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Why it so hard to say no? | Diseases and conditions.

Learn to say no

Had it clear... knew that he was going to tell that not... and right at the last moment... said yes. How many times has the other given you "turn the tide"? Learn to say 'no' and set our own personal limits may seem a simple task, but the truth is that it is not. However, learn to do it is the key to the success of our interpersonal relationships.
With our friends, family and couple, and even much more at work, it is important to make it clear what you are willing to do and what not, so that others may know our limits and act accordingly. Therefore, the absence of this ability can bring about important personal and interpersonal problems.

Why it so hard to say no?

Say that it is not a skill that makes it easy for us to set our personal limits, allowing others to know what we are or not willing to do. As a skill, it's a learned behavior, while it is true that there are certain personality traits that can give us such learning. So for example, extroverted individuals who like to relate with many people tend to more easily acquire this ability than those who are introverted.
But, leaving aside the characteristics of personality, why costs us so much "say no" to others? We explain the main reasons that may influence a person to adopt this behavior:
• High social desirability: often seek please each other, they say yes or stop violating their own personal rights because they believe that it is what is expected of them.
• Easy to succumb to the pressure of another person or group: as result of the above just doing what other people want. Therefore, the absence of this ability is especially dangerous in teens that drug use is concerned.
• Lack of assertiveness: are unable to adequately express what think. Therefore, although they believe that they should say that no, do not dare to do so, or, when they do, they are not convincing.
• Previous negative experiences: it is possible that at some point they have tried to say that no, or set your limits, and have them responded in a way inadequate or have suffered negative consequences. Therefore, based on these experiences can learn to "say yes" to avoid repercussions that may be his refusal.
• Low self-esteem: in many cases is the cause ("not worth anything to deny me"), and in many others is also a consequence, since people that they don't know to say that they do not feel inferior to others for not being able to set limits on them.
• Fear of rejection or a negative evaluation: for them it is important that others accept them and not evaluate them negatively. They believe that if shown according to everything that the other proposes that they will have less chance of being rejected and, on the other hand, will be "most beloved", and will be accepted easily.
• Fear of the consequences that imagine that it could have its negative. Sometimes they do not fear both the rejection of others and the fact that its refusal involves certain consequences; for example, a dismissal.

Characteristics of people who can't say no

In general, people who don't know to say that they tend not to adopt an attitude of passive or inhibited when it comes to communicating with others. Although it is not your case, we help you to recognize people who do not know how to say no, and are characterized by the following profile:
• They delay their response to avoid having to say no (waiting so the other forget it).
• Do not say 'no' at the time, but then not do that to what they pledged.
• May also occur, at the opposite end, not be able to say that not and endure what features to what committed despite the malaise that produces them.
• Avoidant personality traits (have an excessive fear to be rejected by others).
• Not knowing to say not brings them problems in your life everyday, social or labour.
• Low self-esteem: do not feel valuable to express his refusal, and not to express it makes them feel inferior.
• Your tone of voice is usually low and little fluent speech.
• Your non-verbal communication is inhibited (little eye contact, gestures too soft) and does not support verbal communication.
• Tend to rely on other people they considered "stronger" to do's "bad COP" and say that not in its place.
• Sometimes show an agresivo-pasivo communication style; for example, they no longer talk to you, make you vacuum, etc.

Consequences of not knowing how to say no

It's true to say Yes and do what the others want can suppose short term benefits. People who do not establish their limits often seem rather complacent face to others, and their treatment is nice. However, the cost for them is very high, since long term they suffer the consequences of not knowing how to say that no, that are:
• Feeling of inferiority and low self-esteem.
• Interpersonal problems not to leave clear what they really want. This confuses the people around, unaware of their true feelings and desires, and they do not know well what they must do.
• Emotional discomfort: frequent is experiencing high levels of anxiety, sadness and irritability.
• Feeling of emotional loneliness: feel that nobody understands them.
• Outbursts of anger: can "explode" for something that is not really a problem because the previous accumulation of malaise that have yet to express.
• Feeling of dissatisfaction, since who think that never is what they want.
• Autoreproches and guilt at not being able to express their wishes.
• Others abuse them: people resorts to them too much because "they tend them" to know that will always be there.

How to learn to say no

We give you some tips so that you learn to tell that not be able to refuse to do whatever you do not want:
• Lose the fear of what others may think: within reasonable limits, you're the first person who should be satisfied with his conduct.
• Accept anxiety as part of the process. Is normal to be nervous or feel uncomfortable when we say no, but you do not succumb to this malaise saying yes and trying to take the problem of over how much before, because I only get differ an unwanted situation, but not resolve it.
• In relation to the above, recalls the negative consequences that can lead you to accept, and that surely will not be compensated by the momentary emotional relief you will experience if you accept.
• Position yourself in front of a mirror and trains an assertive communication style; think about everyday situations in which you have to say no, and you mentally see your non-verbal communication, also listening to your verbal language. Sound convincing?
• Make a hierarchy of these situations, and sort them to analyze from those where more difficult is to deny you what you ask, to those in which costs you less say no, and it starts from today to make clear to others what you don't want to do.
• Di you not without too much explanation; you will thus offer less arguments to those who want you to convince otherwise.
• Internalize this idea: "it is possible that don't or whatever you want, but you always have the option not to do or be what you do not want to be", and put it into practice whenever you face a situation in which don't want to do what you propose.

How to say no: you put an example

Imagine the case of two nurses co-workers. One of them is usually tired that the other is asking you that the guards, cover what always has access to please her and avoided problems with her. However, you decide to not continue doing more. How should you act? It should say not from the outset without fear that your partner think of it. If a person you like really, it won't stop because one day you tell him that you can not cover its guard.
It is important not to give too many explanations, otherwise, the other person can to "turn the tide" and make you see that she has more important reasons why request you the change. To prevent this, there is a technique called scratched disc consisting of repeating your opinion over and over again without adding more information. For example: "I'm sorry, but today I can't do you guard..., Yes, I understand, but today I can not..., I know, sorry really, but today is impossible...".
Published for educational purposes
This web site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment
Diseases and conditions

What is anxiety? | Diseases and conditions.

Anxiety is a normal aspect of the emotional state of human beings. Anxiety is defined as a fear-like affection but which, unlike this one, not due to a threatening external stimulus, but it is experienced as coming from the psychological interiority of the individual. European psychiatry anxiety refers to the start expression of that affection.


Generalized anxiety disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders; It is more frequent in women and is related to the chronic environmental stresses. In older people, there is a higher prevalence of severe anxiety. There is an association with the social sphere, and there is a higher incidence on the population with low socio-economic levels.
The symptom that patients refer as "feeling nervous" is that of greater frequency and severity, followed by "feel angry"; the panic is more frequent in women. Back and neck pain and headaches are the most common conditions, followed by "get tired easily" and "feeling weak".
The prevalence of anxiety by geographical area shows a relationship positive with the most densely populated areas or major armed conflict; with an age of onset between twenty and thirty years, but with anxious symptoms from an early age.

Causes of anxiety

Anxiety, as well as other feelings (pleasure, exaltation, euphoria, ecstasy, sadness, anger, rage and calm), are fundamental to the life of the people; They regulate the interaction with others and offer an alarm system which, in the case of fear, serve to deal with situations of danger or risk.
These emotions, as well as perception and action, are controlled by neural circuits in the brain. In the specific case of distress, his experience includes three types of components:
• A cognitive component.
• Autonomic, endocrine responses and esqueleto-motoras.
• Subjective representations of emotional state.
Two human emotions are very important in terms of the causes of anxiety: sexuality and aggression. However, in the description that people make of their distress, they can wield many reasons that bear no relation with aggressive or sexual desires. Many patients, for example, feel puzzled to the fact that the cause of the anxiety arises precisely when they are happier and have finally gotten the desired achievement. Others blame his State to the abandonment of a loved one, bad luck in business, solitude, an adverse environment or the failure of a project.
These obvious complaints are the unconscious traumatic situations of separation in the early stages of life, psychological development is incomplete, and the subject does not have sufficient elements to defend themselves from fear to lose their lives or be annihilated by alleged or real hazards. Each new situation of separation or neglect is now poorly supported; even an apparently banal everyday fact can be reason to trigger the State of distress and be the cause of anxiety
According to the behaviorist theory, anxiety is a response conditioned to an environmental stimulus; people affected by anxiety sobregeneralizado have their fears and they have learned by imitation, to respond anxiously. Imitation comes from similar responses from their parents, caregivers or important figures; Accordingly, the anxious responses are ratings that exceed the endangerment of the situations, and underestimate their own abilities to face these threats.
Anxiety is a normal affection; its intensification, which becomes a source of suffering and disability, is what makes it pathological.

