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Sunday, May 01, 2016

What is the Meaning & Definition of taking of decisions

Decision-making is a purely human ability to own power of reason coupled with the power of the will. I.e., thinking and wanting to come together in one direction. Thinking is like the light that brings clarity to the heart and the will that light-guided pursues the right choice. Decision shows the personal freedom of every human being who has the power to decide what you want to do. Process of reflection, which must not take
A decision is a reflective process that requires time to assess different options and also the consequences of every decision. Frequently, people overtaxed themselves when they want to make a decision and aspire to succeed in your choice when in reality, in life, no matter the way you take because you'll always take risks.
But in addition, it is worth remembering that a single correct way there is. On the other hand, it is also advisable to remember that you took a decision according to maturity at the time, therefore you did things the best you know.
Consult the experience of others
Every human being has the internal resources necessary to make decisions, however, people also tend to seek external support in making an important decision. For example, the advice of a friend, a process of coaching, the help of a mentor...
Life is a decision making constant, between simple and others that indicate
Every day we make decisions in our life. Some are transcendental and others are very routine, everyday, however, all of them have a direct impact on our happiness because we approach each decision or we move away from our goals. This is a good approach when making a decision: assesses whether that step brings you closer or you away from your goal.
Parents must let their children decide for themselves, so they can learn from their own experiences
When making decisions in an effective manner, the experience is a degree. Thanks to all the experiences accumulated in the heart, i.e. a person can take the right choice in a more effective way. Parents have a natural tendency to protect your child from all dangers, however, they soon discover that they can do and they have to let the children make their own decisions for themselves and assume the risk of being wrong because that is how you learn.
The most important decision a human being can take in their life is the be happy. Begin this path is worth.

JOB 38-42 | Treasures from God’s Word: week starting May 2-8

OUR CHRISTIAN LIFE AND MINISTRY—BIBLICAL TEXTS AND REFERENCES

READ AND LISTEN THE BIBLE ONLINE AT JW.ORG:

TREASURES FROM GOD’S WORD | JOB 38-42

“PRAYING FOR OTHERS PLEASES JEHOVAH”: (10 MIN.)


Jehovah expected Job to pray for Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar
42:7-10
o Jehovah told Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar to go to Job and offer up a burnt sacrifice
o Job was expected to pray in their behalf
o After Job prayed for them, he was blessed
Jehovah greatly blessed Job for his faith and endurance
42:10-17
o Jehovah removed Job’s tribulation, restoring him to good health
o Job received true comfort from friends and relatives for all that he had suffered
o Jehovah restored Job’s prosperity, giving him twice the amount that he had lost
o Job and his wife came to have ten more children
o Job lived for another 140 years and enjoyed seeing four generations of his family line

Job 42:7, 8—Jehovah expected Job to pray for Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar (w13 6/15 21 ¶17; w98 5/1 30 ¶3-6)


