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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Juan Aldama
- Biography of Ernest Rutherford - Lord Ernest Rutherford of Nelson
- Biography of Antonio Machado
- Biography of Mao Zedong - Mao Tse-Tung
Biography of Juan Aldama
(1774/01/03 - 1811/06/26)Juan Aldama
He was born on January 3, 1774 in San Miguel el Grande (today San Miguel de Allende, in Guanajuato State). Brother of Ignacio Aldama.
When you start the war of independence, he was captain of the Cavalry Regiment of militia of the Queen in her village.
In 1809 he takes part in the conspiracy that led García Obeso and Michelenain Valladolid. Together with his brother Ignacio participated in the secret meetings of Querétaro in 1810 in the casa del corregidor Dominguez, and San Miguel.
On September 10 of that same year, the conspiracy of Querétaro is discovered by denunciation of the captain Joaquín Arias de Celaya. On 13 September there was another complaint, which was implied as conspirators to the brothers Emeterio and Epigmenio González, as well as Dominguez, Queretaro corregidor. The realized and ordered to register the houses of the González brothers, in search of weapons.
The wife of the corregidor, Doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, warns Ignacio Allende by sending an e-mail to San Miguel. The corregidora Envoy informed the captain Juan Aldama conspiracy had been uncovered. Aldama is interview with Miguel Hidalgo and Allende. The three come to the conclusion he had to advance the movement. In the morning of that day, September 16, 1810, Hidalgo commanded to call to the people through a rebato's campaigns and thus starts the revolution. The next 17, appointing a Board of Directors in San Miguel el Grande, Aldama was President, being the first Government of the insurgents.
Juan Aldama was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general, degree which took part in the disastrous battles of Aculco and Bridge of Calderónin 18After the defeat suffered by against the realistic Calleja, began the retreat to the North, joining the ringleaders, Juan Aldama to Set Acatita, where all were apprehended, the treason of Elizondo. Hidalgo, Allende, Aldama, Jiménez and other chiefs were sent to the city of Chihuahua, where the military court should judge them by default.
He was sentenced to die and he was shot in June 26, 1811, in the company of Allende, Mariano Jiménez and Manuel Santa María. His head was sent to the Alhondiga de Granaditas so it was displayed hanging.
Biography of Ernest Rutherford - Lord Ernest Rutherford of Nelson
(1871/08/30 - 19/10/1937)Lord Ernest Rutherford of Nelson
"Taking this into consideration, I realize that this scattering backward must be the result of a single collision, and when I did calculations I saw that it was impossible to get something with that order of magnitude unless you take a system in which most of the mass of the atom is a tiny nucleus. It was then when I had the idea of an Atom with a tiny massive Center carrying a burden."
He was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. Son of a farmer, was the fourth of eleven siblings.
He studied at the University of New Zealand and later at Cambridge. He taught physics at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, from 1898 to 1907 and in Manchester, England, for more than ten years. From the year 1919 he was Professor of experimental physics and directed the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge and also held a professorship since 1920 in the Royal institution of Great Britain in London.
After the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 by the physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, identified the three main components of the radiation and named them alpha rays, beta , and gamma. He demonstrated that alpha particles are helium nuclei. He formulated a theory of atomic structure , which was the first to describe the atom as a dense nucleus around which electrons revolve.
In 1919 he bombarded nitrogen with alpha particles and atoms of an isotope of oxygen and protons obtained. This transmutation of nitrogen in oxygen was first produced by a nuclear reaction of artificially. He appreciated that most of the alpha particles passed through the metal blade without experiencing virtually no deviation from his career. However, a certain fraction was very significantly diverted and some even bashed and back toward the source.
His writings include: Radioactivity (radioactivity, 1904); Radiations from Radioactive Substances (Radiation of radioactive substances, 1930), which he wrote with James Chadwick and Charles Drummond Ellis and The Newer Alchemy (New Alchemy, 1937).
He was elected member of the Royal Society in the year 1903 and President from 1925 to 19In 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry , and received the title of sir in 1914.
Ernest Rutherford died in London on 19 October 1937 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Biography of Antonio Machado
(1875/07/26 - 1939/02/22)Antonio Machado
Antonio Cipriano José María Machado Ruiz
"With that ease merges beauty and goodness"
Was born on July 26, 1875 in the Palacio de Dueñas, property of the Dukes of Alba in Seville.
It was the second of five brothers of a progressive liberal family, son of an eminent collector of popular Andalusian poetry folcklorista. His grandfather, Antonio Machado Núñez was physician and Professor of natural sciences and man of deep liberal convictions, reason which induced him to join the revolutionary Junta of Seville; the father, Antonio Machado Alvarez, friend of Joaquín Costa and Francisco Giner de los Ríos, collaborated with the Republican press, directed the library of popular traditions and published numerous studies on folklore Andalusian and gallego.
Belonging to the literary movement of the generation of 98. Brother of another illustrious writer, Manuel Machado, together that writes plays. In 1883, after being appointed Professor of the Central University of Madrid, grandfather the family moved with him to the capital of Spain. There you will complete his training intellectual, liberal and progressive, entering as a student at the Instituto Libre de Enseñanza.
In 1893 he published his first works in prose in La caricature, magazine which was published in Madrid in the years 1892 and 18His first trip to France does with his brother Manuel in 1899, working as a translator of Spanish to the Garnier House. His stay in Paris puts you in contact with the French Symbolist poets, mainly with Paul Verlaine and the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío. Result of all this is the publication in 1903 from his first book of poems "solitudes", which gives in the literary program, and where flaunts the modernist aesthetic.