Symptoms of anxiety

The essential feature of this disorder is a feeling of widespread and persistent uneasiness and restlessness that are not related to any environmental circumstances in particular. More typically, the patient complains of being permanently nervous, as well as feeling other typical symptoms of anxiety such as tremor, muscle tension, excessive sweating, dizziness and dizziness, tachycardia, and epigastric discomfort.
Often express fear that they themselves, or their loved ones, can get a disease or an accident between various obsessions and forebodings of negative nature. Anxiety is a condition more common in women and is often related to environmental stress of everyday life. It has a variable course, depending on the characteristics of the person concerned, but it tends to be fluctuating and chronic.
Anxiety disorder is diagnosed as such, the patient must present anxiety symptoms almost everyday for several consecutive weeks. The most indicative signs of anxiety are:
• Apprehension (excessive concern over possible misfortune future, feel "to the limit" of its forces, difficulty in concentration, etc).
• Muscle tension (agitation and restlessness psychomotor, Cephalalgia of tension, tremors, inability to relax).
• Vegetative hyperactivity (dizziness, sweating, tachycardia or tachypnea, epigastric discomfort, dizziness, dry mouth...).
• Children tend to manifest a constant need for care and safety, and complain repeatedly.
Discover with our test of anxiety if you really suffer from this problem.

Treatment of anxiety

In the treatment of anxiety usually resort to the use of these drugs:
• Benzodiazepines (anxiolytics).
• Selective inhibitors of serotonin (SSRIS) receiving.
• Selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants.
However, before using them remember that we must always consult a specialist:

Psychotherapeutic treatment of anxiety

It aims to strengthen defense mechanisms, increase the strength of the self, and ensure the patient to use emotionally corrective aspects of the relationship with the therapist, to achieve a better nature, frequently inadequate, compression of their own interpersonal relationships.
The psychotherapeutic treatment of anxiety should be performed by a trained professional.

Self-help groups and psychoeducational groups

The purpose of psychoeducational groups is to provide knowledge about psychiatric drugs, premonitory symptoms of new crises, relaxation techniques, and methods to coexist and tolerate the everyday stress.
For his part, self-help groups are a receptive environment that is offered is received solidarity and shared with others the painful experience and methods to overcome the inevitable suffering that the existence brings with it emotionally. In addition, group becomes a social reference point, and increases network support needed by every human being, and especially people with anxiety disorder.
Published for educational purposes
This web site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment
Diseases and conditions

Biography of Sigmund Freud | Creator of psychoanalysis

Creator of psychoanalysis, their conceptions of the unconscious and the human psychology revolutionized all areas of culture.
Sigismund Freud, who, at the age of twenty-two, would change the name to the Sigmund, was born in Freiberg, in the ancient Moravia (now Pribor, Czechoslovakia), on May 6, 1856. His father was a wool merchant who, at the time of birth, already had forty-one years and two children in a previous marriage; the largest of these was approximately the same age as the mother of Freud - twenty years younger than her husband — and was, in turn, father of a child of one year. In his middle age, Freud had to comment that the impression that caused this rather tangled family situation resulted of awakening their curiosity and sharpen your intelligence.
In 1859, the economic crisis gave the fret with parental trade and the following year the family moved to Vienna, where it lived long years of difficulties and hardships, being very frequent seasons in which, for the rest of her long life (died in October 1896), the father would be out of work. Freud always detested the city in which, on the other hand, lived until a year before his death, when, in June 1938, and despite the intercession of Mussolini, and Roosevelt was forced, given their status as Jewish - his works had been burned in Berlin in 1933, to embark on the path of exile to London as a result of the Anschluss the annexation of Austria to rancid project pangermanist of the great Germany, prepared by the nazis with the help of Seyss-Inquart and the Austrian proselytes.

Freud in his Studio
The family remained faithful to the Jewish community and customs; Although it was not particularly religious; the father can be considered it close to Freethought and the own Freud had already lost religious beliefs in adolescence. In 1873, she completed her secondary studies with excellent qualifications. He had always been a good student, corresponding to the sacrifices for his education made by their parents, who are promised a brilliant career for his son, who shared their expectations. After considering the possibility to study the law, decided by medicine, but not with the desire to exercise it, but moved by a certain intention of studying the human condition with scientific rigor. Halfway through the race, he took the decision to engage in biological research, and from 1876 to 1882, worked in the laboratory of physiologist Ernst von Brücke, interested in some nerve structures of animals and in the anatomy of the human brain. From that time dates his friendship with the Viennese physician Josef Breuer, fourteen years older that he who had to provide support, both moral and material. In 1882 he met Martha Bernays, his future wife, the daughter of a family of Jewish intellectuals; the desire to get married, their scarce economic resources and few prospects for improving their situation working with Von Brücke made that it desist from his career as researcher and decided to make a living as a physician, title that had obtained in 1881, three years late.
Without any predilection for the exercise of general medicine, he decided to acquire sufficient clinical experience that would allow them to reach a certain prestige, and, since July, 1882 to August 1885, worked as a resident in various departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, deciding to specialise in neuropathology. In 1884 was commissioned a study on the therapeutic use of cocaine, and not without some imprudence, experienced it on his person. It did not become a drug addict, but some which caused another battering, as the push to addiction to his friend Von Fleischl trying to cure him of his morfinomania, compounding, indeed, appropriate. In medical circles were left to hear some criticism and its reputation was somewhat overshadowed. In 1885, was appointed Privatdozent of the Faculty of Medicine of Vienna, where he taught throughout his entire career, first neuropathology, and, later, psychoanalysis, but without access to any Chair.
Obtaining a grant for a study tour took him to Paris, where he worked for four months and medium in the Neurology service of the Salpêtrière under the direction of Jean Martín Charcot, by then the most important French neurologist. There he had the opportunity to observe manifestations of hysteria and the effects of hypnosis and suggestion in the treatment of the same. Back in Vienna, he married in September 1886, after a long courtship marked by ruptures and reconciliations, as a result, in particular, from jealousy which felt towards anyone that I could be object of the affections of Martha (including his mother). In the ten years following the wedding, the couple had six children, three boys and three girls, the youngest of which, Anna, born in December 1895, would become child psychoanalyst.
Shortly before marrying, Freud opened a private practice as a neuropathologist, using electrotherapy and hypnosis for the treatment of nervous diseases. His friendship with Breuer crystallized, then, in closer collaboration, which finally fructificaría in the creation of psychoanalysis, albeit at the price that the relationship between the two broke. Between 1880 and 1882, Breuer had treated a case of hysteria (that of the patient which then would be referred to as 'Anna o'.'); to interrupt the treatment, told how Freud the symptoms of the sick (intermittent limb paralysis,) as well as disorders of speech and view disappeared when it was itself in hypnotic state, origin or explanation. In 1886, after having checked in Paris the operability of hypnosis, Freud forced Breuer to talk to you again about the case, and overcoming her initial resistance, to indulge in making joint paper on hysteria. During the gestation of this work, which appeared in 1895, Freud developed his first ideas on psychoanalysis. Breuer participated to some extent in development, although slowing down the scope of speculation later features of the Freudian doctrine and refusing to, finally, Subscribe to the growing conviction of Freud about the role of sexuality in the etiology of mental disorders.
In 1896, after breaking with Breuer somewhat violently, Freud began to transform the therapeutic methodology that had qualified for "catharsis", based on hypnosis, in what he called the method of 'free association'. Working alone, victim of the contempt of the other doctors, treating his patients led him to forge the essential elements of the psychoanalytic concepts of 'unconscious', 'suppression' and 'transfer'. In 1899, it appeared his famous interpretation of dreams, but with issue date of 1900, and three contributions to the theory of sex, the second largest of his works was published in 1905. These two were the only books that Sigmund Freud reviewed promptly in each of its successive editions.
Until 1905, and although by that time his theories had already stamped definitely early threshold and were solidly established, had few disciples. But in 1906 it began to attract more followers; the circle of that, since 1902, gather some nights at home in order to orient themselves in the field of psychoanalytic research, it was expanded and changed, even several times in composition, thus consolidating a psychoanalytic society which, in the spring of 1908, at the invitation of Karl Gustav Jung, held in Salzburg the first psychoanalytical Congress. The following year, Freud and Jung traveled to United States, invited to give a series of lectures at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, checking with surprise the enthusiasm inspired by Freudian thought there much before that in Europe. The international society of psychoanalysis, presided over by Jung, who retained the Presidency until 1914, year in which was forced to resign, as a corollary of the Freud failed by the same breakdown in 1913, to declare inadmissible enlargement Jungian concept of 'libido' further than their strictly sexual significance was founded in Nuremberg in 1910. In 1916 he published Introduction to psychoanalysis.
In 1923, cancer of the jaw was diagnosed with and had to undergo the first of a series of interventions. Since then and until his death in London on 23 September 1939, he was always sick, though not declined its energetic activity. Their great contributions to the diagnosis of the State of our culture date from this period (the future of an illusion [1927], the unrest in the culture [1930], Moses and monotheism [1939]). Already beforehand, through works notably Totem and taboo (1913), inspired by biological evolution of Darwin and social evolutionism with Frazer, had given testimony to what extent considered the paramount importance of psychoanalysis, beyond a therapeutic efficacy that judged always restricted, resided in instrument status to investigate the determinants in the thinking and the behavior of men.

