who is Georges Clémenceau?Georges Benjamin Clemenceau was born at Mouilleron en Pareds, in the Vendée conservative (French Department Loire region) on 28 August 18The family is solidly Republican, anti-clerical father had also taken part in the uprisings of 1848.
While still a student he published two papers of radical orientation and incur suppression of ultraconservative Government of Napoleon III, passing a few weeks in jail.
He graduated in medicine in 1865, then leaves for the United States where he remained for four years. During his stay is positively impressed by the Organization u.s. institutions so that his Republican vision of the policy is renewed and strengthened. He falls in love with Mary Plummer, a student who attends the school where he teaches: the two are married on 20 June 18The marriage will be the happiest: the two go their separate ways and for many years to live, only the Clemenceau entirely to politics, his true passion.
Back in France and in 1870 became mayor of Montmartre: begins his political career. For entering the National Assembly and strongly opposes the peace conditions imposed by Germany after the franco-Prussian War. Like several of his fellow French politicians, even Clémenceau throughout your career would have nurtured a strong hatred for the Germans after the military humiliation of 1871.
His stance earned him the nickname "Tiger", guaranteeing also the leadership of the radical party, linked to the far left.
His reputation is that of a popular journalist and a ruthless political critic, when he founded in 1880 the newspaper "La Justice", from whose pages you will defend accusations of corruption in the so-called "Panama affair" (1893); from the same pages also leads a campaign against anti-Semitism and in favour of Alfred Dreyfus (1898).
In 1906 is Interior Minister and ordered the violent repression of a strike by miners in the Pas de Calais and an agitation of winemakers in Languedoc-Roussillon, removing thus the positions of Socialist Jean Jaurès. Shortly after Prime Minister becomes a decisive breakthrough opera policy toward nationalism and centralism, State in constant opposition to Socialists and unions. Thanks to his work manages to bring relations between France and Britain, but also to increase frictions with Germany, a frequent target of attacks. His tenure as Prime Minister lasted little, until 1909, when it was replaced by Aristide Briand.
At the outbreak of World War I definitely oppose the Clemenceau military command of Joseph Joffre, Ferdinand Foch contesting. Fervent militaristic, will oppose any possibility of diplomatic mediation to accuse of pacifism, the then Interior Minister Louis Malvy.
In 1917 he became again Prime Minister and war Minister: not even a year after Louis Malvy is arrested for treason and Ferdinand Foch made Army Chief interalleato.
With the defeat of Germany in 1918 resentment towards Clemenceau Germany does not stop. At the Paris Conference of 1919 calls for Germany to be brought to its knees both politically and economically, through the imposition of strong compensation of war and the military occupation of the Rhine. These positions will be in stark contrast to the American delegation and President Woodrow Wilson.
In 1920 Clemenceau is a candidate for the Presidency of the Republic: defeated, he retired from political life.
Georges Clémenceau died in Paris on November 24, 1929.
His two books of memoirs are "the greatness and misery of victory", which provides another next clash with Germany, and "The night of my mind" (1929).
Miles Davis biography
May 26, 1926
September 28, 1991
Who is Miles Davis?Tell the life of Miles Davis is equivalent to trace the entire history of jazz trumpeter, bandleader, composer of the most talented ever, Miles Davis was firsthand one of the architects.
Miles Dewey Davis III hidde on May 26, 1926 Illinois rural; at eighteen is already in New York (with a decent experience in the jazz clubs of St. Louis), bored with the lessons of the prestigious Juilliard School of Music and playing every night in scorching jam session of Harlem and 57th, alongside Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie.
From the be-bop was born the first of Davis, "Birth of the Cool", recorded between 1949 and 1950 and published as long-playing in 1954.
The influence of these recordings on jazz scene is huge, but the beginning of the 50 's are for Davis (and for many of his fellow musicians), the dark years of heroin.
Exit the tunnel in 1954, and in a few years sets up a legendary Sextet, with John Coltrane and Cannonball Adderley.
The recordings from this period are all classics: from the series of albums for the Prestige (walkin', Cookin', and Relaxin', Workin', steamin') orchestral discs arranged by Gil Evans (Miles Ahead, Porgy and Bess, Sketches of Spain), to experiments with modal music (Milestones), in what is considered by many critics the most beautiful album of jazz history, the beautiful "Kind of Blue" of 1959.
Early 60 's they see free-jazz musicians undermine the primacy of innovator Miles Davis, who finds that kind of music too unrealistic and artificial. Responding in 1964 to create another formidable group, this time a Quartet with Herbie Hancock, Tony Williams, Ron Carter and Wayne Shorter, and passes to come gradually to rock and electric Instrumentation (a collaboration with Gil Evans and Jimi Hendrix that would remain in history fell through only the tragic deaths of Hendrix).
Increasingly fascinated by psychedelic rock of the West Coast, at the end of the Decade Davis appears to big rock festival and won the audience of young whites "alternative". Albums such as "In a Silent Way" and "Bitches Brew" mark the birth of jazz rock and pave the way to the phenomenon of fusion.
The restless personality of Davis seems to bring it to collapse: a renewed addiction, clashes with police, a serious automobile accident, health problems of all kinds, human relations increasingly strained.
In 1975 Miles Davis retires from the scene and closes at home, a victim of drugs and depression. All the damage to finished, but they're wrong.
After six years he returned to blow into his trumpet, more fierce than ever.
Regardless of the critics and jazz purists, it launches out in all kinds of contamination with newer sounds: funk, pop, electronics, music by Prince and Michael Jackson. In his spare time he also, successfully, to painting.
The public did not abandon him. The latest incarnation of the great genius of jazz, is, surprisingly, the pop star: Davis continues to play on stages around the world, until a few months after his death. On September 28, 1991 an attack of pneumonia crushes him, at the age of 65 years, in Santa Monica, California. His body is buried in Woodlawn cemetery in Bronx, New York.
Hilary Duff biography
Who is Hilary Duff?Hilary Erhard Duff was born in Houston on September 28, 1987.
After becoming famous with the tv series Lizzie McGuire, has gone to the big screen starring roles from appearing in movies like "cheaper by the dozen" and starring films as "Material Girls", "born to win" and "A Cinderella Story".
Hilary Duff then embarked on a career as a pop singer.
Between 2002 and 2007 Hilary Duff has sold over 15 million albums worldwide
The video for the single "Reach Out", which was supposed to launch his Best of (2008), was banned in the u.s. because it contained scenes that are too bold, too uninhibited and Ballet pose too sensual.