Job 42:7, 8 New World Translation
7 After Jehovah had spoken these words to Job, Jehovah said to Elʹi•phaz the Teʹman•ite:
“My anger burns against you and your two companions, for you have not spoken the truth about me as my servant Job has. 8 Now take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job, and offer up a burnt sacrifice for yourselves. And my servant Job will pray for you. I will surely accept his request not to deal with you according to your foolishness, for you have not spoken the truth about me as my servant Job has.”
Appreciate Jehovah’s Loyalty and Forgiveness
17. What can help us if we have been hurt by a fellow believer?
17 Of course, it is not always easy to forgive. Even some anointed Christians in the first century apparently found it challenging to settle their differences. (Phil. 4:2) If we have been hurt by a fellow believer, what can help us? Consider Job. He was deeply hurt when his “friends”—Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar—hurled baseless accusations at him. (Job 10:1; 19:2) In the end, Jehovah reproved those false accusers. God directed them to go to Job and present an offering for their sins. (Job 42:7-9) But Jehovah also required that Job do something. What was it? Jehovah directed Job to pray in behalf of his former accusers. Job did as Jehovah asked, and Jehovah blessed him for his forgiving spirit. (Read Job 42:10, 12, 16, 17.) The lesson for us? A sincere prayer in behalf of someone who has offended us may help us to let go of resentment.
w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
Exoneration and Restoration
First, Jehovah reproved Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. Addressing Eliphaz, evidently the eldest, he said: “My anger has grown hot against you and your two companions, for you men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful as has my servant Job. And now take for yourselves seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job, and you men must offer up a burnt sacrifice in your own behalf; and Job my servant will himself pray for you.” (Job 42:7, 8) Think of what this implied!
Jehovah required a considerable sacrifice from Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, perhaps to impress upon them the gravity of their sin. Indeed, either wittingly or unwittingly, they had blasphemed God by saying that he ‘has no faith in his servants’ and that it did not really matter to him whether Job was faithful or not. Eliphaz even said that in God’s eyes Job was of no more value than a moth! (Job 4:18, 19; 22:2, 3) No wonder Jehovah said: “You men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful”!
But that is not all. Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar also sinned against Job personally by telling him that his problems were of his own making. Their baseless accusations and utter lack of empathy left Job embittered and depressed, causing him to cry out: “How long will you men keep irritating my soul and keep crushing me with words?” (Job 10:1; 19:2) Imagine the expressions of shame on the faces of these three men as they now had to present Job with an offering for their sins!
But Job was not to gloat over their humiliation. Indeed, Jehovah required that he pray in behalf of his accusers. Job did just as he was instructed, and for this he was blessed. First, Jehovah cured his dreaded disease. Then, Job’s brothers, sisters, and former associates came to comfort him, “and they proceeded each one to give him a piece of money and each one a gold ring.” Moreover, Job “came to have fourteen thousand sheep and six thousand camels and a thousand spans of cattle and a thousand she-asses.” And Job’s wife was evidently reconciled with him. In time, Job was blessed with seven sons and three daughters, and he lived to see four generations of his offspring.—Job 42:10-17.

Job 42:10—Jehovah restored Job’s health after he prayed for them (w98 5/1 31 ¶3)


Job 42:10 New World Translation
10 After Job had prayed for his companions, Jehovah removed Job’s tribulation and restored his prosperity. Jehovah gave him double what he had before.
w98 5/1 p. 31 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
Lessons for Us
Job set an outstanding example for modern-day servants of God. He was “blameless and upright,” a man that Jehovah was proud to call “my servant.” (Job 1:8; 42:7, 8) This does not mean, however, that Job was perfect. At one point during his trials, he wrongly assumed that God was the cause of his calamity. He even criticized God’s way of dealing with man. (Job 27:2; 30:20, 21) And he declared his own righteousness rather than God’s. (Job 32:2) But Job refused to turn his back on the Creator, and he humbly accepted correction from God. “I talked, but I was not understanding,” he admitted. “I make a retraction, and I do repent in dust and ashes.”—Job 42:3, 6.
When under trial we too may think, speak, or act in a way that is not fitting. (Compare Ecclesiastes 7:7.) Nevertheless, if our love for God is deep, we will not rebel against him or grow bitter because he permits us to experience hardships. Instead, we will maintain our integrity and thus eventually reap a great blessing. The psalmist said of Jehovah: “With someone loyal you will act in loyalty.”—Psalm 18:25.
Before Job was restored to a healthy state, Jehovah required that he pray in behalf of those who transgressed against him. What a fine example for us! Jehovah requires that we forgive those who sin against us before our own sins can be forgiven. (Matthew 6:12; Ephesians 4:32) If we are not willing to forgive others when there is sound basis for doing so, can we rightly expect Jehovah to be merciful to us?—Matthew 18:21-35.
All of us face trials at one time or another. (2 Timothy 3:12) Yet, like Job we can keep integrity. By doing so, we will reap a large reward. James wrote: “Look! We pronounce happy those who have endured. You have heard of the endurance of Job and have seen the outcome Jehovah gave, that Jehovah is very tender in affection and merciful.”—James 5:11.

Job 42:10-17—Jehovah greatly blessed Job for his faith and endurance (w94 11/15 20 ¶19-20)