In 1907 he obtained the Chair of French language in an Institute of Soria, city that will mark his life and his work. At the Inn where he meets Caves left Leonor, daughter of the owner. They married in 1909 and Leonor ill and dies in less than three years.
Working in Fields of Castile and collaborates in the newspapers of Soria in Reading of Madrid, published proverbs and songs. In 1910 with a one-year scholarship to study French Philology at Paris, and going to the Sorbonne, the courses of Henri Bergson. In the successive years live in Segovia and Madrid, where name in 1927 member of the Real Academia Española, although it never came to take possession of your armchair.
The simplicity and sobriety of his poetry and heartfelt reflections that humanize it and closer to the people, have made him one of the emblematic poets of the defenders of the popular reach of poetry. His first book "Solitudes", was published in 19In 1912 published "Campos de Castilla". "Selected pages", were published in 1917 and the first edition of "complete poems". That time is also highlighting the work "the complementary" prose. Later appeared "new songs", from 1914, which continues with the sententious and philosophical line. In addition, appeared other editions of "Complete poems", in 1928 and 1933, with the appearance of two apocryphal, "Juan de Mairena" and "Abel Martín". Written by the Machado brothers Theatre is written and premiered between 1926 (Misfortunes of Fortune or Julianillo Valcárcel) and 1932 (La duquesa de Benamejí) and consists of five structures, in addition to the above two. They are these: Juan de Mañara (1927), Las Adelfas (1928), La Lola is going to ports (1929) and La prima Fernanda (1931), written in verse, as well as Julianillo Valcárcel, and the man who died in the war, written in prose and not premiered until 19La Duquesa de Benamejí is written in prose and verse. In addition, the Machado brothers adapted for the stage comedies of Lope de Vega as The dog in the Manger or The silver girl, as well as Hernani by Víctor Hugo. In 1936, the book appeared in prose, Juan de Mairena.
Antonio Machado was initiated mason in the lodge Madrid Mantovana.
In 1936, suffer from arteriosclerosis, ulcer and has lost almost the view. Defender of the Republic left wing and firm spirit is forced to leave Madrid after the Civil War, first to Valencia to later live in exile in COLLIOURE, France, where he died on February 22, 19
Biography of Mao Zedong - Mao Tse-Tung
(26/12/1893 - 1976/09/09)Mao Tsé tung
Chairman of the Communist Party of China, founder of the People's Republic of China and its leader since 1949
He was born on December 26, 1893 in Shaoshan, Hunan province.
He was the eldest of the three sons of a wealthy peasant lender. He graduated from the school of teaching of Changsha in 19He served in the Nationalist army in 1911 and 1912 during the revolution against the manchu Government of the Qing dynasty. He worked as Assistant library at the University of Beijing. In Changsha in 1920 was director of an elementary school.
He collaborated in the founding of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai in 1921, and 1923, when the party allied with the Nationalist party (Guomindang) against the feudal warlords, was responsible for the organization. At the beginning of 1927, he wrote the survey on the peasant in Hunan movement, which argued that the discontent of the peasantry was the greatest strength of China deserved the support of the Chinese Communists.
He was elected first President of the self-proclaimed new Soviet Republic of China in 19He began a moderate land reform. Zhu De, allied with the former Lord of war became involved in a new tactic of guerrillas who pushed the troops of the Guomindang to rural areas, where it were harassed by the militia peasant and annihilated gradually by the Red Army. Chiang Kai-shek in 1934 put siege to the Communist bases. After breaking the blockade, Mao and the Red Army carried out the Long March, thousands of miles to the Northwest, ending in Shaanxi, where they installed new camps.
The Japanese invaded Manchuria (1931) and the northeast of the country (1932). Mao persuaded colleagues to deal with the Japanese and in 1937, Jiang Jieshi, allied himself with the Communists. Farmers in North China were enrolled in large numbers in the Red Army and the militia.
During this time, his first wife fell dead by bullets from the nationalists. He divorced his second wife and in 1939 he married the actress Lan Ping, better known as Jiang Qing (Chiang Ch'ing), which after 1964 would play an increasingly important role in the Communist Party.
On October 1, 1949 the People's Republic of China was officially proclaimed and Mao was elected President. The first six years of communist power is characterized by a skilful combination of firmness and flexibility. But the repression began soon against pictures of the defeated regime and continued on several occasions. Followed the Soviet model for the construction of socialist society through the redistribution of land, the creation of a heavy industry and the establishment of a centralized bureaucracy. However, developed an alternative Chinese Communist that reflected the different demographics of their country, their own experience with the farmers and their hostility to the bureaucracy.
In 1957 he started the implementation of its policy by means of the so-called Great leap forward, trying to replace the bureaucratic State by a cellular system of autonomous local communes. The leap failed in the early 1960s.
Retired in 1959 as head of the State, the Communist leaders resumed the practice of socialism in Eastern Europe. He counterattacked and mobilized youth across the Red Guard during the proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1969), promoted to attack the Communist ruling class.
Known through his book the thoughts of Chairman Mao (popularly the Red Book), was revered in China. It was Supreme Head of China in 19He showed an extraordinary ability to stay in power, at the expense of repeated failures that caused tens of millions of victims.
Mao Tse-Tung died on September 9, 1976 in Beijing.