2008-Best Of Hilary Duff
2006-4ever Hilary Duff
2002-Santa Claus Lane
2009-Stay Cool-directed by Michael Polish
2009-Safety Glass-directed by Jonathan Glatzer
2008-War, Inc.-directed by Joshua Seftel
2008-Greta-directed by Nancy Bardawil
2008-Foodfight! -animated film directed by Lawrence Kasanoff
Material Girls-2006-directed by Martha Coolidge
2005-The Perfect Man-directed by Mark Rosman
2005-cheaper by the dozen 2-directed by Adam Shankman
2004-born to win-directed by Sean McNamara
2004-Cinderella Story-directed by Mark Rosman
2004-looking for Santa Claus-directed by William r. Kowalchuk
2003-cheaper by the dozen-directed by Shawn Levy
2003-Lizzie McGuire: From high school-popstar for Director Jim Fall
2003-Agent Cody Banks-directed by Harald Zwart
2002-Cadet Kelly: a rebel in uniform, TV-movie directed by Larry Shaw
2001-Human Nature-directed by Michel Gondry
1999-the sound of angels, TV-movie directed by Michael Scott
1998-playing by heart, TV film
-Casper Meets Wendy 1998 TV movie-directed by Sean McNamara
1997-TV movie True Women
Alfredo Frassati biography
28 September 1868
May 21, 1961
Who is Alfredo Frassati?Alfredo Frassati was born in what is now the province of Biella, Pollone, on 28 September 1868, by Pietro and Josephine Canati Queue. Far from following in his father's footsteps of surgeon, he began his studies in law, earning a degree in 1890, in Turin and then travel to Germany, where he attended specialization courses.
Its fields of action are education, journalism and publishing. In 1894 he began collaborating with the newspaper "La Gazzetta Piemontese", which will buy a share along with Louis Roux then become, in 1900, owner and Director, after renamed in 1805, "La Stampa", glorious and historic tested still in vogue.
In 1897 he became Professor of criminal law and procedure. a year later goes with the Adelaide Ametis painter; from the marriage were born Elda, dead Shrestha at 24 years and beatified by John Paul II in 1990 for having dedicated his life to assisting the poor, and Luciana, wife of Minister Jan Gawronski and mother, among others, Jas, known tv journalist.
A friend and supporter of Giovanni Giolitti, Alfredo Frassati was appointed Senator in 19Supports intervention in Libya, which he views as a gateway to the East, while calls for neutrality on the eve of the first world war. "La Stampa" became the spokesman for the non-interventionism of Giolitti, who believes that Italy is not ready, from many points of view, to face a military conflict, and opposed to the "Corriere della Sera", which Gabriele D'annunzio pages praising the proud nationalism, patriotism and pride, then, upon entry into the war. Enter disagreed with Giolitti for its positions with regard to Austria and to fascism, much to reject the invitation to participate in Government.
In 1920 he was appointed Italian Ambassador in Germany, a position that leaves the same year starting a campaign against fascism. Thus, start against him, threats and reprisals until forced to sell "La Stampa", in 1926, which passes to the Agnelli family. It is responsible for the appointment of Benedetto Croce as Minister of education in the years 1920-1921, suggesting the name to Giolitti.
The crisis of the Italian "Gas", then "Italgas", causes the group to choose the new President, Fernandes in 1930; with a skilled thinning and streamlining operation, manages brilliantly to relaunch it. Back to help the industrial group at the end of World War II, in 19At the same time also to collaborate in the "New Releases".
The Italian Republic, was appointed Senator in law before Parliament's education, from 1948 to 1953.
Alfredo Frassati died in Turin on 21 May 1961, at the age of 93 years.
Biography of John Paul I
October 17, 1912
September 28, 1978
Who is John Paul I?Born in Canale d'agordo, Belluno, on October 17, 1912, Pope John Paul I was the Pope less lasting del Novecento (just 34 days) but not his election is considered less "historic" than others.
Albino Luciani became the first Pope whose origins are certain: working during childhood he worked together with his father as Murano glass blower.
He received the call from God supposedly in the summer of 1935, and on 7 July of the same year he was ordained priest at Belluno.
From 1937 to 1958 he taught theology at the Gregorian Seminary of Belluno, but already in 1954 he became Vicar General of the diocese in the same city. He stopped teaching only when Pope John XXIII appointed him Bishop of Vittorio Veneto. In this capacity, Albino Luciani was manifested as a spiritual figure and pastoral activity of the Church, very far from the models then in vogue: hardly moved from his residence, where he often spent much time studying works, not necessarily religious.
His ability to hit that Pope Paul VI appointed him the first Patriarch and then, in 1973, Cardinal of Venice.
The death of Giovanni Battista Montini, opened the conclave that was to appoint his successor. Inside the church there were conservative one led by Cardinal in Genoa, the Archbishop of Florence, progressive and "internationalist" who he saw as supreme representative Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, the future John Paul II.
The various currents are opting for an intermediate solution, worthily represented by Albino Luciani.
The pontificate of John Paul I opened officially on August 26, 1978: was very short due to the premature death of the Pope, but this was intense.
He was the first Pope to take the double name, a tribute to its two predessori; He was also the first Pope who abandoned the plural majestatis, establishing himself in the first person; He was the first successor of Peter that abolished the coronation and the Papal tiara and, curiously, was the first Pope to be censored by the Osservatore Romano, which refused to publish his comments too "soft" and possible on the use of contraceptives.
Very active in the field of solidarity and economy, John Paul I died on September 28, 1978, even before reaching 66 years. Many hypotheses on his death, often imaginative (there was also who claimed that he was poisoned by the us secret services, or Soviets, or even by those Israelis): what is certain and that the diagnosis showed that he suffered a stroke which was fatal.
Biography of Edwin Hubble
20 November 1889
September 28, 1953
Who was Edwin Hubble?Edwin Powell Hubble was born in the town of Marshfieldn, in the State of Missouri (USA), on 20 April 18Hubble astronomer and astrophysicist, is known in the scientific community primarily for having formulated in empirical law of 1929 "redshift" ("redshifts"), today from all called Hubble's law. The famous Hubble Space Telescope (which, located about 600 kilometers, orbiting Earth since April 24, 1990) is named in his honour.
Hubble's early studies at the University of Chicago and focus on mathematics and astronomy. He graduated in 1910 then goes to Oxford, where he perfected his studies in the field of jurisprudence.