Job 42:10-17 New World Translation
10 After Job had prayed for his companions, Jehovah removed Job’s tribulation and restored his prosperity. Jehovah gave him double what he had before. 11 All his brothers and sisters and all his former friends came to him and ate a meal with him in his house. They sympathized with him and comforted him over all the calamity that Jehovah had allowed to come upon him. Each of them gave him a piece of money and a gold ring.
12 So Jehovah blessed the last part of Job’s life more than the beginning, and Job came to have 14,000 sheep, 6,000 camels, 1,000 pairs of cattle, and 1,000 female donkeys. 13 He also came to have seven more sons and three more daughters. 14 He named the first daughter Je•miʹmah, the second Ke•ziʹah, and the third Kerʹen-hapʹpuch. 15 No women in all the land were as beautiful as Job’s daughters, and their father gave them an inheritance along with their brothers.
16 After this Job lived for 140 years, and he saw his children and his grandchildren—four generations. 17 Finally Job died, after a long and satisfying life.
w94 11/15 p. 20 Job’s Reward—A Source of Hope
Promised Rewards Give Us Hope
19 As soon as Job quit worrying about his sufferings and was revived in God’s service, Jehovah changed matters for him. After Job prayed for the trio, God ‘turned back his captive condition’ and gave him ‘all that had been his in double amount.’ Jehovah showed His superiority over the Devil by turning back Satan’s disease-infecting hand and miraculously healing Job. God also pushed back the demon hordes and held them at bay by again putting a hedge about Job with His angelic encampment.—Job 42:10; Psalm 34:7.
20 Job’s brothers, sisters, and former acquaintances kept coming to eat with him, sympathize with him, and comfort him over the calamity Jehovah had allowed to come upon him. Each of them gave Job money and a gold ring. Jehovah blessed the end of Job more than his beginning, so that he came to have 14,000 sheep, 6,000 camels, 1,000 spans of cattle, and 1,000 she-asses. Job also came to have seven sons and three daughters, the same number he previously had. His daughters—Jemimah, Keziah, and Keren-happuch—were the prettiest women in the land, and Job gave them an inheritance among their brothers. (Job 42:11-15) Moreover, Job lived another 140 years and saw four generations of his offspring. The account concludes: “Gradually Job died, old and satisfied with days.” (Job 42:16, 17) The extension of his life was the miraculous work of Jehovah God.

DIGGING FOR SPIRITUAL GEMS: (8 MIN.)


Job 38:4-7—Who are “the morning stars,” and what do we know about them? (bh 97 ¶3)


Job 38:4-7 New World Translation
4 Where were you when I founded the earth?
Tell me, if you think you understand.
5 Who set its measurements, in case you know,
Or who stretched a measuring line across it?
6 Into what were its pedestals sunk,
Or who laid its cornerstone,
7 When the morning stars joyfully cried out together,
And all the sons of God began shouting in applause?
Spirit Creatures—How They Affect Us
3. What does Job 38:4-7 tell us about angels?
3 God’s Word, the Bible, tells us that when the earth was founded, “all the sons of God began shouting in applause.” (Job 38:4-7) Angels thus existed long before humans were created, even before the creation of the earth. This Bible passage also shows that angels have feelings, for it says that they “joyfully cried out together.” Note that “all the sons of God” rejoiced together. At that time, all the angels were part of a united family serving Jehovah God.

Job 42:3-5—What can we do to see God as Job did? (w15 10/15 8 ¶16-17)


Job 42:3-5 New World Translation
3 You said, ‘Who is this who is obscuring my counsel without knowledge?’
Therefore I spoke, but without understanding
About things too wonderful for me, which I do not know.
4 You said, ‘Please listen, and I will speak.
I will question you, and you inform me.’
5 My ears have heard about you,
But now I do see you with my eyes.
Do You See God’s Hand in Your Life?
16. What can we do to see God as Job did?
16 Job got so distracted by his own concerns that he neglected to see things from God’s viewpoint. (Job 42:3-6) Like Job, we too may need to put forth greater effort to see God. How can we do that? In the light of the Scriptures, we need to meditate on what is happening around us. As we become aware of how Jehovah supports us, he will become more real to us. Then, like Job, we can say: “My ears have heard about you, but now I do see you with my eyes.”
17, 18. (a) In what ways might we discern that Jehovah is helping us? (b) Relate an experience that demonstrates how God is helping us today.
17 How might we see Jehovah’s hand? Here are some examples: Perhaps you feel that the way you received the truth was clearly at God’s direction. Have you ever attended Christian meetings, heard a part, and said: “That was just what I needed”? Or you may have experienced an answer to a prayer. Maybe you decided to expand your ministry and were amazed at how Jehovah helped to work things out for you. Or have you ever experienced leaving a job for spiritual reasons and then seen the truth of God’s promise: “I will never abandon you”? (Heb. 13:5) By being spiritually alert, we can discern how Jehovah has helped us in many ways.

What does this week’s Bible reading teach me about Jehovah?


What points from this week’s Bible reading can I use in the field ministry?


