Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Henry Gantt
- Biography of Andreas Vesalius - Andreas Vesalius
- Biography of Julio Cortázar
- Biography of Felix Maria Samaniego
Biography of Henry Gantt
(1861/05/20 - 23/11/1919)Henry Lawrence Gantt
He was born on May 20, 1861 in Calvert County, Maryland, United States.
Industrial engineer. It is defined as a humanist, because despite being a disciple of Taylor, felt special sympathy for the little privileged.
Paid more attention to creating an environment that would allow them to obtain greater cooperation of its workers, to set them a well-defined task.
Scientific management: the creators of this school are Frederick Wilow Taylor and husband Gibreth and Henry Gantt, who at the beginning of this century in the United States determined the basis of scientific administration, so called because of the rationalization that makes two engineering methods applied to the Administration and due to develop experimental research oriented towards the performance of the worker. Gantt in an effort by motivate people to achieve higher levels of production, developed a system in which workers could win a prize in addition to the rate per piece outdid its share of production per day. Gantt firmly believed that the compensation of the worker needed to correspond not only to the production through the system of rate per piece, but also the overproduction by the system of awards. Its two basic concepts were: humanism and the bonus task: based on a system of differential fees per piece invented by Taylor, but as different as possible from the old system of setting rates for part of the records of the total time taken to make the total work. Instead, the time allowed for work is based on standard conditions of the workshop and a first-class workmanship. If an employee ended its task set for the day, received an additional bonus, if you did not received only their normal pay and he was not punished. Taylor did not guarantee a minimum wage for less than the standard execution. Introducing the Gantt, the production increased to more than double. Gantt establishes that the human element is the most important of all the administrative problems.
Other contributions are: The graphical Daily Balance. Current Gantt chart. It measures production at one of its axes and units of time in the other, and the establishment of that financial incentives are just one of many that influence the behavior of employees.
Henry Gantt died on November 23, 1919, in Pine Island, New York.
Biography of Andreas Vesalius - Andreas Vesalius
(1514/12/31 - 1564/10/15)Andreas Vesalius
Belgian physiologist and anatomist
He was born December 31, 1514 in Brussels. The son of a pharmacist.
He studied medicine at the University of Leuven , and subsequently in Paris, from 1533 to 15He was a pupil of Gvidi and Dubois. Finally, at the University of Padua in 1537, he received the title of doctor and he was appointed reader in surgery.
It showed that the teachings of Galen, were based on dissections of animals, rectifying many of its claims, then dyed by certain. He is the author of an treated anatomical, De Humani Corporis Fabrica (on the structure of the human body, 1543), based on his dissections of human cadavers, many of his engravings are the work of Jan van Calcar, disciple of Titian.
The work sparked much controversy. He was appointed court physician of Charles I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. After the abdication of Charles, his son named Felipe II one of its doctors in 15After spending several years in the Court, in Madrid, he was sentenced to death by the Inquisition for his work in Italy. It changed the penalty for the obligation of pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
On his trip to the Holy Land, Andreas Vesalio perished in a shipwreck on October 15, 1564.
Biography of Julio Cortázar
(1914/08/26 - 1984/02/12)Julio Cortázar
Julio Florencio Cortázar Scott
Nothing is lost if you have the courage to proclaim that all is lost and must begin again.
He was born on August 26, 1914 in Ixelles, Brussels, Belgium (his father was added the Embassy of Argentina), but his family soon moved to Buenos Aires, arriving to Argentina with four years.
Son of Julio José Cortázar, Argentine with Basque origins, commercial attaché at the Embassy of Argentina in Belgium, and María Herminia Descotte, argentina with French and German origins. In 1916 the family moved to Switzerland, where he awaits the end of the first world war. They then settled in Banfield, in the suburbs of Buenos Aires. His father left his wife and their two children, and he grew up with his mother, an aunt, his grandmother and his sister Ophelia, one year younger than July.
He studied at the Normal School Mariano Acosta teachers. In 1932, he obtained the title of master and in 1935 obtained the title of Professor Normal letters and admitted to the Faculty of philosophy and letters. Approves the first year, but leaves for faculty. He was a Professor of French literature and language at several institutes of the province of Buenos Aires.