Back later to Astronomy: in Chicago studied at the Yerkes Observatory of the university town. Here he obtained his doctorate in 19George Ellery Hale (inventor in 1889 of the spectroheliograph-instrument for observing the Sun in monochromatic light-and discoverer in 1908 of magnetic fields in the sun spots) offers a place in Hubble. Hale, founder and Director of the Mount Wilson Observatory, he worked for the Carnegie Institution (Pasadena): Hubble from here forward will remain with Carnegie for the rest of his life.
Hubble arrives at the Mount Wilson Observatory when the Group of scholars is completing the 100-inch Hooker Telescope, at that time the most powerful telescope in the world. Hubble leads with Hooker numerous observations between 1923 and 1924, ruling that much of the nebulae, first seen with less powerful telescopes, were not part of our Galaxy as it was believed they were but out of the Milky Way Galaxy. The official announcement of the discovery dates back to December 30, 19
Edwin Hubble will use the telescope to measure the Hooker "redshift" of galaxies. Combining the values of the distances of galaxies and the redshift values discovers a proportionality between the two measures. Hubble gets a much higher value to today's accepted value: the stark difference was caused by errors of calibration of distances.
In 1929 the formula so as said, along with Milton Humason empirical law of distance of the redshift of galaxies, which will lead to the concept of "expanding universe". If the redshift is interpreted as a measure of speed of removal, this indicates an expanding homogeneous.
Hubble's law basically States that there is a linear relationship between the redshift of light emitted by galaxies and their distance: the greater the distance of the Galaxy and the greater its redshift.
Hubble's discoveries will then to the formulation of the Big Bang theory by George Gamow.
Hubble also needs to do a special classification of galaxies, which groups them according to the criteria of content, distance, shape, size and brightness.
Curious as early as 1917 Albert Einstein reached the same results as Hubble upon his theory of relativity. Disbelief and skeptical, Einstein introduced the cosmological constant in equations. When he heard of the discovery, Hubble was able to assert that that constant was the biggest mistake of his life.
In 1953 at the Palomar Observatory telescope is completed by 200 inch Hale: Hubble was the first to use it. Shortly afterwards, on September 28, 1953, Edwin Hubble died of a heart attack.
Biography of Elia Kazan
September 7, 1909
September 28, 2003
Who is Elia Kazan?Elia Kazan (the real name is Elias Kazanjoglou) is one of the great masters of 20th century cinema. Stanislawski method promoter and founder of theatre workshop, the Actors Studio, he was among the many merits even the assertion of many Hollywood stars then become true icons. How can we forget the Marlon Brando in "on the waterfront" (it was back in 1954), or James Dean de "East of Eden"? And how can we forget the immortal films, all directed by her hand, like "A Streetcar Named desire," "Viva Zapata" or "splendor in the grass"?
Elia Kazan was born on September 7, 1909 in Constantinople (modern Istanbul) from a family of Greek origin. His real name is nearly unpronounceable Kazanjoglous, then "sweetened" to make life, and he's only four years old when his family emigrated to the United States and settled in New York. Here the father manages to open a dignified activities like carpet dealer that allows the family to live in so affluent. Elia also manages to carry on his studies and after graduating from Williams College he studied Theater at Yale. A choice from. In the years ' 30 Kazan says with New York's Group Theater, until in 1947 he founded, together with other enthusiasts, the Actor's Studio, which will become the famous acting school that today everybody knows.
Become one of the major talents of Broadway, known for his stagings of plays of Tennessee Williams, Kazan began his career as a film director with documentaries and in 1947 with "a tree grows in Brooklyn", awarded two Academy Awards (for the script and for the interpretation of the actor James Dunn), getting a lucrative contract Director of nine years with Fox. Next year is the same as Kazan to win the Oscar for Best Director with "invisible barrier" (Oscar for best film and also for the actress Celeste Holm), film-complaint against anti-Semitism starring Gregory Peck.
But Elia Kazan is also a real talent-scout: 50 years begins the partnership with Marlon Brando, first in theater and then on the big screen. The year is 1951 's "A Streetcar Named desire": the film adaptation of Williams ' work marks the consecration of Kazan and Marlon Brando, who receives the first nomination in "Viva Zapata" of 1952 (Anthony Quinn to be awarded the statuette). In 1954 "on the waterfront" bears witness to the success of Marlon Brando and Oscar to Kazan port on second award for directing.
Not even a year and pass his nose from pioneer is further confirmed in the bet on James Dean. The film is "East of Eden" and the charming young actor is now nominated. Always from the nursery of Kazan will be released then, among others, Warren Beatty, joined in 1961 to Natalie Wood in "splendor in the grass". The film by Academy Award for the screenplay of William Inge. The last great success (before the decline) came two years later, in 1963, with three nominations, and the award for best art direction obtained from autobiographical drama "America, America".
Elia Kazan in those years is mired in huge controversy for his cooperation with authorities triggered by Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy, always on the hunt for communist intellectuals and artists (or assumed). Kazan in the mid 50 's had denounced eight actors to the House UN-American activities Committee, an act that for them meant the end of his career. For Kazan instead that was the beginning of a tormented relationship with the Hollywood community. It is precisely for that old controversy that when in 1999 he was awarded the Oscar for lifetime achievement, some actors and filmmakers applauded during the ceremony.
From the 70 's onwards she supported his career in showbiz a bright career, which resulted in six library novels and an autobiography.
Married three times (with Molly Day Thatcher, who died in 1963, starring Barbara Loden, who died in 1980, and with Frances Rudge from 1982), in his autobiography, Kazan confesses many sentimental adventures, including one with Marilyn Monroe. Onusto years, laurels and glory, the great Director died on September 28, 2003 in his Manhattan apartment, at the age of 94 years.
Biography of Marcello Mastroianni
September 28, 1924
December 19, 1996
Who is William Shatner?The famous actor (whose full name was Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni), born in Fontana Liri (Frosinone), in 1924, he had the good fortune to breathe the air of cinema from the earliest age. Still a child, in fact, had the opportunity to make appearances in some films of the great Dam (which in the 1930s was an acknowledged master).
Later, after high school, he enrolled at the Faculty of Economics and business, but never stop the relationship with the show and especially with the theater. Come in groups of the University Theatre, he was noticed by none other than Luchino Visconti, whom he called himself to play important roles in plays of recent conception, such as "a streetcar named desire" and "death of a salesman" or more classics like "La locandiera" and "the three sisters".
At the same time, he was able to work again in films, where it is always called to make some appearances that, over time, begin to become conspicuous. The film reveals is that "Spain square", where she plays the part of sympathetic young man and extroverted, directed by Luciano Emmer in ' 52, Director who had already directed Mastroianni two years earlier in "Sunday in August". Already in the first trials, Mastroianni proved particularly suited to delicate introspection of a cinema that was halfway between neorealism and the commedia all'italiana.