JOB 38-42 | SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUR PERSONAL COMMENTS


(JOB 38:1)
“Then Jehovah answered Job out of the windstorm:”

w01 4/15 p. 4 par. 10 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
10 Chapter 38 opens: “Jehovah proceeded to answer Job out of the windstorm and say: ‘Who is this that is obscuring counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up your loins, please, like an able-bodied man, and let me question you, and you inform me.’” (Job 38:1-3) This set the tone. It helped Job to adjust his thinking to the reality that he was standing before the Creator of the universe and that he was accountable to him. That is also a good thing for us and our contemporaries to do.

(JOB 38:2)
““Who is this who is obscuring my counsel And speaking without knowledge?”

w01 4/15 p. 4 par. 10 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
10 Chapter 38 opens: “Jehovah proceeded to answer Job out of the windstorm and say: ‘Who is this that is obscuring counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up your loins, please, like an able-bodied man, and let me question you, and you inform me.’” (Job 38:1-3) This set the tone. It helped Job to adjust his thinking to the reality that he was standing before the Creator of the universe and that he was accountable to him. That is also a good thing for us and our contemporaries to do.

(JOB 38:3)
“Brace yourself, please, like a man; I will question you, and you inform me.”

w01 4/15 p. 4 par. 10 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
10 Chapter 38 opens: “Jehovah proceeded to answer Job out of the windstorm and say: ‘Who is this that is obscuring counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up your loins, please, like an able-bodied man, and let me question you, and you inform me.’” (Job 38:1-3) This set the tone. It helped Job to adjust his thinking to the reality that he was standing before the Creator of the universe and that he was accountable to him. That is also a good thing for us and our contemporaries to do.

(JOB 38:4)
“Where were you when I founded the earth? Tell me, if you think you understand.”

it-1 p. 867 Foundation
The Master Builder Jehovah, in answering Job out of the windstorm, compared the literal earth to a building. (Job 38:4-7) Though the earth hangs upon nothing, it has, as it were, durable foundations that will not be made to totter, for the unchangeable laws governing the universe hold it firmly in place, and God’s purpose toward the earth has remained unchanged. (Job 26:7; 38:33; Ps 104:5; Mal 3:6) On the other hand, injustice and disobedience to God’s law in effect tear down the foundations that give stability to the land, causing the foundations of the figurative earth (the people and their established systems) to totter.—Ps 82; 11:3; Pr 29:4.
The laying of the foundations of the earth is not to be confused with “the founding [Gr., ka•ta•bo•lesʹ] of the world.” From Jesus’ words at Luke 11:48-51, it is evident that Abel lived at the founding of the world, which has reference to mankind. The planet Earth’s foundations had long previously been laid.—See ABEL No. 1; WORLD.

w01 4/15 pp. 4-5 par. 10 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
“Where did you happen to be when I founded the earth? Tell me, if you do know understanding. Who set its measurements, in case you know, or who stretched out upon it the measuring line?

w01 4/15 p. 5 pars. 10-11 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
Job 38:4-6.
11 Where was Job—where were any of us—when the earth came to be? Were we the architects who designed our earth and, from that design, laid out the dimensions as though with a ruler or straightedge? No, indeed! Humans were not even on the scene.

(JOB 38:5)
“Who set its measurements, in case you know, Or who stretched a measuring line across it?”

w01 4/15 pp. 4-5 par. 10 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
“Where did you happen to be when I founded the earth? Tell me, if you do know understanding. Who set its measurements, in case you know, or who stretched out upon it the measuring line?

w01 4/15 p. 5 pars. 10-11 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
Job 38:4-6.
11 Where was Job—where were any of us—when the earth came to be? Were we the architects who designed our earth and, from that design, laid out the dimensions as though with a ruler or straightedge? No, indeed! Humans were not even on the scene.