Chronology of Sigmund Freud

1856Born in Freiberg (Czechoslovakia).
1859He moved with his family to Vienna.
1885He studied with Jean Martin Charcot in Paris.
1895He published his "studies on hysteria" in collaboration with Breuer.
1900He published "The interpretation of dreams".
1905He published "Three contributions to the theory of sex".
1908Held in Salzburg the first psychoanalytic Congress
1909He travels to the United States with his colleague Carl Gustav Jung.
1910Foundation in Nuremberg of the international society of psychoanalysis.
1916It publishes "Introduction to psychoanalysis".
1930He published "The unrest in the culture".
1938He settled in London
1939Dies in London.

Sigmund Freud and the Psicoanlalisis

Freud didn't intend to create a complete psychological theory, but came to elaborate a system explaining the psychology of the man as a whole. He began studying the mental disorder and were then asked for their causes. He ended up developing a general theory of the psychological dynamism of its evolution through different periods of development and the impact of society, culture and religion in personality, as well as creating a form of treatment of mental disorders. He managed to make a psychological theory which encompassed the normal and abnormal personality, and which affected all fields of knowledge: Sociology, history, education, anthropology and the arts.
The first concern of Freud, within the field of the human psyche, was the study of hysteria, through which came to the conclusion that the hysterical symptoms depended on repressed internal psychological conflicts and the same treatment should focus on the patient to replicate the traumatic events that had caused such conflicts. The technique used in principle for it was hypnosis.
He came to the conviction that the origin of mental disorders is on the sex life and sexuality begins much earlier than in those moments it was thought, in early childhood. The affirmation of the existence of the infantile sexuality produced many critical and opponents to his theory.
Later introduced other treatment techniques: free association. At the beginning it was parallel to the use of hypnosis, but this last technique just discarding it as less effective. In the free associations the patient expresses uncensored everything that comes to consciousness spontaneously.
Subsequently, incorporates the interpretation of dreams in psychoanalytic treatment, because that means that sleep expresses, latent form and through a language of symbols, the origin of psychic disorder conflict. The interpretation of dreams is an arduous task in which the therapist has overcome "resistances" which lead the patient to censor their trauma, as a form of Defense.
Another aspect to keep in mind in psychoanalytic therapy is the analysis of the transfer, understood as the update of feelings, desires, and primitive and childish emotions that the patient had towards their parents and most representative figures and that now threatens the therapist. Analysis will allow the patient to understand what obey these feelings, desires and emotions, and reinterpret them unless they cause anguish.

Freud in 1939
Freud makes a topographic formulation of the psyche and includes the three systems: one conscious; Another preconscious, whose contents can be passed to the former; and other unconscious, whose contents have no access to consciousness. Repression is the mechanism that makes the contents of the unconscious to remain hidden. Later presents a new formulation of the psychic apparatus that complements the previous one. In this structural formulation the psychic apparatus consists of three instances: do this, unconscious instance that contains all the drives and is governed by the principle of pleasure; I, who has mostly aware content, but can also contain unconscious aspects, is governed by the principle of reality and acts as an intermediary between it and the other instance of the psychic apparatus; and the superego, which represents ideal and moral standards.
A basic concept in the Freudian theory is that of "impulse" or pulsion (triebe, in German). It is the basic part of the motivation. Initially the difference two types of drives: the impulses of the self or self-maintenance and sexual impulses. Sexual impulses are dynamically expressed by libido, as rally in the psychic life of sexual drive, is the psychic energy of sexual drive. Later he recast his theory of impulses and differentiated between impulses of life (Eros), in which are included the two previous formulation, and impulses of death (Thanatos), understood as the tendency to complete reduction of tensions. Freud had a hedonistic conception of human behavior: understand that pleasure was given by the absence of tension and displacer for the presence of the same. The Agency, initially, is oriented towards the pleasure (pleasure principle) and avoids tensions, displacer and anxiety.
Freud, in addition, contributed a vision evolving regarding the formation of the personality, to establish a series of stages in sexual development. In each of the stages, the end is always common, sexual pleasure, libido development. The difference between each one of them is in the "object" to get that pleasure. The child receives instinctual gratification from different parts of the body depending on the stage in which it is located. Throughout the development, the erotic activity of the child focuses on different erogenous zones. The first stage of development is the oral stage, in which the mouth is the erogenous zone par excellence, includes the first year of life. Below is given the anal stage, ranging up to three years. Follows the phallic stage, around age four, in which the child spends the "Oedipus complex". After this period the infantile sexuality becomes a period of latency, which wake up when you reach puberty with the genital phase.
In parallel with this intrapsychic development of the subject, going a process of socialization in which relations with others are configured. It is very important also the identification process, allowing the subject to incorporate the qualities of others in itself, for the formation of their personality.
In its infancy, and even today, psychoanalysis has been a doctrine which has aroused strong passions, in favor and against. Among the criticisms that have been made to the theory of Sigmund Freud, the main has been the lack of objectivity of observation and the difficulty of deriving specific verifiable hypotheses from theory.
Despite the great reproach that Freudian ideas, especially in medical circles, his work brought together a large group of followers. Among them were Karl Abraham, Sandor Ferenczi, Alfred Adler, Carl Gustav Jung, Otto Rank and Ernest Jones. Some of them, such as Adler and Jung were away from the tenets of Freud and created his own psychological conception.
There is no doubt that psychoanalysis was a revolution for psychology and thought of the time and has served as basis for the development and proliferation of a lot of theories and psychological schools.
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Biographies of historical figures and personalities

Biography of Henry Ford | Engineer and American businessman

The introduction of the Assembly lines in the manufacture of its famous Ford T was the key event of the second industrial revolution.
Engineer and American businessman Henry Ford modified in a radical way the Customs and habits of consumption society, thanks to its innovative way of understanding industrial production. On the one hand, he was able to produce economic and reliable cars within reach of a large number of consumers; on the other hand, transformed the methods of work of the industry, to make it more productive. At the time of his death in 1947, the son of a poor Irish farmers had not only amassed a fabulous personal fortune and fathered a family of entrepreneurs who expanded his industrial empire, they had the pride of being one of the men who have most influenced the so-called American way of life. Its Ford T figure today in many museums as a work of art comparable to the great human creations.

Henry Ford
Born on June 30, 1863 in Dearborn, Michigan, Henry Ford showed very young rare conditions for mechanics. Just finished high school in Dearborn, moved to Detroit to work as an apprentice mechanic, although not much later he would return to his people, earning a living as a mechanic of steam engines. In 1888 he married Clara Jane Bryant, his partner's life, which would give him an only son, Edsel (born in Detroit in 1893), a brilliant and imaginative man who could have been a great director of company have not lived overshadowed by the gigantic figure of his father. Ford returned to settle in Detroit in 1891 and started working as a mechanic at the Edison Illuminating Company, which would become Chief Engineer.
In those years it began construction, in his spare time, which would be its first "car without horses", which culminated in 1896. It was a four-wheeled vehicle dragged by a two-cylinder and four-stroke engine cooled with water and no reverse gear. This model did not provide any mechanical new respect in Europe manufacturing Daimler or Benz. Its importance would come later, with the construction in series, and thanks to its performance, economy and robustness, virtues that are designed to meet the needs of the middle class.
During the first years of the century, Henry Ford was settled his reputation as a mechanic driving with success their own racing cars. Partnered with other automotive companies, but his strong character and his unconventional ideas led him to found the Ford Motor Company, which possessed 25.5% of the shares in 1903. At the time of its founding, the company had only a few patents and a prototype built with the help of C. Harold Willis that wasn't even finished.

The overwhelming victory of the Ford T

He and his partners, primarily the brothers John and Horace Dodge, the engine manufacturers, began to harvest first successes, and with them came the differences of approach. The Dodge is leaning toward a model of luxury and high price, while Ford advocated exactly the opposite, i.e., a simple and popular, and above all cheap car. The differences just being so severe that Ford opts to buy half of the shares, leaving the Dodge in the minority. Now not only know what you want to but that, from different attempts, knows even how it should be, and result of all this is born the Ford T, which goes on sale in 1908. Just five years later, Henry Ford is already able to put on the street 25,000 units annually at a price of $500, with a few benefits over eleven million dollars.

The ten millionth car, together
the first that came out of the factory Ford
From here the phenomenon Ford analysts disagree. For some the secret of his success was that he knew how to understand that it was the wish of all American own a self-propelled vehicle that is able to provide freedom of action that characterized the American dream. For others, on the other hand, the process was exactly to the contrary: what Henry Ford did thanks to his ingenuity and industriousness, was anyone able to buy a car, which would have been built at the same time the legendary model T and the American dream.
In one or another case, and from a strictly business point of view, the real secret of Henry Ford was having managed to combine three factors that not only revolutionized the automobile industry but American society as a whole. The first of these factors was the standardization and mass manufacturing of all and each one of the parts that make up a car, in such a way that an orderly converge on the Assembly line is could assemble a long hundred units daily.
The second factor was the granting of higher wages («soaring», in the opinion of his rivals) workers in its factories, which, faced with adequate financial resources, immediately became the main consumers of own Ford T. Finally, Ford established a dense network of dealers who maintained a close relationship with the central nationwide already in many cases were even founded the rudimentary foundations of what today are the parallel financial companies that it further purchase. Forty-year-old Henry Ford not only was already the world's leading manufacturer of cars, but one of the richest men in the country.