This arrangement was confirmed in "days of love" by Daly, where the actor was able to revive its origins in ciociaria a slight comedy. It was the main characteristics defining dell'attore Mastroianni, namely to embody the image of a good man and subtly mischievous, reckless but judiciously, sweet and slightly melancholic. His signature style is almost always had this golden age model, even when, as in the films of Bal or Lizzani, proposals were dramatic parts. Those traits were combined in some movies, ' kind of contrast, to malice young women's Sophia Loren, from which flowed in the mid-1950s movies like "Peccato che sia una canaglia", and "lucky to be a woman".
But the turning point of his career comes with "La dolce vita" (1960), film costume epic in which Mastroianni is a modern anti-hero and marks the beginning of a long and successful artistic partnership with Federico Fellini. With Fellini gave memorable outcomes in "Otto e mezzo" (1963), wearing the clothes of a kind of alter ego of Director of Rimini. Later, in the early 1960s, he obtained a personal triumph in "divorce, Italian style" and "the companions". Teamed with Sophia Loren in various films of De Sica and appeared in several Ferreri films including "La grande bouffe", "Hello" and "the story of Piera". He worked with Petri from "the killer", with Scola from "Drama of jealousy" "Splendor" and "what time is it?", through "a special day" that was one of his best evidence. The remainder of his career was a series of successes at the side of the greatest filmmakers. In recent years, remembers his performance in a film as "civil commitment Sostiene Pereira" and the editing of his personal mementos, appeared posthumously in the movie-document "Remember, yes I remember."
The protagonist of great versatility and of unquestionable skill (it has been said that in certain films seemed to be able to work only with the expression of the eyes), transmitted the image of a cultured man and sensitive, alien from divistiche poses, which looked with annoyance at the promotion of his private life by the tabloid press. He has represented with great generosity the Italian cinema at the international level, but has never even needed a Oscar. Maggs went off on December 19, 1996 at his home in Paris. Him Director Dino Risi, who knew him well also to direct him, he said: "it was the most beautiful of our cinema, the Italian medium and clean. Mastroianni was perhaps what was most enjoyable work: and this for a simple reason, do not break ever. I never heard "this joke so wrong". Had a great flexibility and availability. He did not speak: simply, was the actor, wearing the clothes of the character with an extraordinary ability. Mastroianni had the advantage of being good films that displeased him. "
Herman Melville biography
1 August 1819
28 September 1891
Who is Herman Melville?At the time when the author died, had been almost completely forgotten, then the masterpiece of 1851 "Moby Dick" was revived in 1921 with a biography of Raymond Weaver; Today, the novel is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of the 19th century. Its author is Herman Melville, writer, poet and literary critic, born on 1 January 1819 in New York. Friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Moby Dick" as Melville's other works were inspired by the later production.
He studied in New York and the passion for adventure while listening to the stories of his father Allan, wealthy merchant from expansive character, which in the past had traveled a lot. In his father's stories were often featured figures such as huge waves and ships dashed as straw. After a life spent in substantial economic tranquillity, in the summer of 1830, the parent activity fails: Allan Melville later manifests a mental illness that led him to death. The brother tries to resume his father's Affairs, but fails: the family is composed of eight children between brothers and sisters (Herman is the third): poverty reduced and moved to the village of Lansingburgh, the Hudson River.
Here permanently leaves school Herman to start working in the company of an uncle; He then worked in his older brother's shop and then as a teacher in a small school.
The lack of a working stable perspective, coupled with the desire to travel, pushing the future writer to embark as a cabin boy on a ship docked at the port of New York, leaving for Liverpool. It's the June 1839: Melville crosses the ocean and arrives in London. Then return home with the same ship. This trip will inspire his novel "Redburn: his first trip" (Redburn: His First Voyage), published ten years later.
Returned home and resumed the teaching profession. At the beginning of the year 1841 enlisted as a sailor again: from the port of New Bedford (Massachusetts) on the whaling ship Acushnet, headed toward the Pacific Ocean. The trip will last a year and a half. Once reached the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), Melville deserted; the story of "T V" (Type) as its continuation "Omoo" will be witness to this incident.
After a stay in the Society Islands, Melville heads to Honolulu, where he remained for four months working as a clerk in an Office. Then joins the crew of the American frigate "United States", sailing towards Boston, with a stopover at a Peruvian port in October 18Will describe this experience with the ship as "Neversink" (the unsinkable) in "White Jacket or the world seen on a battleship" (White Jacket: or, The World in a man-of-war, 1850).
On 4 September 1847 in Boston, Herman Melville, Elizabeth Shaw bridal event that terminates at seafaring adventures of the writer. The couple settled in New York where he remained until 1850, when purchasing a farm in Pittsfield (Massachusetts); right in February of the same year he began to write "Moby Dick," the work that will project in the history of American and world literature.
During the thirteen years of Pittsfield, Melville lectures at schools, with mostly his adventures in the South seas.
His works fail to reach a wide audience, so Melville would not have gained much from his activity as a writer. Economically very had to wife's family; afterwards will also work as a customs officer in New York, where he moved with his wife.
After an illness lasting several months, Herman Melville died at his home in New York, in the early hours of the morning of 28 September 18His body is interred in the Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.
Biography of Gamal Abd el Nasser
January 15, 1918
September 28, 1970
Who is Gamal Abd el Nasser?Gamal Abdel Nasser was born on 15 January 1918 in Alexandria, Egypt, to a family of humble origins (his father is a postal official) coming from Beni Morr. After studying in Asyut for two years and eight Khatatba, while upper secondary education begins a first political activity, becoming Chairman of the Committee of high schoolers. Meanwhile the life has already strained: in eight years loses his mother, and is then sent by his maternal uncle Khalil in Cairo; shortly after, though, back from his father, who had remarried.
As the guidance of the Board of high schoolers, Nasser joined the nationalist movement that intends to conquer independence from the United Kingdom. The younger Gamal is wounded, at the age of seventeen, during a demonstration: a British policeman explodes a gunshot that hit him in the leg. Joined the Egyptian Military Academy in 1937, Nasser, who has since graduated, was soon appointed second lieutenant, and as an army officer he took part in the Arab-Israeli War that is staged in 1948: the conflict stems from the desire of the Palestinian people to obtain their own independent homeland. Nasser realizes immediately that the country and the army in particular are totally unprepared and resoundingly, and this does nothing but increase his Republican sentiments.