(JOB 38:6)
“Into what were its pedestals sunk, Or who laid its cornerstone,”

it-1 p. 514 Cornerstone
Figurative and Symbolic Use. Concerning the founding of the earth, God asked Job: “Who laid its cornerstone?” The earth, on which man resides and has erected many buildings, was thus likened to a gigantic edifice, a building with a cornerstone. The laying of it, which could be ascribed to no man, for mankind had not yet been created, made the heavenly “sons of God” shout in applause.—Job 38:4-7.

w01 4/15 p. 5 par. 10 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
Into what have its socket pedestals been sunk down, or who laid its cornerstone?”—Job 38:4-6.

w01 4/15 p. 5 pars. 11-14 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
As if our earth were a building, God asked: “Who laid its cornerstone?” We know that earth is at exactly the right distance from our sun for us to live and thrive. And it is the right size too. If earth were much larger, hydrogen gas would not escape our atmosphere and our planet would be inhospitable to life. Clearly, someone “laid its cornerstone” in the right place. Did Job deserve credit? Do we? Or does Jehovah God?—Proverbs 3:19; Jeremiah 10:12.
What Man Has the Answers?
12 God also asked: “Into what have its socket pedestals been sunk down?” Is that not a good question? We are probably familiar with a term that Job did not know—gravity. Most of us understand that the force of gravity from the huge mass of the sun keeps our earth in place, its socket pedestals sunk down so to speak. Still, who fully understands gravity?
13 A recently published book entitled The Universe Explained admits that ‘gravity is the most familiar, yet the least understood, of nature’s forces.’ It adds: “Gravitational force seems to travel across empty space instantly, without any obvious means of doing so. In recent years, however, physicists have begun to speculate that gravity might travel in waves made of particles called gravitons . . . But no one is quite certain of their existence.” Think about what that implies.
14 Science has advanced for 3,000 years since Jehovah posed those questions to Job. Still, neither we nor expert physicists can fully explain gravity, which keeps our earth in the right orbit, just the position it should have to allow us to enjoy life here. (Job 26:7; Isaiah 45:18) This is not to suggest that we all need to pursue an in-depth study of the mysteries of gravity. Rather, giving attention even to this one aspect of God’s wonderful works should influence our view of him. Do you stand in awe of his wisdom and knowledge, and do you sense why we need to learn more about his will?

(JOB 38:7)
“When the morning stars joyfully cried out together, And all the sons of God began shouting in applause?”

bh chap. 10 p. 97 par. 3 Spirit Creatures—How They Affect Us
3 God’s Word, the Bible, tells us that when the earth was founded, “all the sons of God began shouting in applause.” (Job 38:4-7) Angels thus existed long before humans were created, even before the creation of the earth. This Bible passage also shows that angels have feelings, for it says that they “joyfully cried out together.” Note that “all the sons of God” rejoiced together. At that time, all the angels were part of a united family serving Jehovah God.

g99 6/22 p. 10 Made for a Grand Purpose
So continuing his questioning of Job about the earth, God asked: “Who laid its cornerstone, when [angels] joyfully cried out together, and all the sons of God began shouting in applause?”—Job 38:6, 7.
Why was there such gladness among the angels at the founding of the earth? Because they evidently knew that the earth was special among God’s material creations. Perhaps God even gave the angels some preview of his glorious purpose respecting the earth.

w89 8/15 p. 16 par. 4 Paradise Restored Glorifies God
4 At the time of earth’s creation, those who were attendant upon God’s throne in the celestial realm considered the earthly scene below. How enraptured they must have felt as their eyes contemplated its glorious brilliance! How could they refrain from spontaneously bursting into song? (Compare Zephaniah 3:17, Revised Standard Version; Psalm 100:2, The Jerusalem Bible.) The pleased and happy Creator inspired his earthly scribe to portray an accurate description of the heavenly scene, saying: “The morning stars joyfully cried out together, and all the sons of God began shouting in applause.” (Job 38:7) How much more so will the angelic sons of God cry out in joy, to God’s glory, when Paradise is restored!

(JOB 38:8)
“And who barricaded the sea behind doors When it burst out from the womb,”

it-2 p. 1200 Womb
Figurative Use. “Womb” is employed at times with reference to the source of something. In speaking about creative works involving the earth, Jehovah speaks of the sea as bursting forth “from the womb.” (Job 38:8)

w05 11/15 p. 13 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
The sea is an infant in relation to God, who figuratively clothes it with garments. It “began to go forth as when it burst out from the womb.” God confines the sea as if by bars and bolted doors, and tides are regulated by lunar and solar attractions.