Pacifist in the war

But there were still many and hard evidence that tuning his indomitable Irish spirit. On the eve of the U.S. entry into world war I, and when the conflict had already become widespread in Europe, Ford personally launched a campaign for peace so passionate as ridiculed by opponents. It was even called peace boat Charter at the time funding to anti-war organizations in its futile effort to stop the war. However, being as he was a pragmatic man, not you hesitated in putting all its factories at the service of the Government when it realized that the war was inevitable, obtaining multi-million dollar contracts to manufacture military vehicles and armaments.

Henry Ford with Knox and William Hearst
Parallel to their efforts in favour of peace, Henry Ford had to fight a hard battle of legal order against the Dodge Brothers, who at the head of a large sector of minority shareholders opposed that Tycoon reinvirtiese the benefits of your company expand and consolidate it. This went against the interests of John and Horace Dodge, more interested in cash dividends for investing in your own car factory. Bound in 1919 by a judge to be distributed among its shareholders nearly twenty million dollars, Ford responded with a brutal counteroffensive and in a matter of weeks, and by actors interposed, more than 100 million dollars to be invested with the almost all of the shares of the Ford Motor Company.
The times, however, were not as good. In 1920-1921 was experienced a sharp recession that was the prelude to the crisis of 29. Ford saved the blip at the expense of further reduce the price of the Model T (360 dollars), launched the famous Fordson tractor and oblige its dealers to finance not only the purchase of his own company but the substantial investment that was taking place. In 1922 bought the Lincoln Motor Company and put in front of it to his son Edsel in order to manufacture a luxury model.
At the same time, and in order to be able to control all stages of the manufacture and sale of their cars, began the systematic purchase of forests, coal mines and iron, glass, blast furnaces, a railway, a merchant fleet factories and a vast rubber plantation in Brazil, at the time that, to further diversify the offer, launched three aircraft manufacturing making passage to the air transport of passengers and mail they were to experience a huge breakthrough in North America. Henry Ford was also the first to warn the advantages of the foreign market and established a complete sales network in Europe. Towards the middle of the Decade of the 1920s, the Ford T hoarders between 40 and 57% of the car market. However, just on the eve of the great depression of the 29, Ford did not know (and not wanted, since he was stubborn and fixed ideas man) show the great changes that ahead and that forcing a forceful blow of rudder.

The crisis of 29

The notorious roads increase, coupled with the general rise in the standard of living, as well as direct competition from rivals such as General Motors, Ford T made an obsolete model. But Ford, seeing misleading figures sales of its standard bearer, refused to change it and opted for the old resource reduce costs, only that this time remained now only you increase productivity and freeze wages, which made to reduce significantly the popularity of the Ford between the old workers better paid in North America.
The dramatic decrease in sales during 1927 forced Ford to suspend production of the Model T. At the end of that year was released on the Ford and shortly thereafter, in 1929, the amazing V-8, which allowed him to regain some of the lost ground. But the Ford Motor Company is no longer the number one, because both General Motors (with the famous Chevvy) as the Chrysler ahead. With the aggravating circumstance that the pattern seems to have gone astray: his weekly newspaper, the Dearborn Independent, launches into a furious anti-Semitic campaign; or the later discrediting of the own Henry Ford nor his public request for apology will prevent a precipitous fall in its reputation.

Henry Ford with a V8 engine
The immense power he enjoyed in his conglomerate, the inability to exercise the control direct of all them and the fact that Ford was best in the mechanical issues that resulted in human relationships that often delegase his power on people notable for their helpful attitude that by his entrepreneurial skills. Thus, the beneficial influence of a reflective and weighted man as his son Edsel had been exercising on the company since 1925 was widely offset by sweeping powers granted to Harry Bennett, head of Ford security services.
Bennet was largely responsible for Ford's repeated and stubborn refusal to sign the national industry recovery Act, a Government formula put into practice during the 1930s to help overcome the crash of 29 and involving substantial state contracts, but that required employers to bargain with unions. At the end of that decade, and when it became apparent that Hitler would end up dragging again to the United States to intervene belicamente in Europe, Henry Ford returned to publicly oppose the war. But just know of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the fulminant Declaration of war decreed by President Wilson, put its huge potential at the service of the State and its factories would not take out the superbombarderos first to restore American military supremacy.

The great industrial heritage

The false prosperity provided by State contracts could not hide serious deficiencies that plagued the Ford Motor Company, mainly due to the notorious technological delay experienced by the efforts of its founder in continue producing cheap and therefore technically mediocre vehicles. In this sense include the positive influence exerted by Edsel Ford, and that it had failed to increase further due to repeated heart problems suffered by Henry Ford in the early 1940s. Unfortunately, Edsel died in 1943, and Henry Ford, then an old man 80 years old and very impaired health, had no strength to regain command of that ship advancing to drift.

With his wife and his grandson Henry Ford II in
the Quad was built in 1896
Until in 1945, and after a sort of familial status coup where he had an outstanding performance the wife of the founder, Clara Jane Bryant, the son of Edsel, Henry Ford II, was aupado to the Presidency with a mission to restructure, improve and update the fabulous conglomerate built by Henry Ford. At the time of his death, in April 1947, Henry Ford had the satisfaction of knowing that their empire was once again a machine running at full pressure and that advantageously fought on all fronts opened by it.
However, times had changed and it was no longer possible to continue managing the Empire on a family basis. In 1956, seven million shares of the Ford Motor Company went on sale, putting an end to the stranglehold exercised by the Ford. Much of the profits currently generated by the company go to the Ford Foundation, founded in 1936 and on strengthened by the legacies left by the own Henry Ford, his wife clear and his son Edsel, currently totaling more than a half trillion dollars dedicated entirely to the promotion of research and the arts.

Chronology of Henry Ford

1863Born in Dearborn, Michigan (USA).
1888 Working steam engine mechanic. He married Clara Jane Bryant.
1891He began to work at the Edison Illuminating Company, which will become Chief Engineer.
1893His son Edsel was born.
1896Ends its first "horseless car", which he had been designing and manufacturing in their time free.
1903With other partners, including the brothers John and Horace Dodge, founded the Ford Motor Company.
1906Divergences between partners. Ford is made with the control of the company by buying half of the shares.
1908Is selling the first Ford T.
1915It expresses its opposition to the first world war and it sponsors anti-war actions, but lends its industrial might to the Government when the United States entered the war.
1919After a judicial confrontation with the Dodge Brothers, acquired nearly all the company's shares.
1920It initiates an anti-Semitic campaign in The Dearborn Independent, which severely damaged his reputation.
1921It launches the Fordson tractor.
1922Buy the Lincoln Motor Company, whose address is responsible his son Edsel. He began to diversify their investments.
1928Stops producing the Model T and is replaced by the Ford.
1929Manufactures the model V-8.
1939Opposed to the participation of the United States in the war, and again will support the Government after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
1945His grandson Henry Ford II succeeds to him in the direction of their companies.
1947Died in Dearborn.

Henry Ford and the Ford T

On August 12, 1908, the factory of the Ford Motor Company for the American city of Detroit, founded five years earlier by the industrialist Henry Ford, went on sale the first model T Ford, a two seater vehicle aimed at the general public. Ford aspire, with Lizzie (a name that was soon to be known), to automobile stopped being a unique heritage of the wealthy classes and became an object of widespread consumption. Hence, the new model is designed for the masses and that everything on it is simple and practical. Sober design and low cost ($850), the Ford T allowed easy driving compared to other vehicles of its time. Equipped with a four-cylinder engine, Lizzie was a vehicle of limited power and average speed, but it was meant to enjoy a long life operation.

A new strategy of industrial production

The manufacture of a car so affordable to a wide market was made possible, only, by putting up a method of mounting chain allowing to optimize time and resources. Thanks to the introduction of this innovative method, the price of the Ford T went from the initial $850 to 265 in 1922, while the construction series shot production (75,000 cars a year in 1912).

Henry Ford in an image taken to 1919
The process, based on the principle of the Assembly line, began the standardization of all and each one of the parts that make up a car. Once manufactured, the pieces neatly converge on a conveyor belt, carrying worker product at worker, each of which serves a specific function for the reduced time in which the object is to. More than one hundred units daily might as well join. Ford also opted for paying high salaries to their workers, allowing that they become a clientele that T. Ford bought massively In an attempt to democratize and to further extend the automobile, Ford subsequently created a dense network of dealers, establishing a system of selling on credit to very long term with the object of promoting the consumption.
Thanks to the improvements achieved with all these methods, Detroit-based car industry became the principal of the country. Consumer featured all kinds of products, such as glass, rubber or steel, Ford Motor Company favoured the development of other industrial sectors. Growing demand for gasoline stimulated the development of the oil industry, and the flood of vehicles that flooded the United States led to the construction of an extensive network of roads.