Increasingly becoming leader of the debates that take place in the army, involved in the formation of al-Dubbat al-Ahrar, the free officers movement: a secret organization that will turn into a short time in the reference model of the most clandestine movements in the Arab world-wire Republicans after the second world war. The Egyptian monarchy is shot down in the night between 22 July and 23 July 1952, by a coup. While King Farouk is overthrown and forced to flee into exile, a provisional Government is formed, at the head of which is called Muhammad Naguib, General local Nubians that on 18 June 1953 officially becomes the first President of the Republic.
The Presidency of Nagib, however, does not last long, and already the following year he was forced to endure the pressure of Gamal Abdel Nasser: become Colonel and strong man of the regime on October 19 signs an agreement with the United Kingdom concerning the evacuation of British forces within 20 months (although the presence of technicians near the Suez Canal is confirmed). The signing of the Pact raises the vehement reaction of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic organization that the Government responds vigorously trying to induce his men to rebel against their boss, i.e. Hasan al-Hudaybi.
After an assassination attempt made against Nasser, for which they are liable just the Muslim Brotherhood, the organization is dissolved, and al-Hudaybi was arrested along with other leaders. Shortly after, is dismissed, Nagib intended arrest. Al-Hudaybi, initially sentenced to death, unable to see their sentence commuted into life imprisonment.
Nasser was officially elected President of the Republic on 23 June 1956, a few weeks after the adoption of a Socialist-inspired Constitution in Republican character. One of his first measures was to nationalize the Suez Canal Company, until then the property of the British and French. The decision by one side causes the can Egypt win an absolute independence, and on the other provides United Kingdom and France the right to set up a military strategy against the African State: the operation Israel joins, intervened after Nasser's threat that is intended to prevent the transit of the Suez Canal to the Jewish State.
The conflict ended with the conquest of Sinai and with the bombing of Cairo by the franco-British troops, who on November 5 occupy the city of Port Said. The war is stopped only thanks to the intervention of the United States and the Soviet Union (someone even speculates that the Soviets have threatened a nuclear intervention against Paris and London), and the cease-fire by the UN involves the arrival of peacekeeping troops in war zones.
In January 1958, to consolidate its security claims to give Syria immediately began a project of unification with Egypt. Thus was born the United Arab Republic, plus the territories of Yemen who rebelled under the leadership of Colonel Sallal, imams Yahya and Muhammad al-Badr. Three years later, however, Syria expressed its intention to restore its independence: Nasser accepts the application without object.
The fate of Nasserism remain deeply scarred by the war of 19A military coalition consisting of the Egypt and Jordan causes Windows to impeded the sea routes in the direction of Israel, and facilitates the withdrawal of UN troops. The Egyptian army, in defiance of threats of Tel Aviv (the closure of the Straits of Tiran to navigation would give a casus belli) on 5 June 1967 is not able to repel the attack immediately in their bases by the armed forces of Israel, destroying three hundred military planes in a single attack, led by General Moshe Dayan, Chief of staff.
Israel therefore encompasses the remainder of Palestine (West Bank territory belonging to Jordan), the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights in Syria: in short, reach their goals faster strategic and tactical thanks to fruitful action, which allows encirclement in Tel Aviv to the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territory under the control of Egypt from 19In spite of the enormous military defeat, Nasser did not lose the support of the Egyptian population. In 1967 is dismissed, however, Abdel Hakim Amer Nasser's friend, believed to be the first guilty of the conduct of Egypt's disastrous landmark; shortly after, will commit suicide.
Meanwhile Nasser starts taking more and more from the United States, in spite of initial sympathy towards Washington due to the intervention of Eisenhower against the French and British military sortie in the channel. Cairo, in particular, refuses to take part in a line-up focused on Baghdad Pact, anti-Soviet in nature, composed, in addition to United States themselves, from Iran, Great Britain, Turkey and Iraq.
The American reaction is immediate, and the u.s. firmly oppose the financing that the IMF should provide to Nasser to build the Aswan High Dam: a structure designed since 1952, on the Nile, which should ensure energy independence to a sadly lacking in hydrocarbons, and at the same time encourage the possibility of reclaiming the territories located to the West of the river from areas south of Aswan until al-Qattara depression: in total, hundreds of thousands of square kilometers.
The Egyptian feedback you do not wait: Cairo calls into question the Soviet Union which, of course, sniffing the strategic and political opportunities, offers financing to Egypt. The situation is then partially returned to normal by Nasser using weapons supplied by the Soviet Union in July 1969 kicks off a so-called war of attrition with Tel Aviv, which if nothing else can maintain strong nationalistic and patriotic spirit of the Egyptians.
Nasser's political experience, however, it now seems at sunset, marked in a undeniable from catastrophe-political-military staged in 19The regime also shows to endure with increasingly difficult internal debate, while lively in the early days, as evidenced by the crackdown against the Muslim Brotherhood.
Grand Master of the order of the Nile, Grand Master of the order of merit and Grand Master of the order of the Republic, Gamal Abd el-Nasser died on 28 September 1970 from a heart attack that surprises him while in his presidential residence: his funeral is attended by millions of Egyptians moved, and his place was taken by Anwar al-Sadat , former Vice-President of the Republic, which with Nasser had been a member of the free officers movement. During his political career, Nasser was awarded even of hero of the Soviet Union, order of the companions of O.R. Tambo in gold and the order of Lenin.
Raffaele Paganini biography
September 28, 1958
Who is Raffaele Paganini?Raffaele Paganini was born in Rome on September 28, 1958 into a family of artists: first of eleven brothers, the mother is an opera singer, and her father is classical dancer. Raffaele followed in his father's footsteps but starts to dance at the age of fourteen, rather late age for a ballet dancer. He studied at the scuola di ballo del Teatro dell'Opera di Roma and obtained a diploma. After only four years, he joined the Corps de ballet of the Roman institution as a solo dancer.
After a career start totally based on classical ballet, agrees to participate in tv broadcasts of great prominence, including: "amazing 2", "Europe", "Pronto chi Gioca?" and "the hat on twenty-three".
Become étoile of the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, is host to many international companies, including the London Festival Ballet (1984-1985), Ballet Theatre Francais de Nancy (1986), Zurich Opera Ballet (1986), Ballet Concerto de Puerto Rico (1985-1986), Ballet of the Teatro alla Scala in Milan (1987), Ballet of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples, the compagnia del Teatro Nuovo di Torino.