w01 4/15 pp. 5-6 pars. 15-18 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
15 The Creator continued his questioning: “Who barricaded the sea with doors, which began to go forth as when it burst out from the womb; when I put the cloud as its garment and thick gloom as its swaddling band, and I proceeded to break up my regulation upon it and to set a bar and doors, and I went on to say, ‘This far you may come, and no farther; and here your proud waves are limited’?”—Job 38:8-11.
16 Barricading the sea involves the continents, the oceans, and the tides. How long has man observed and studied these? For thousands of years—and very intensively in the last century. You might imagine that most of what is to be known about them must be settled by now. Yet, in this year 2001, if you investigated that topic at huge libraries or used the vast research power of the Internet to locate the latest facts, what would you find?
17 In a widely accepted reference work, you could locate this admission: “The distribution of the continental platforms and ocean basins on the surface of the globe and the distribution of the major landform features have long been among the most intriguing problems for scientific investigation and theorizing.” After saying this, the encyclopedia just quoted offered four possible explanations but said that these are “among the many hypotheses.” As you may know, a hypothesis “implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.”
18 Does that not highlight the timeliness of the questions we read at Job 38:8-11? Surely we are not to be credited for arranging all these aspects of our planet. We did not place the moon so that its attractive power would help to produce tides that normally do not overwhelm our coasts or us personally. You know who did, the Doer of wonderful things.—Psalm 33:7; 89:9; Proverbs 8:29; Acts 4:24; Revelation 14:7.

(JOB 38:9)
“When I clothed it with clouds And wrapped it in thick gloom,”

w05 11/15 p. 13 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
The sea is an infant in relation to God, who figuratively clothes it with garments. It “began to go forth as when it burst out from the womb.” God confines the sea as if by bars and bolted doors, and tides are regulated by lunar and solar attractions.

(JOB 38:10)
“When I established my limit for it And put its bars and doors in place,”

w05 11/15 p. 13 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
God confines the sea as if by bars and bolted doors, and tides are regulated by lunar and solar attractions.
Says The World Book Encyclopedia: “The wind causes most ocean waves, from small ripples to giant hurricane waves more than 100 feet (30 meters) high. . . . After the wind stops, the waves continue to move over the ocean surface and can travel great distances from where they originated. They become smoother and longer. Finally, the waves reach the shoreline, where they break and form the surf.” The sea obeys God’s command: “This far you may come, and no farther; and here your proud waves are limited.”

(JOB 38:11)
“And I said, ‘You may come this far, and no farther; Here is where your proud waves will stop’?”

w05 11/15 p. 13 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
God confines the sea as if by bars and bolted doors, and tides are regulated by lunar and solar attractions.
Says The World Book Encyclopedia: “The wind causes most ocean waves, from small ripples to giant hurricane waves more than 100 feet (30 meters) high. . . . After the wind stops, the waves continue to move over the ocean surface and can travel great distances from where they originated. They become smoother and longer. Finally, the waves reach the shoreline, where they break and form the surf.” The sea obeys God’s command: “This far you may come, and no farther; and here your proud waves are limited.”

w01 4/15 pp. 5-6 pars. 15-18 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
15 The Creator continued his questioning: “Who barricaded the sea with doors, which began to go forth as when it burst out from the womb; when I put the cloud as its garment and thick gloom as its swaddling band, and I proceeded to break up my regulation upon it and to set a bar and doors, and I went on to say, ‘This far you may come, and no farther; and here your proud waves are limited’?”—Job 38:8-11.
16 Barricading the sea involves the continents, the oceans, and the tides. How long has man observed and studied these? For thousands of years—and very intensively in the last century. You might imagine that most of what is to be known about them must be settled by now. Yet, in this year 2001, if you investigated that topic at huge libraries or used the vast research power of the Internet to locate the latest facts, what would you find?
17 In a widely accepted reference work, you could locate this admission: “The distribution of the continental platforms and ocean basins on the surface of the globe and the distribution of the major landform features have long been among the most intriguing problems for scientific investigation and theorizing.” After saying this, the encyclopedia just quoted offered four possible explanations but said that these are “among the many hypotheses.” As you may know, a hypothesis “implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.”
18 Does that not highlight the timeliness of the questions we read at Job 38:8-11? Surely we are not to be credited for arranging all these aspects of our planet. We did not place the moon so that its attractive power would help to produce tides that normally do not overwhelm our coasts or us personally. You know who did, the Doer of wonderful things.—Psalm 33:7; 89:9; Proverbs 8:29; Acts 4:24; Revelation 14:7.