Pioneer of mass production

Already in the antiquity has had practiced different techniques of mass production, but were probably the English first use machinery powered by water and water vapour in manufacturing production during the Industrial Revolution, which began in the mid-18th century. However, it is generally accepted that modern mass production techniques were generalized thanks to the Americans. In fact, the modern series production is called "American system".
The first successes of the American system tend to be attributed to Eli Whitney, who adapted the techniques of manufacture in series and the interchangeability of parts of musket (a type of weapon) for the Government of the United States in the decade from 1790. However, according to some scholars, the muskets of Whitney parts were not truly interchangeable, so the American system should be attributed to John Hall, gunsmith of New England which manufactured spark pistols for the Government. Hall built many machine tool necessary for the manufacture of precision.

A 1903 Ford model
Many of the inventions of Oliver Evan for the flour milling process led to a type of automated mill that could be operated by a single Miller. Samuel Colt and Elijah King Root were great innovators in the development of parts for the firearms assembly line manufacturing. Eli Terry adopted methods of series production in the production of watches at the beginning of the 19th century. A few years later, George Eastman made innovations in mounting chain for manufacturing techniques and developing photographic film.

Large scale series production

But credit for the development of manufacturing techniques in series, with Assembly lines is a large scale, normally attributed to Henry Ford, who in 1908 began their innovative production methods for automobile model T. such methods were evolving and perfecting. At first, Ford workers groups moved a line of parts and partial assemblies where every worker was serving a specific task. But some workers and groups were faster or slower than others, and is often hindered each other.
Ford and its technicians decided to move the work, rather than the workers. From 1913, the laborers in their factories remained in their jobs and parts came to them by conveyor belts. The car passing between operators on another conveyor. The bodywork of the cars added in a line and chassis (ground) and train (motor and wheels) drive in another. When both were practically finished, the body is down to chassis for final assembly.

Ford T of 1914
It has been said that Ford was inspired to this Assembly line at slaughterhouses and factories of canned which transported cattle died along lines of Rails already elevated in the 1840s. Although it was not the first to use the technique of assembly line, no doubt can be considered that Ford was that obtained best results among the first innovators due to a simple fact: He foresaw and promoted mass consumption as a natural consequence of the manufacture in series.

The end of the craft

But his innovations had many consequences. Assembly techniques required modification of the personal skills necessary to obtain a product. Each worker was previously responsible for manufacturing and Assembly complete with all the parts needed for obtaining a single product. That work was done by hand and rested on the individual skills of each operator.
However, manufacturing in series and the interchangeability of parts required that all were equal. Therefore the machines, rather than people, came to prevail in the production process. Each piece was copied by a machine process. The Assembly of these parts now made machine was divided into series of small repetitive steps requiring much less skill than traditional craftsmanship.
Thus, modern techniques of mass production ended up modifying the relationship of people with his work. Series production replaced artisan work and repetitive assembly line became the global standard for all manufacturing processes, leading to an end artisan traditions that had existed for centuries.
Published for educational purposes
Biographies of historical figures and personalities

Biography of Alexander Fleming | Alexander Fleming and penicillin

Eminent bacteriologist discovered penicillin semicasual way. It was the start of antibiotics and modern medicine.
Alexander Fleming was born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield, Great Britain, in a peasant family in the Scottish vega. Was the third of four children held remarried by Hugh Fleming, which died when Alexander was seven years old, leaving his widow to the care of the family ranch with the help of the greatest of her stepchildren. Fleming received, until 1894, a fairly rudimentary education, obtained with difficulty, which however seems to have extracted the taste by detailed observation and the simple way that would later characterize him.
Completed the age of thirteen, he moved to live in London with a stepbrother who worked there as a doctor. She completed her education with two courses at the Regent Street Polytechnic Institute, then used in the offices of a shipping company. In 1900 he joined the London Scottish Regiment with the intention to participate in the Guerra of the Boers, but this ended before his unit arrived to embark. However, his taste for military life led him to remain added to his regiment, taking part in the first world war as an officer in the Royal Army Medical Corps in France.

Alexander Fleming
At the age of twenty, the legacy of a small legacy led him to study medicine. He won a scholarship to St. Mary completo Hospital Medical School in Paddington, institution that, in 1901, began a relationship that was to last throughout his life. In 1906 he joined the team of bacteriologist sir Almroth Wright, with whom he was associated for forty years. In 1908 he graduated, obtaining the Gold Medal of the University of London. Appointed Professor of bacteriology, in 1928 he became Professor, retiring as Emeritus in 1948, although the direction of the Wright-Fleming Institute of Microbiology, founded in her honor and that of his former master and colleague he held until 1954.
Fleming's career was devoted to the investigation of the defenses of the body against bacterial infections. His name is associated with two important discoveries: lysozyme and penicillin. The second is, by far, the most famous and also most important from a practical point of view: both are, however, related to each other, since the first one had the virtue of focus on antibacterial substances that may have some therapeutic application.
Fleming discovered lysozyme in 1922, when it was revealed that runny nose possessed the power to dissolve certain types of bacteria. It proved once that power depended on an active enzyme, lysozyme, present in many of the body's tissues, although of activity restricted by what is reflected to the pathogenic organisms causing diseases. Despite this limitation, the find was revealed highly interesting, since it showed the possibility of that there are substances which are harmless to the cells of the body, are lethal to bacteria. As a result of the investigations undertaken by Paul Ehrlich thirty years earlier, medicine was already after a result of this type, although obtained successes had been very limited.
The discovery of penicillin, one of the most important acquisitions of modern Therapeutics, had its origin in a fortuitous observation. In September 1928, Fleming, during a study on mutations of certain colonies of staphylococci, found that one of the crops had been accidentally contaminated by a microorganism from the outside air, a fungus subsequently identified as Penicillium notatum. His thoroughness led him to observe the behavior of the crop, noting that around the initial area of contamination, staphylococci had been made transparent, phenomenon that Fleming correctly interpreted as an effect of an anti-bacterial substance secreted by the fungus.
Once isolated this, Fleming knew how to take advantage of the limited resources available to reveal the properties of this substance. Thus, he found that a pure culture of the fungus broth gained, in a few days, a considerable level of antibacterial activity. He made various experiences aimed to establish the degree of susceptibility to a wide range of pathogenic bacteria broth, noting that many of them were rapidly destroyed; injecting the culture in rabbits and mice, it showed that it was harmless for leukocytes, what constituted a reliable index of who should be harmless to the animal cells.
Eight months after their first observations, Fleming published the results in a report which is today considered a classic on the subject, but which at the time did not have much resonance. While Fleming grasped the importance of the phenomenon of antibiosis had discovered from the beginning (even very dilute the substance possessed antibacterial power far superior to the so powerful as carbolic acid antiseptics), penicillin took still 15 years to become the universal therapeutic agent which was to become.
The reasons for this delay are varied, but one of the most important factors that determined it was the instability of penicillin, converting its purification in an exceedingly difficult process for the chemical techniques available. The solution to the problem came with the investigations developed at Oxford by the team who directed the Australian pathologist H. W. Florey and the German chemist e. B. Chain, sought refuge in England, who, in 1939, obtained an important subsidy for the systematic study of the antimicrobial substances secreted by microorganisms. In 1941 were the first satisfactory results with human patients. The situation of war determined that they will be they destined to the development of the product important enough as to which resources already in 1944, all the seriously injured in the battle of Normandy could be treated with penicillin.
With a certain delay, fame finally overtook Fleming, who was elected to the Royal Society in 1942, received the title of sir, two years later, and finally, in 1945, Nobel shared with Florey and Chain award. He died in London on March 11, 1955.

Chronology of Alexander Fleming

1881Born in Lochfield, Great Britain.
1906He began to work in the Saint Mary's Hospital in London.
1921Discover the inhibitory properties of lysozyme.
1928He was appointed Professor at the University of London.
1928Discover penicillin.
1942First treatment with penicillin in charge of H. W. Florey.
1945Gets the Nobel Prize of medicine, with H. W. Florey and e. B. Chain. He published his work the penicillin, its practical applications.
1955Dies in London.

Alexander Fleming and penicillin

The British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming owes its fame to the discovery of penicillin, an antibiotic that revolutionized modern medicine. Use of this substance allows to treat various diseases which, until well into the 20th century, were considered incurable.

Alexander Fleming
It should be recognized that the fact that it is possible to use penicillin nowadays is not only Fleming, but rather it was the result of the efforts of several researchers. British bacteriologist discovered the antibiotic in 1928, to study a culture of bacteria presenting a State of Lysis due to accidental contamination by a fungus. The own Fleming was commissioned, with the help of a mycologist studying the fungus, which was awarded the name of penicillin. However, were the Australian doctor Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain German biochemist who started a detailed and systematic investigation of natural antibiotics and who promoted the manufacturing and medical use of penicillin.