From 1988 is a regular guest at the International Gala "dans Les étoiles" which takes in Canada annualemente.
During his distinguished career, Raffaele Paganini has danced with many of the most famous international ballerinas, these include Italians Carla Fracci, Luciana Savignano, Gabriella Oriella Dorella, Cohen, Elisabetta Terabust, Alessandra Ferri, Maya Plisetskaia, Eva Evdokimova, Katherine Healy, Trinidad Sevillano, Silyane Bayarde, Isabelle Guerin, Eleonora Cassano, Galina Samsova, Arantxa Arguelles and Galina Panova.
Eclectic artist Raffaele Paganini dedicated itself successfully also to musical genre, as "an American in Paris" (1995, with Rossana Casale), "singin' in the rain" (1996), "seven brides for seven brothers" (1998), "Dance!" (2000), "Carmen" (2001), "Romeo and Juliet" (2004), with original music by Prokofiev and choreography by Monteverde: this last theatrical tour shows sold out record in 190 reruns in 104 of the major Italian theaters. In 2005 another great success with "Coppelia", with music by Leo Delibes and choreography by Luigi Martelletta.
In 2006 he founded the Compagnia Nazionale di Raffaele Paganini and presents, for the first time, a production that debuts with "Tango in Sirtaki-tribute to Zorba", with music by Astor Piazzolla and choreography by Luigi Martelletta.
In 2009 she appeared on Rai Due to "Academy", the first edition of a new talent show imported from the USA: in the program, led by Lucilla Agosti, Raffaele Paganini is a teacher and judge for ballet dancers.
In 2011 participates as one of the contestants of the castaways 8 edition of "l'isola dei famosi".
Gwyneth Paltrow biography
September 28, 1972
Who is Gwyneth Paltrow?Discreet charm actress and jaunty air, Gwyneth Paltrow was born on September 28, 1972 in Los Angeles, actress mother (Blythe Danner) and father (Bruce Paltrow, also active as a producer).
After graduating at The Spence School in New York, has her film debut in 1991 in the "Shout" with John Travolta, which also gets the part of Wendy in the movie "Hook" (with Dustin Hoffman and Robin Williams) by Director Steven Spielberg.
Later she played Ginnie alongside James Caan in "Murders in the province, with which it sets to the attention of Hollywood producers.
In 1995 on the set of the thriller "Seven" know where Brad Pitt falls. The love between two characters like this cannot but arouse the curiosity of the world and indeed flirting first bounces on planet tabloid then provide raw materials to the despair of fans of one and the other. However, despite the intensity of the passion that has characterized their history, after two years the couple breaks up. Never mind, because the delicious Gwyneth Meanwhile made his debut in his first leading role with the character of "Emma", the film adaptation of the novel by Jane Austen.
It is now on the crest of a wave and many proposals. Takes part in the remake of "paradise lost", with Robert De Niro and Ethan Hawke, reaching the consecration with the romantic comedy "Sliding Doors" and the thriller "perfect murder", starring opposite Michael Douglas.
The actress's filmography also includes "Moonlight & Valentino" with Whoopi Goldberg, Elizabeth Perkins, Kathleen Turner and rocker Jon Bon Jovi, "Jefferson in Paris" with Nick Nolte, "Malice", starring Nicole Kidman.
In 1998 the magazine "People" places in the ranking of the 50 most beautiful women in the world. That same year with "Shakespeare in Love" won the Oscar for best actress; It also has a romantic relationship – much as short-chat with the star Ben Affleck, who will join in the sentimental "Bounce".
In 1999 is the disturbing love object of Matt Damon in "the talented Mr. Ripley".
Thanks to his father Bruce-who runs in "Duets" (2000)-has been shown to possess unsuspected vocal skills.
In 2001 binds sentimentalmente to actor Luke Wilson.
This is for many the real revelation for the year Paltrow: absolutely intense and unpredictable in bizarre "The Anniversary Party" and "The Royal Tenenbaums". He then demonstrated great irony in one of the last movie "shallow HAL" Love, where the stunning actress says even "rigged" by fat.
In later years she played various roles in several films including the big productions of "Iron Man" and "Iron Man 2" (with Robert Downey Jr.).
Louis Pasteur biography
27 December 1822
28 September 1895
Who is Louis Pasteur?Louis Pasteur, French chemist and biologist, was a true benefactor of humanity. Not only he founded modern microbiology, but failed to eradicate virtually alone, numerous diseases.
The Pasteur scientific excursus is among the most original and "independent" are conducted in a solitary condition today practically unthinkable (in fact, scientific results, due to the increasing complexity of the materials and technologies, can be achieved only in groups, as evidenced by the recent awarding of Nobel prizes).
Born in Dole on December 27 1822, Pasteur begins studying at Arbois, to continue at the Royal College of Besancon, where he graduated in 1840 in both letters in science. Already aware of their abilities, refuses the first admission to the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, since only 15th on the list; on the second attempt to earn third place and accept admission.
For his PhD thesis, two in chemistry and in physics, both developed in the field of crystallography.
Pasteur became Professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, but gets a special permission from the Minister of education, to get away from use temporarily and devote himself exclusively to his studies.
Presents to the Paris Academy of Sciences, its elaborate on Crystallography; just found out the influence of molecular structure on the deflection of polarized light by observing the shape of crystals of tartar and paratartaro: Pasteur comes to the conclusion that paratartaric acid (collection of tartaric acid tartaric acid left and right), after fermentation, become active on polarized light.
During fifteen years of research, Pasteur discovered the role of microorganisms in fermentation, to classify microscopic living beings (which he called "ferments") into two broad categories: aerobic (who cannot live without oxygen) and anaerobic (that can live without oxygen)
In 1854, Pasteur dealt with fermentation in alcoholic beverages was able to demonstrate the role played by microorganisms, particularly yeast and, in this process; When scientists at the time believed the alcoholic fermentation exclusively chemical phenomenon.
He also discovered that junk play substances such as lactic acid or acetic acid in alcoholic beverages is due to the persistence of various kinds of microbes, including bacteria, within these products. Thanks to these findings, it was possible to develop effective systems of elimination of harmful microorganisms, which represented a major economic problem for the beer and wine industry.
The extension of this research to the problems of preserving milk led him to devise the process, today known as pasteurization, which helps kill harmful microorganisms possibly present in milk, bringing the liquid to 60-70° C for a short time before bottling. In 1865, in Paris, in the face of an epidemic that had hit the silkworms proved contagious and hereditary nature of the disease and indicated prevention methods.