In 1938, under the pseudonym Jorge Denís, he published his first book, presence. In July 1939, he was transferred to the Normal School of Chivilcoy. In 1944 he obtained a post of Professor in the University of Cuyo, where she participated in demonstrations against the phenomenon of peronism. When the general Juan Domingo Perón won the elections, left the University post to not be dismissed and returned to Buenos Aires, where he worked on the Argentina book Chamber. In 1948 he graduated as translator of English and French after studying, in nine months, which normally take three years. Such an effort caused it neurotic symptoms, one of which (cockroaches in food search) disappeared after the writing of the story, Circe.
It became one of the most translated into other languages Argentine authors, and is regarded as a paradigm of Argentine literature. It was a renewal of the structure of the language, playing with fantastic elements without ever losing its connection with reality. He started as a critic in magazines as "Fingerprint" or "Pebble". Since the end of the 1940s until 1953, it would work in the magazine "South", founded and directed by Victoria Ocampo in 19His first work for the magazine was an article on the occasion of the death of Antonin Artaud. When at the end of the 1940s the situation in Argentina for intellectuals was difficult by constant meddling by the Peronist dictatorship, Cortázar decided to emigrate and went to Paris in 1951, year in which got a scholarship and work as a translator of UNESCO, he played until his retirement. An important feature of his life is that as a result of a trip he took to Cuba invited by Fidel Castro became great defender and promoter of the Cuban revolutionary cause, as years later would do with the sandinista Nicaragua. Throughout his life, Cortázar combined literature with political, civic and moral commitment.
His first short story, La Casa Tomada, was published in 1946 by a literary newspaper called Annals of Buenos Aires, on the initiative of its director, Jorge Luis Borges. One of his first works, the Kings (1949), is a prose poem focused on the legend of the Minotaur. In 1951 he published his first book of stories, bestiary. The labyrinth theme reappears in Awards (1960), a novel that revolves around Cruiser that wins a group of players in a draw. In 1962 he published stories of cronopios and famas. The Editorial Sudamericana publishes hopscotch (1963), which sold 5 thousand copies during the first year. This work involves the reader in a creative game where he himself can choose the order that will read chapters arranged in an unconventional way.
His other works include numerous short stories. Secret weapons (1969), one of whose stories, 'Tracker', has become an obligatory reference in his work. Unlike the remaining novels of the author, the book of Manuel (1973) revolves around political themes and humanist.
She got married in 1953 with the translator argentina Aurora Bernárdez. In 1967, after spreading, it relates to the Lithuanian Ugné Karvelis. His third partner and second wife was Canadian writer Carol Dunlop. After the death of Carol, Aurora Bernárdez will become the heiress of his published work and their texts.
He lived in Argentina, Spain and Switzerland. On July 24, 1981, the Socialist Government of François Mitterrand awarded French nationality (Cortazar does not lose his Argentine citizenship). For health reasons, it has to be admitted. Diagnosed with leukemia.
Julio Cortázar died on February 12, 1984, at age 69, at the hospital of Saint Lazare in Paris, because of a sudden worsening in the Leukemic process. He was buried in the Montparnasse cemetery.
In his will, entrusted to the essayist and Argentine poet Saúl Yurkievich, and wife, Gladis Anchieri, his unpublished work so publish it or destroy it, if so they thought it was appropriate. Nothing was destroyed, but some of those news have seen the light, and the rest appeared in the complete works that consist of nine volumes, of more than a thousand pages each, with many previously unpublished and all the dispersed material left by the author of "Rayuela".
Biography of Felix Maria Samaniego
(1745/10/12 - 1801/08/11)Felix Maria Samaniego
Spanish illustrated fabulist
He was born October 12, 1745 in Laguardia (Álava), in the bosom of a noble family.
He left law studies in Valladolid and traveled through France. In he returned to Spain, he worked as director of the Seminary of Nobles of Vergara and participated in the Vascongada society of friends of the country.
He wrote moral fables (1781), in order to instruct his students. They are a collection of 137 apologists who take their themes from Aesop, Phaedrus, La Fontaine and John Gay.
Félix María Samaniego died on August 11, 1801 in Laguardia.