(JOB 38:12)
“Have you ever commanded the morning Or made the dawn know its place,”

w06 2/15 p. 26 par. 1 Walking in the Path of Increasing Light
WHO can better describe the effect that the rising sun has on the darkness of the night than the very Source of light, Jehovah God? (Psalm 36:9) ‘When the morning light takes hold on the ends of the earth,’ God says, ‘the earth transforms itself like clay under a seal, and things take their station as in clothing.’ (Job 38:12-14) With increasing light from the sun, earth’s features take shape and become clearer, just as soft clay undergoes a transformation upon receiving an imprint from an emblem on a seal.

w01 4/15 p. 6 par. 19 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
19 Humans cannot take credit for the earth’s rotation, alluded to at Job 38:12-14. This rotation causes the morning dawn, often stunningly beautiful. As the sun rises, features of our globe become clearer, like clay being transformed under a seal. Giving even slight attention to the earth’s motion, we must marvel that earth does not spin too rapidly, which would be disastrous, as we can easily realize. Neither does it rotate so slowly that days and nights, being much longer, would bring extremes of heat and cold that would make human life impossible. Frankly, we should be happy that God, not any group of humans, set the speed of rotation.—Psalm 148:1-5.

(JOB 38:13)
“To take hold of the ends of the earth And to shake the wicked out of it?”

it-2 pp. 254-255 Light
Morning light is picturesquely described as ‘taking hold of the ends of the earth and shaking the wicked out of it,’ because dawn disperses evildoers. Darkness is their “light,” for they are accustomed to carrying out their evil deeds under its cover, and this figurative “light” is taken from them by the literal light of dawn.—Job 38:12-15; compare Job 24:15-17.

w05 11/15 p. 13 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Morning light figuratively lays hold of the ends of the earth and shakes out the wicked. Sinners may perform unrighteous acts in “evening darkness.” (Job 24:15, 16) But dawn disperses many evildoers.

(JOB 38:14)
“It is transformed like clay under a seal, And its features stand out like those of a garment.”

it-1 p. 668 Earth
Jehovah also uses a figurative expression describing the result of earth’s rotation. He says: “[The earth] transforms itself like clay under a seal.” (Job 38:14) In Bible times some seals for “signing” documents were in the form of a roller engraved with the writer’s emblem. It was rolled over the soft clay document or clay envelope, leaving behind it an impression in the clay. In similar manner, at the arrival of dawn, the portion of the earth coming from the blackness of night begins to show itself to have form and color as the sunlight moves progressively across its face.

w06 2/15 p. 26 par. 1 Walking in the Path of Increasing Light
WHO can better describe the effect that the rising sun has on the darkness of the night than the very Source of light, Jehovah God? (Psalm 36:9) ‘When the morning light takes hold on the ends of the earth,’ God says, ‘the earth transforms itself like clay under a seal, and things take their station as in clothing.’ (Job 38:12-14) With increasing light from the sun, earth’s features take shape and become clearer, just as soft clay undergoes a transformation upon receiving an imprint from an emblem on a seal.

w05 11/15 p. 14 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
In God’s hand, morning light is as a seal from which the earth gets a beautiful impression. Sunlight brings to view many colors, so that the globe seems to be arrayed in splendid garments.

w01 4/15 p. 6 par. 19 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
19 Humans cannot take credit for the earth’s rotation, alluded to at Job 38:12-14. This rotation causes the morning dawn, often stunningly beautiful. As the sun rises, features of our globe become clearer, like clay being transformed under a seal. Giving even slight attention to the earth’s motion, we must marvel that earth does not spin too rapidly, which would be disastrous, as we can easily realize. Neither does it rotate so slowly that days and nights, being much longer, would bring extremes of heat and cold that would make human life impossible. Frankly, we should be happy that God, not any group of humans, set the speed of rotation.—Psalm 148:1-5.

(JOB 38:15)
“But the light of the wicked is held back from them, And their uplifted arm is broken.”

it-1 p. 168 Arm
Breaking the arm represents shattering one’s might. (Job 38:15; Ps 10:15; Jer 48:25)

it-2 pp. 254-255 Light
Morning light is picturesquely described as ‘taking hold of the ends of the earth and shaking the wicked out of it,’ because dawn disperses evildoers. Darkness is their “light,” for they are accustomed to carrying out their evil deeds under its cover, and this figurative “light” is taken from them by the literal light of dawn.—Job 38:12-15; compare Job 24:15-17.

(JOB 38:16)
“Have you gone down to the sources of the sea Or explored the deep waters?”

w05 11/15 p. 14 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Job had nothing to do with this and had not walked about in the watery deep to take inventory of its treasures. Why, to this day researchers have only limited knowledge of oceanic life!