Studies on fermentation and on the spontaneous generation had important implications in medicine. In the 80 's he devoted himself to the study of anthrax, a cattle disease often fatal and isolated the Bacillus responsible. He studied the systems of prevention of numerous diseases: cholera, diphtheria septicemia, tuberculosis, smallpox and rabies. For the prevention of rabies was able to develop a form of the virus responsible for it can be used as a vaccine that has saved thousands of people.
In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris, today one of the world's most important centres for biological research and molecular genetics and for studies on infectious diseases.
Georg Simmel biography
1 March 1858
September 28, 1918
Who is Georg Simmel?Georg Simmel was born in Berlin on 1 March 1858 by a Jewish family. The father converts to Christianity, as well as the mother, but is geared towards Evangelical worship, which Georg is baptised and educated. In 1874, left fatherless, is entrusted to a tutor while the family in severe financial conditions. Intent to pursue law studies, in 1876 he enrolled at the Humboldt University of Berlin, but passionate about history, philosophy and psychology. Here attend lectures on the history of Theodor Mommsen, Johann Gustav Droysen and Heinrich von Treitschke. to those of Eduard Zeller's philosophy and Friedrich Harms and the history of art of Hermann Grimm and Psychology by Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal fracture.
The University allows them to attend the most vibrant intellectual circles of his city. In 1881, he graduated cum laude in philosophy with a dissertation on Kant. Decides to pursue a university career and obtained a teaching certificate in 1885, he began to practise as a Professor, as private Professor (Privatdozent) paid the fees paid by students attending its courses.
His classes are always memorable, ths, and turn into a small cultural event, often not even by writers, poets, philosophers and even women, as listeners. Simmel is the first lecturer to admit women in a University classroom. Among its foreign students include Robert e. Park and George Santayana: the first will be one of the founders of the Chicago school, the second an exponent of American critical realism.
He began collaborating with the magazine of Lazarus and Steinthal fracture, masters who left about the awareness of how psychology teaches that men are being entirely in many social circles or circles that interact and influence each other by creating connections and separations. His first essay, "social differentiation", was published in 1890, and there are traces of influenza spenseriana: the company is conceived as a set of relationships, the result of reciprocal actions. By now, his non-fiction production will be intense, both philosophical and sociological.
The 1890 is not only the year of publication of his first book, but also the year in which Gertrud Kinel wedding under a pseudonym, publishes philosophical essays. Has a son by her, and later a daughter Gertrud Kantorowicz, who will the opera omnia of the writings of Simmel. But after the problem of sociology, Georg Simmel decides to devote himself entirely to the study and definition of new rules, although the mistrust of this new field of study will hinder his academic career. In this work permanently detaches from the sociology of type spenseriano and comptiano.
In 1900 some teachers of the Faculty of philosophy in Berlin, formulate at the Ministry of education the request to appoint the Privatdozent Simmel full professor. The request shall be refused, but was upheld the following year. His classes have always been very successful: he practices the method of analogy, convinced as he is that everything is in close relation with the whole. Sometimes this use of analogy is seen by its critics as one of its limits, as well as the multiplicity of interests from some fragmentary valued rather than intellectual vitality index.
When, in 1901, the "philosophy of money", his work undoubtedly more cited, Simmel differs from Marx who thought that the value of a product based on the average time taken to produce it, because it believes that the value of a commodity is the Exchange Fund: the money would be nothing more than another medium of Exchange. Exchanges: well, again, a form of relationship or interaction.
In 1904 Simmel publish "Sixteen lectures on Kant". Kant had understood that the human mind is not limited to accept uncritically the facts and objects but putting their acts: the brain shapes the reality. As one who was wearing a pair of glasses with blue lenses, see the world all blue. Thought, therefore, plays a creative action and mind learns to categories. Always of 1904 is the publication of the article "the sociology of conflict" on the "American Journal of Sociology", in which process the sociology of Georg Simmel Third, intended as a mediator, arbitrator or neutral inadvertent beneficiary dispute between the two sides, when self-interest creeps into conflict.
His studies on the sociology of gratitude: the relationship between the gift and the desire of contraccambiarlo is the basis of all human relationships, emotional ones economic, legal ones. But what hit the German philosopher is not merely the cause-effect relationship, but the moral value of the gift, as experience can stimulate the recipient to donate themselves. Donate to others. While returning, or disobbligarsi, does not have that quid of voluntariness that it elevates the bearer of the gift and makes it truly free.
In 1907, two American universities as a Professor would, but Simmel declines in hope to obtain a professorship in Berlin, that dream will never be realized. Meanwhile, his interests increasingly orient themselves in the direction of philosophy of culture, focusing on the theme of sociability and tact as discretion towards others.
The last phase of his life is marked by the idea of conflict life-form, meaning life as a creator of forms, ranging from crystallizing into culture, symbols, institutions. But life is by its nature not static, and flows until run out in mere outline of shapes, but aiming to new secernerne to break down and reassemble the balance. The only thing certain in life: death is linked to life allows us to intuirla in its real poignancy, because each moment is interpreted as the moment approaching the epilogue of our journey on Earth.
Only at the age of 56 years, in 1914, he became Professor of philosophy at Strasbourg; for Berlin, the departure of Simmel, was tantamount to a death, if there was anyone who published an article entitled: "Berlin without Simmel".
At the beginning of the war on nationalist positions, but change your mind later.
Simmel died in Strasbourg on September 28, 19He will be remembered as the founder of sociology. He asked: "How can the company?" — one who analyzed the basic forms and the categories of "Association".
Biography of Giovan Pietro Vieusseux
September 28 1779
28 April 1863
Who is Giovan Pietro Vieusseux?Giovan Pietro Vieusseux stems from parents from Geneva on September 28 1779 in Oneglia, Italy, the same city that, 67 years later, will give birth even to Edmondo De Amicis. Both characters, while not crossing ever for personal reasons, will provide important contributions to the cultural movement in favour of the unification of Italy.
Very early in the father in his trade and in his numerous business trips that took him throughout Europe and Russia, but its liberal sentiments and his passion for books and culture lead him, in 1819, to settle in Florence where he made scientific and literary Cabinet, cultural centre of reading newspapers and Italian and foreign books and in-depth discussions and conversations.
The initiative register a great success, becoming meeting between the liveliest minds of the time. There are, in fact, people like Giacomo Leopardi, Gino Capponi, who would become his close associate, Pietro Colletta, Pietro Giordani, Vincenzo Gioberti and others. Here you will meet, in 1827, Giacomo Leopardi and Alessandro Manzoni. And it is precisely in the Vieusseux Cabinet that begins to take a national literature body.