Fleming in his laboratory
Penicillin began to be used on a massive scale in the second world war, where its therapeutic value was evident. Since then, used with great effectiveness in the treatment against many infectious germs, especially coconuts; in this sense, it has been extremely useful to combat diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis.
In fact, penicillin started the era of antibiotics, substances that have allowed to increase life expectancy rates throughout the world. In fact, the model of preparation of antibiotics comes from penicillin. Similarly, the relative simplicity of the core of the structure of this substance, as well as the ease of substitutions in the radical ends, have allowed that, nowadays, are numerous synthetic or semisynthetic Penicillins.
Extracted from the website: Biografías y Vidas
Biographies of historical figures and personalities

What is 'Chemical submission', would be overruled criminal will? | Diseases and conditions.

The use of psychoactive substances in order to override the will of a person and facilitate the Commission of a crime, from a violation of a robbery, known as 'chemical submission' and is becoming more common.
Chemical submission consists of a person administering a substance psychoactive aiming to overturn his will and cloud his memory, and that is very easy to abuse her. It is a tactic that is often used in violations - estimated is back between the 20 and 30% of sexual assaults-, but which is also used increasingly in other criminal activities such as theft to older people.
Substances that are usually used to subdue the victims are alcohol, benzodiazepines, and the gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), popularly known as 'liquid ecstasy', and although the chemical submission is considered to be a real public health problem, its true incidence is not known, among other things because many victims do not report, or do it after some time When already it is not possible to detect the drug in your body.
The scarcity of complaints might be also that those affected feel partly responsible for what happened; in the case of sexual abuse, for example, it is common that the offender belongs to the surroundings of the victim and that this topic let people judge their behavior. And in other cases because the consumed substance causes a memory leak, and the attacked is not able to remember details nor explained consistently what happened.

How to react to an attack with 'chemical submission'

Suspecting of having been assaulted under the influence of a substance that you have provided without your consent, it is very important:
• Go immediately to a health centre to make you some analysis of blood or urine detected in your body, the presence of toxic employees by the aggressor, and that they may disappear without leaving trace if it runs too long prior to testing.
• If possible, also provides no biological samples, such as remains of suspected food or drinks, or vessels containing them, so that they are also analyzed.
• Reporting, even in the case that you have consumed the substance voluntarily, since that takes advantage of your state of helplessness to abuse it is also committing a crime.
• Ask for helps a person of trust. Many victims feel guilty for what happened, and can also suffer post-traumatic stress, so it is essential to express how you feel and ask for professional help to recover the security lost if necessary.
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This web site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment
Diseases and conditions

What are Biosimilar, alternative to biological drugs | Diseases and conditions.

A biosimilar is a medication that is similar to a biological agent that could replace in the treatment of a disease, even though it is not identical products, which use still generates some doubts.
Some biological drugs patent has already expired (and that of others is about to do so), so it is expected to increase the number of available Biosimilar, drugs developed with the objective of being very similar to their biological reference, in terms of quality, safety and efficacy, and offering a cheaper alternative, fostering competition and providing access to this type of treatment.
Biological drugs are those that are made using one or more active ingredients synthesized or derived from a biological source (microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeast and viruses, woven humans or animals...), as is the case with insulin, the erythropoietin or monoclonal antibodies. And for a biosimilar is considered a valid alternative to its biological medicine reference - or innovative drug - it has to go through a process of comparability, which is a comprehensive comparison between both products.
It is important to note that Biosimilars have the same characteristics as the generic. The latter have simpler chemical structures and are considered identical to their reference medications, although the active principle of a biosimilar and its reference drug is the same biological substance, both are subject to some degree of natural variability due to its complex nature and their production methods.

Safety and efficacy of Biosimilar medicines

Biosimilar medicines have the same quality, safety and efficacy profile that their biological reference
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) required that each drug Biosimilars, which intends to market show that its quality is similar to the reference and that there are no relevant differences between both products. In addition, the biosimilar must undergo clinical trials that allow to detect possible differences with the innovative, and that they will also serve to ensure its effectiveness and safety.
Both the biological drugs and biosimilars can induce an immune response in the patient - what is known as immunogenicity, that could influence both on security and on the efficiency of treatment; Therefore, before you replace a drug by a physician must assess risks and benefits, and the patient must communicate any adverse effect that experience.
However, experts say that Biosimilars presented the same profile of quality, safety and efficacy that their biological reference, have the same opportunities that they cause adverse effects or unwanted immune reactions, and after permission also undergo a process of pharmacovigilance that controls all of these possible effects.
As with the prescription of any medication, the doctor must take into consideration the characteristics of the patient, your medical history, and the stage of the disease, among other factors, to decide whether a biosimilar is most suitable treatment where appropriate.
Published for educational purposes
This web site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment
Diseases and conditions

Biography of Genghis Khan | Famous Mongolian conqueror.

After join the dispersed Mongolian tribes under his leadership, he forged a formidable Empire which would extend throughout Asia.
Who was called to forge the most vast Empire that humanity has known was born in the desolate steppes of Mongolia, there where the cold and wind make the hard men like the diamond, insensitive as stones and tenacious as the rough grass that grows under the icy snow. The Mongolian people was one of small nomadic people roaming with their herds by the confines of the Gobi desert, in search of pastures. Each had its own kan or Prince, responsible care that a certain order to reign in its territory.
The kiutes, tribes of the southwest of Lake Baikal, had chosen as head to Yesugei, who had managed to gather under his command some forty thousand stores. Upon returning from a battle against the Tatars, the warrior was found with your favorite Oelon-Eke (cloud mother), had given him an heir, which was called Temujin. The child had on the wrist a red stain, so the shaman predicted that it would be a famous warrior. Years later, indeed, Temujin was to become Genghis Khan, the famous Mongolian conqueror. His birth is contained in the Chinese annals in the year 1162, year of the horse.

Genghis Khan
He was nine years old when his father, according to Mongol custom, took him with them in a long March to find him a wife. They traversed the vast steppes and the Gobi desert, and came to the region where they lived the chungiratos, bordering on the wall of china. There they found Burte, a girl of her age who, according to tradition, would be «wife mother who was given by his noble father».
The fate of Temujin suffered a serious setback when Yesugei, his father, died poisoned by Tatars. He was then thirteen and had to attend the ruin of their own, since the tribes who had gathered around his father began to desert, because they didn't want to pay obedience to a woman or a boy. Soon Oelon-Eke was alone with their children. They must gather themselves diminished herd that had left, and eating fish and roots rather than the usual diet of sheep and Mare's milk. It was a time of real hardship in which a Badger was a piece of enormous value, that the brothers could face death together.
The situation worsened further when the family was attacked by the head of the tribe of the taieschutos, Tartugai, who led him to his camp gagged by a heavy yoke of wood neck and blindfolded by the dolls to be sold as a slave. Temujin could release one night: it floored her guardian and crushed her skull with the yoke, and hid in the dry bed of a brook that did not come off until dawn. After convincing a wandering Hunter to release him from the yoke and concealing him one for a prudent time, Temujin was able to return to their camp. This feat gave him great fame among the other clans, and everywhere began arriving Mongolian young people to join him.

Representation of Genghis Khan on a tapestry
The life of Genghis Khan is an uninterrupted series of victorious battles: the first fought it against the merkitas, in punishment for having kidnapped Burte, his wife, and the success was due to the help provided by the tribe of the keraitos, a turcomongol village which had many Muslim and Nestorian Christians. The head of the keraitos, Toghrul, put at your disposal a large troop to attack the merkitas, and account «Mongolian saga"which, as a result of the punitive expedition, three hundred men were passed to knife and the women were turned into slaves.
After defeating the merkitas, the future Genghis Khan already were found only: whole tribes joined to it. Their camp was growing day by day and their is forged around ambitious plans, as of waging war to Tartugai. In 1188 he managed to gather an army of 13,000 men to deal with 30,000 Warriors of Tartugai, and defeated them comfortably, thus indicating what would be their fate: always fight enemies far superior in number and beat them. Of as a result of this victory returned to settle again in the territories of his family near the Onon River, and all the tribes that had abandoned him to the death of his father returned to meet to your around, recognizing it as the sole legitimate head.

King of the Mongols

He ran the year 1196, and among the Mongols ran the voice that it was time to choose a new King of the Mongols between the heads of the camps. When the shaman declared that the eternal blue sky had destined to Temujin for such charge no one objected, and the election of the new Khan, which then had twenty-eight years of age, was celebrated with great splendor. Temujin was concerned above all to strengthen his own tribe, constituting a real army and also be informed of what happens in their vassal tribes.
Under his rule he managed to unify all the Mongol tribes to go to war against the nomadic peoples of the South, the Tartars, and inflicted a severe defeat to them in 1202. Reward the Chinese emperor, staunch enemy of the Tartars, granted him the title of Tschaochuri, Plenipotentiary between rebels from the border. His alliance with the Khan of the keraitos, on the other hand, given increasing power. Peoples who not submitted you were defeated on the battlefield and pushed into the rainforest or deserts, and properties spread at the hands of the victors. Thus the Mongols fame eclipsed that of all the other tribes, spreading to the ends of the steppes.