The many relationships start with the most important representatives of the culture of the time cause him to conceive and implement, together with Cameron, the cultural and political magazine "the anthology", which sees the light in 18Also around this initiative will gather the most prestigious brands, including those of Giuseppe Mazzini and the restless Thomas Fuller who, for having bumped the susceptibility of the Austrians with one of the many articles, in 1833 causes suppression of the magazine. But the cultural activities of Gian Pietro Vieusseux continues incessant and some years later, in 1842, in collaboration with Gino Capponi, who in the meantime has become his great friend, founded the new magazine "Italian historical archive".
As an editor, which he plays at the same time those of cultural promoter, publishes, among other things, the "Tuscan" agrarian Newspaper in 1827 and the educator's Guide "by Raffaele Lambruschini in 1836.
Giovan Pietro Vieusseux died in Florence on 28 April 1863, at the age of 84 years. His fervent cultural activity carried out, can certainly be considered a primary inspiration for the liberalism of the Risorgimento.
The toilet was continued by his nephew literary Eugene and then by his son Carlo and is still in business: among its directors who have settled here over time is also Eugenio Montale.
Biography of Dita Von Teese
September 28, 1972
Who is Dita Von Teese?Heather Renée Sweet, better known as Dita Von Teese, was born in Rochester (Michigan, USA) on September 28, 19Popular striptease in the giant Martini Glass and his pin-up look from ivory skin, is considered a fashion icon for the vintage style and sophistication that is capable of expressing.
Young Heather grows in the family, followed by the father, but mostly by his mother, beautician, which transmits the particular passion for cinema 1940s style and retro fashion. Future Fingertips remains fascinated by these elements, especially from Bettie Page pin-up and.
For some time, practice Ballet and aspired to become a professional dancer. Afterwards you will serve its preparation in this field to animate their shows by genre "burlesque," dancing "en pointe" (toe).
At twelve years old he moved with his family (parents and two sisters) in Orange County, California. It is said that as a teenager, her mother took her to buy her first BRA, simple white cotton, giving her a plastic egg containing flesh-colored tights. However she wanted clothes with lace stockings and similar to those seen on the issues of "Playboy" of the father.
At fifteen he began working in a lingerie store as a saleswoman; here buy her first corset. Underwear lover, corsets and elaborate as socks, decides to go to college to study history and become fashion stylist and costume designer.
The career of Dita Von Teese character starts at the age of nineteen, in a local strip club, where stands out for its originality. Create a vintage-inspired style with Beehive-coiffed hair and worn gloves to the elbow.
The big jump in popularity comes when she becomes the companion of Brian Warner, known as rock star Marilyn Manson. They married in 2005: the wedding ceremony is officiated by Director Alejandro Jodorowsky, and takes place in Gothic style and dresses in nineteenth century Irish Castle in County Tipperary, owned by Warner. The marriage ends, however, only two years after irreconcilable differences and "demons" that would have gripped the singer. Dita Von Teese soon exceeds the difficult time of posting and accept "Penthouse" magazine's publication of its very sexy photos for an article entitled "here's what you missed Manson".
Invited by glamour and fashion designers often very followed by photographers around the world, had already posed for Playboy in December 2002.
Among his notable appearances include the opening of the show "Cheap & Chic Moschino stylist (2006-2007); She posed for the Vivienne Westwood campaign along with Marilyn Manson's ex-husband. She then performed in clubs and all events, such as the Erotica Show in London, the New York Fashion Week's Hottest Party or the Crazy Horse in Paris. During the Cannes film festival 2007 Dita Von Teese took part in charity to fight Aids (Amfar's Cinema Against Aids), cover as performance on lipteese, a strip astride a giant lipstick.
In 2008 became the face for Cointreau, Orange French liqueur known, which dedicates "CointreauTeese", a custom cocktail violet notes.
Biography of Naomi Watts
September 28, 1968
Who is Naomi Watts?Naomi Ellen Watts was born in Shoreham, in the area of West Sussex, England, on September 28, 19The father works as a sound engineer for Pink Floyd; These dies when the little Naomi is only seven years. At the age of 14 years, and his brother Ben and his mother moved to Australia: here at 18 years old he participated in his first film "For Love Alone" (1986). This work as you might expect I don't immediately opens the doors to success thus prefers a career in modeling. Despite knowing that the environment will not be fashion its future road continues to work in this world, becoming editor of the magazines.
Naomi Watts is determined to follow the career of her mother, also an actress, so continues to deepen his studies in acting.
The film is called "Flirting"; on the set with her other future Hollywood stars such as Nicole Kidman and Thandie Newton, of which Naomi becomes friend.
Persisting in pursuing this road comes to Hollywood: his first experience in the magical capital of world cinema is a small part in "Matinee" (1993) by Joe Dante tribute to the cinema of the 1950s. Then Naomi Watts is Jet Girl in the unfortunate "Tank Girl," the film version of a feminist and underground comics.
Between 1996 and 2000 appears in many films and tv series, but none of these will bring her celebrity and success you hope. The turning point in his career came when David Lynch chose her as an interpreter of "Mulholland Drive". The film will not be a great commercial success, but the master's hand Lynch draws attention by critics: Naomi Watts received various prizes and awards for this role.
Shortly after she played the role of Rachel, protagnista for the movie "The Ring" (remake of Gore Verbinski, of a Japanese horror film); the surreal adventure of the intrepid reporter who investigates the mysteries of a cursed videotape, it becomes a case of great commercial success.
In 2004 we find in the drama "21 grams" alongside Benicio Del Toro and Sean Penn, who brings an Oscar nomination as best actress.
Then Peter Jackson, a veteran from the exertions of the Titanic "Lord of the rings", the blond protagonist as "King Kong" (2005), a modern remake of the classic films of the 1930s. Once the interpretation of Naomi Watts looks wonderful, her earning several awards (like the Saturn Award as best actress).
Among the later works include "the painted veil" (2006, with John Curran Edward Norton), "Eastern promises" (2007, David Cronenberg, with Viggo Mortensen and Vincent Cassel) and the thriller "Funny Games" (2007, by Michael Haneke, with Tim Roth).
Linked in life and screenwriter actor Liev Schreiber, July 26, 2007 Naomi Watts gave birth to Alexander Pete.
Among his latest works at the cinema film directed by Oliver Hirschgiebel "Caught in flight" (2012), in which he plays the role of "sad Princess" Princess Diana, Diana Spencer.