Genghis Khan leading his troops
But his chief ambition was further: in 1203 turned against his former allies, the keraitos: Toghrul attacked by surprise with the support of the tribes of the East and annihilated the army that had helped it so many times. The following year he directed the fight against the naimanos, Turks of Western Mongolia, who lived in the Altai Mountains. This time the mongol Chief gave samples of a rare magnanimity, striving to facilitate the crossing of both peoples and get his assimilating the superior culture of the vanquished. But this was not your usual standard of conduct, since the mongol Chief brought together all the characteristics of the Warrior ruthless and cruel, affection to collective executions and systematic destruction of the conquered territories. With yours, Temujin was also relentless and ruthless as the steppe and terrible weather conditions. Invariably he killed all those they wanted to share power with him or simply disobeyed him.
Such was the case of Yamuga, his cousin and Playmate in childhood, with whom he had shared the bed in the days of adversity and fraternally shared scarce food that had. Dissatisfied with his role as subordinate, Yamuga planted him face and, after various skirmishes, took refuge in the mountains followed only by five men. One day, tired of fleeing, fellow threw upon him, solidly tied to his horse and handed him over to Temujin. When the two cousins were found, Yamuga Temujin criticized that it dealt with those five felons who dared raise a hand against their Lord. Acknowledging the Justice of such criticisms, Temujin ordered to detain the traitors and beheaded them. Then undeterred, gave order that estrangularan to his beloved cousin.

Universal Emperor

In 1206, year of the Panther, when all the tribes of the high Mongolia were already under its domain, Temujin was named Great Khan, or Emperor of emperors, with the man of Genghis. In the course of an important Assembly of chiefs, Temujin explained his idea that the public interest required to appoint a kan supremo, able to meet all the nomadic strength and throw it to the conquest of fabulous cities, Plains dotted with prosperous houses of tillage and delicious ports where foreign vessels docked. Before the enumeration of these possibilities, the Mongols shook is greed. Who could be that leader of caudillos? The name of Temujin, who had already been acclaimed head of an important Confederation of tribes and was both respected and feared, flew from mouth in mouth. Oppose your idea could be dangerous, and support it wasn't but consecrate a State of things and perhaps get big booties.
At his side, at the ceremony of Coronation, were his wife Burte and four sons speaking had with it: Yuci, Yagatay, Ogodei and Tuli. They were the only ones of their descendants who could inherit the title of Great Khan, privilege not reaching to which they had had with his other wives (including some Chinese and Persian princesses), or to the your favorite, Chalan, Princess merkita who used to accompany him in his warlike campaigns. After his coronation, he surrounded himself with a personal guard incorruptible and began teaching what he understood by discipline to his old comrades.

The proclamation of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan dedicated his efforts to bring order to the steppes, imposing a severe hierarchy in the mosaic of tribes and territories that were under its domain. He reigned under the fixed laws of the severe Mongolian code known as the man of Yasa, it served as the basis for civil and military institutions, and organized his Kingdom so that serve exclusively for the war. It instilled the idea of nation to his subjects and put them to work in the production of food and war material for his army, reducing their needs to the minimum demanded by the everyday life in order that all the efforts and resources serve to hold combatants.
With them he could create a real state in weapons, in which each man, both in times of peace and war, was mobilized from the fifteen up to seventy years. Also women entered the organization with his work, and for this he granted them rights unknown in other Eastern countries, such as the property. This scaffolding social and political order was destined to the eternal goal of the nomads: take control of the Chinese Empire, behind the great wall. Before the age of forty-four years, Genghis Khan had already arranged his formidable war machine. However, if at the time an arrow enemy had penetrated by one of the boards of his armor, history would have not picked up even its name, because the major feats of his life would take place from that time.

At the foot of the great wall

In the year 1211 Genghis Khan gathered all their forces. He called on the warriors who lived from the Altai to the Chinggan mountain that they arose at his camp on the banks of the Kerulo River. To the East of his empire was China, with its ancient civilization. To the West, Islam, or the set of Nations that had arisen in the wake of Muhammad. More to the West stretched Russia, which was then a conglomerate of small States, and central Europe. Genghis Khan decided to first attack China. In 1211, he crossed the Gobi desert and crossed the great wall. The greater conquest of the Mongols, which would transform them into a world power, was falling. Taking advantage of that the country was in civil war, they went against the North China, ruled by the dynasty of the Kin, in a series of campaigns which ended in 1215 with the Beijing outlet.
Genghis Khan left his general Muqali systematic dominance of this territory, and the following year returned to Mongolia to quell some rebellions of Mongol dissident tribes spoken refugee on the western borders, along with some Turkish tribes. From there he began the conquest of the great Muslim empire of Karhezm, ruled by the sultan Mohamed, which stretched from the Caspian Sea to the region of lower and from the Urals to the Persian plateau. In 1220 the sultan died dethroned at the hands of the Mongols, which then invaded Azerbaidyan and penetrated into the southern Russia, crossed the Dnieper River, along the sea of Azov and reached Bulgaria, under the command of Subitai. When already all over Europe trembled before the invading hordes, they returned to Mongolia. Genghis Khan was there preparing the ultimate and definitive attack on China. Meanwhile, other Mongolian armies had submitted Korea, wiped out the Jurasan and entered territory of Harat, Afghanistan, Ghazni and Merv.
In little more than ten years, the Empire had grown to cover from the shores of the Pacific to the very heart of Europe, including nearly all the known world, and more than half of the men that populated it. Karakorum, the capital of Mongolia, was the center of the Eastern world, and the Mongols threatened even with annihilate the forces of Christianity. Genghis Khan had not never lost a battle, despite facing Nations that had very superior outnumbered forces. It is likely that you would never put more than two hundred thousand men on foot of war; However, with these relatively small hosts, it pulverized empires of many millions of inhabitants.

An invincible army

Why was his army indestructible? The raw material of Genghis Khan were the Tatars horses and riders. The first were able to stay on their horses a day and a whole night, slept on snow if needed and progressed with equal vigour both when they ate as when it tasted not snack. The horses could spend up to three days without drinking and knew to find food in the most unlikely of places. In addition, Genghis Khan supplied his soldiers from a Cuirass of hardened and varnished leather and two arches, one to shoot from the horse and other heavier throwing arrows of steel, to fight at close range. They also wore a ration of dry curd, ropes for bows and wax replacement-needle for emergency repairs. They kept all this equipment in a leather bag that served them, swelling it to traverse the rivers.
The tactics deployed by Genghis Khan was always a model of precision. He placed his troops in five orders, with units separated by wide spaces. Front shock troops, formidably armed with swords, Spears and hammers. To rear, mounted archers. These advanced galloping through the spaces remaining between the most advanced, firing a barrage of arrows. When they arrived near the enemy they dismantling, wielding the heavy arches and released a hailstorm of steel-tipped darts. Then it was the turn of assault troops. After the Roman legion and the Macedonian phalanx, the Tartar Cavalry became unique example of military art.

Genghis Khan on the battlefield
But Genghis Khan could also win over one battle without sending or a single soldier to the front, using exclusively propaganda. The merchants of the caravan formed his fifth column, because through them he hired the services of agents in the territories that planned to invade. Thus came to know in detail the political situation of the enemy country, found out what they were discontented factions with the Kings and managed them to provoke internecine wars. Also he served as propaganda to sow terror, recalling his enemies the horrors that had unleashed in the Nations that had dared to stand up to it. Submit or perish, prayed his warnings.
The practice of terror was for him an effective political procedure. If resisting you a city, it was destroying it and gave death to all its inhabitants. The March continued its hosts, leaving a handful of its soldiers and a few hidden prisoners among the ruins. Soldiers then forced the captives to walk the streets, shouting for the withdrawal of the enemy. And so, when the few survivors of the bloodshed ventured out of their hiding places, were death. Finally, to avoid any fingiese dead, they cut it heads. There were cities in which half a million people succumbed.

An empire in inheritance

Such was the extraordinary military machine that Genghis Khan conquered the world. In the winter of 1227, the Mongolian troops, accompanied by all the children and grandchildren of Genghis Khan, undertook the March eastward, to invade the Kingdom tangut, in China. When already, nothing could save the populations of the fire and the sword, the old Kan became close to an end. No disease had manifested in him, but his certain instinct for death warned that he was close, and brought their children to divide the territories of his vast Empire: for the greatest, Yuci, were the steppes of the Aral and Caspian; to Yagatay was the region between Samarkand and Tufan; Ogodei was awarded the region East of Lake Baikal; for the child less, Tuli, were the primitive territories, near the Onon.
Genghis Khan died August 18, 1227, before achieving the Chinese surrender. His last command was not to disclose the news of his death until all fittings had reached their destination and all princes were found in their camps. For forty years it was the center of the Asian world, which had been transformed with its wars and conquests. The Mongol tribes were now a robust and disciplined, people with generals and strategists of talent educated in your school. After his death, the enormous Mongolian roll followed crushing people and Nations. Its successors dominated throughout Asia, penetrated further into Europe and defeated the Hungarians, poles and Germans. Later, the Empire decayed until disappearing. The Mongols are today an insignificant bunch of nomadic tribes, and Karakorum lies buried under the shifting sands of the Gobi desert. Even the name of the city has been cleared from the memory of the people.

Chronology of Chinggis Khan

1167He was born in the vicinity of the Onon River in Mongolia. His father, Yesugei, was the Chief of the tribe of the kiutes.
1176He marries Burte, which would have four children.
1180Death of his father. Prisoner is taken by the taieschutos, a tribe led by Tartugai, but he manages to escape.
1188Manages to gather an army of 13,000 men with that defeat Tartugai.
1196He was elected King of the Mongols.
1202Defeat the Tatars.
1203Breaks his alliance with the keraitos, who annihilates, and beat the naimanos.
1206It has named Great Khan or universal Emperor in an Assembly of Mongolian heads.
1211-15It concentrates its forces in Karakorum and begins the conquest of China in the North, which is completed with the fall of Beijing (1215).
1219It is made with the Muslim empire Karhezm and sweeps Bukhara and Samarkand.
1226He began a campaign against the Chinese Kingdom of Tangut.
1227Foreseeing his death, partitioned the Empire between his four sons, and died in Ningxia (China) without completing the conquest of China.

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire

The Mongols

The Mongolian people were located in the Northwest of China, in lathe to Lake Baikal and the Altai massif. Divided into tribes of nomadic herders who trashumaban with their cars and shops removable behind their flocks, while other groups were engaged in hunting in the Siberian taiga, the Mongols made frequent internal clashes for control of the territories of pastures and hunting and the kidnapping of women from other clans (to maintain exogamy and polygamy and avoid payment of strong leadership to the damsel's father). The warlike character of these people not favored its stability.
Their social structure, strongly hierarchical, reflected the predominance of military features: about the entire class of warriors rose an aristocracy which was the minority leader and who was responsible for the election of the Chief of the tribe. Occasionally, it chose a Supreme Head of the Mongolian people, i.e., Great Khan. Magnificent horsemen, skilled archers, tireless and cruel, the Mongols had not had contacts with higher civilizations and their beliefs just exceeded the level of shamanism: to heaven, Earth and the geniuses inhabiting the waters and fire worship, veneration by the ancestors, offerings of food and, exceptionally, bloody sacrifices of animals and people.

The gestation of the Empire

This disparate and internal rivalries, world surrounded by hostile Empires (the kara-jitan West, Uighurs and tanguts of Si-Hia in the South, the jurchen in the East), was unified and referred to its authority by the head of one of the clans: Temujin, starting from its small territory and with great tenacity, managed to dominate between 1198 and 1206 different tribes in Mongolia and be proclaimed Supreme ruler of the country by a general Assembly of Heads it awarded him the title of Genghis Khan. Secured his authority and formed the traits of a nascent State, Genghis Khan launched his people to a policy of expansion at the expense of the surrounding sedentary States, policy not aimed the achievement of loot, but the permanent conquest of their territory and the formation of a great mongol Empire.

Genghis Khan
The first campaigns headed eastward against the tangut's Si-Hia Kingdom and the northern Chinese Empire of the jurchen; from these, Genghis Khan was launched against the Kingdom of the kara-jitan in Eastern Turkestan. Thus, it had managed to control all the major Asian steppes and had an enormous strength to be reinforced the mongol army with troops contributed by the subject peoples. Apparently, Genghis Khan had no intention to enter into conflict with the Turkish sultanates of the South of his empire (result of the disintegration of the Caliphate of Baghdad), and at a first time effort to maintain good political and trade relations with these neighbours.
But the attack to a Mongol Caravan and murder of its components by the Turks of Kahrezm altered these projects and initiated a period of wars and expeditions, in the course of which were razed cities and fields of Transoxiana, Iran and Afghanistan, killed its inhabitants en masse and disrupted the agricultural and commercial activities. Some Mongolian detachments reached the Caspian Sea and plundered the Christian Kingdom of Georgia and southern Russia. Genghis Khan then returned to Mongolia, and in 1226, made his last campaign against the Kingdom tangut of Si-Hia, which had revolted, dying in the course of the same (1227).

The successors of Genghis Khan

The vast Empire forged by Genghis Khan is distributed among the four incurred sons by his principal wife, although the title of Great Khan fell in the third of these, Ogodei, which, in this way, exercised the Supreme command over the various principalities or Khanates.

During the reign of Ogodei continued conquests Mongolian in China, where the control of the Empire from the North of the Kin culminating in taking the capital, Kaifeng. Also the first attacks against the southern Empire of the Song began, Iran, become independent after the death of Genghis Khan, is retook and consolidated the dominance of the South of Russia with the creation of the Khanate of the Golden Horde. Its capital, Sarai, became a big international market, where Venetians and Genoese bought products from the East, which were transported by Caravan that traveled throughout Asia. From the South of Russia, the Mongols subjected to plunder and tribute to the Russian principalities of Kiev and Moscow, and made repeated plundering about Poland, Silesia, Hungary and Dalmatia, although Ogodei death saved Europe from the mongol danger.
The reign of Ogodei is also the time of the Organization of the Empire, in which followed the first steps had given his father. He settled on a fixed capital, Karakorum, and it established his court and administration, with the services of Chinese and especially Uighurs, whose language and writing were currents in official documents. The tax system that guaranteed the maintenance of the public administration was regularized double based on a territorial tax of sliding scale, depending on the quality of the soil and the result of harvests, and a tax on commercial transactions. The army was structured in ten-year units (decades, hundreds, and regiments) and equipped with new weapons taken from the Chinese. An effective service of BBS and post allowed to connect quickly the points most distant from the Empire.

The mongol Empire at the time of maximum expansion
With Mongka (1251-1259), the mongol Empire reached its territorial peak; While the own Kan began the systematic conquest of the Chinese Empire in the Song, his brother Hulagu was destroying the Caliphate of Baghdad and controlled Syria, although he could not continue to Egypt: the Mamluks defeated the Mongols at Ain Yalut and managed to recover even Syria, taking advantage of the withdrawal of the bulk of the mongol army.

Kubilai Khan and the fragmentation of the Empire

The successor of Mongka, Kubilai Kan (Qubilay Kan) repudiated the Affairs of Western Asia and focused all its efforts on completing the conquest of South China, objective attained among 1276, the year of the making of Hangz Hou, and 1279, date in which the last resistance of the Song was liquidated. Kubilai, who had reunited all over China, moved the capital of his empire to Beijing (Kanbalic or "Kan city") and was considered the successor of the 22 Chinese, inaugurating dynasties which would bear the name of Yuan. As heir to the Chinese Emperors, claimed the homage of the States of the far East (Korea, Indochina, Burma) and tried to invade the Japan unsuccessfully on two occasions.

Kubilai Kan
The reign of Kubilai coincides with a time of prosperity that, largely, is known thanks to the stories of the Venetian Marco Polo, which lived in China between 1271 and 1291. Commercial activity, favoured by the peace, could take advantage of the great commercial space created in the mongol Empire, and the contacts with the West proliferated not only in the border regions, but also in the heart of the Empire, until he reached European merchants, mostly Italians. Relations between Western Christendom and the mongol Empire had started years ago, when the papacy sent Juan Pian Carpini, in 1246, and San Luis de Francia to the Franciscan Guillermo Rubruck, in 1254, in order to establish an Alliance against Islam. Although it failed, is did establish trade relations which would be kept a long time.
At this point, however, the mongol Empire was already signs of decomposition. The khanates of Persia and the Golden Horde enjoyed de facto autonomy of action, while, in the own Mongolia, Kubilai had to submit several uprisings of the descendants of Genghis Khan. The sinicization of the Great Khan and its concentration in Chinese Affairs led him to worry about the rest of the Empire. The death of Kubilai was consummated the fragmentation of the mongol Empire, and each resulting entity had a different evolution.
The Yuan Empire remained until 1368, in which a Chinese nationalist backlash gave power to the Ming; the Khanate of Persia, conquered by the culture Iranian and fully Islamised since the end of the 13th century, lasted until 1335; the Golden Horde, weakened by the Tatars Tamerlan attacks between 1385-1395, could not maintain control of the Russian territories or to face successfully the nationalist movements, and to 1420 disintegrated into several smaller khanates, one of whom survived in the Crimea until the 18th century, but not any prominence.
Extracted from the website: Biografías y Vidas
Biographies of historical figures and personalities


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