(JOB 38:18)
“Have you understood the vast expanse of the earth? Tell me, if you know all of this.”

w01 4/15 p. 6 par. 20 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
“Have you intelligently considered the broad spaces of the earth? Tell, if you have come to know it all.” (Job 38:16, 18) Have you visited and explored all regions of earth, or even most of them? Giving attention to the beautiful locations and wonders of our earth could occupy how many lifetimes? And what marvelous times those would be!

(JOB 38:19)
“In which direction does the light reside? And where is the place of darkness,”

w01 4/15 p. 7 par. 21 Behold the Doer of Wonderful Things!
21 Look, too, at the profound questions at Job 38:19: “Where, now, is the way to where light resides? As for darkness, where, now, is its place?” You may be aware that for a long time, the view prevailed that light travels like a wave, like the ripples we can watch in a pond. Then in 1905, Albert Einstein explained that light acts like packets, or particles, of energy. Did that settle matters? Well, a recent encyclopedia asks: “Is light a wave or a particle?” It answers: “Seemingly, [light] cannot be both because the two models [waves and particles] are so different. The best answer is that light is strictly neither.” Still, we keep on being warmed (directly and indirectly) by sunlight, even if no man is yet able to explain fully God’s works in this regard. We enjoy food and oxygen produced as plants respond to light. We can read, see the faces of our loved ones, gaze at sunsets, and on and on. As we do that, should we not acknowledge the wonderful works of God?—Psalm 104:1, 2; 145:5; Isaiah 45:7; Jeremiah 31:35.

(JOB 38:22)
“Have you entered the storehouses of the snow, Or have you seen the storehouses of the hail,”

it-1 p. 1020 Hail
‘For the day of war.’ In speaking to Job out of the windstorm, Jehovah indicated that he had reserved storehouses of hail for “the day of fight and war.” (Job 38:1, 22, 23) Appropriately, therefore, hail is mentioned among the elements to be used against the attacking forces of “Gog.”—Eze 38:18, 22.

it-2 p. 1038 Storehouse
Also of other natural phenomena that he has at times used against his enemies, he asked Job: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow, or do you see even the storehouses of the hail, which I have kept back for the time of distress, for the day of fight and war?” (Job 38:22, 23; compare Jos 10:8-11; Jg 5:20, 21; Ps 105:32; 135:7.)

w05 11/15 p. 14 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Who Has Storehouses of Snow and Hail?
No man has escorted either light or darkness to its home or has entered the storehouses of snow and hail that God keeps back for “the day of fight and war.” (Job 38:19-23) When Jehovah used hail against his foes at Gibeon, “there were more who died from the hailstones than those whom the sons of Israel killed with the sword.” (Joshua 10:11) He may use hailstones of undisclosed size to destroy wicked humans led by Gog, or Satan.—Ezekiel 38:18, 22.
Egg-size hailstones killed 25 people and injured 200 others in central Henan Province, China, in July 2002. Regarding a hailstorm in 1545, Italian sculptor Benvenuto Cellini wrote: “We were one day distant from Lyons . . . when the heavens began to thunder with sharp rattling claps. . . . After the thunder the heavens made a noise so great and horrible that I thought the last day had come; so I reined in for a moment, while a shower of hail began to fall without a drop of water. . . . The hail now grew to the size of big lemons. . . . The storm raged for some while, but at last it stopped . . . We showed our scratches and bruises to each other; but about a mile farther on we came upon a scene of devastation which surpassed what we had suffered, and defies description. All the trees were stripped of their leaves and shattered; the beasts in the field lay dead; many of the herdsmen had also been killed; we observed large quantities of hailstones which could not have been grasped with two hands.”—Autobiography (Book II, 50), Harvard Classics, Volume 31, pages 352-3.
What will happen when Jehovah opens his storehouses of snow and hail against his enemies? They cannot possibly survive when snow or hail is used to carry out his will.

w01 4/15 p. 9 par. 3 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
3 At one point, God inquired of Job: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow, or do you see even the storehouses of the hail, which I have kept back for the time of distress, for the day of fight and war?” In many parts of our earth, snow and hail are part of life.

w01 4/15 p. 9 par. 3 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
Job 38:22, 23,

w01 4/15 p. 9 pars. 4-6 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
4 Some who live in a fast-paced society and who must travel may view snow merely as an obstacle. Yet, countless others view snow as a delight, producing a winter wonderland that opens up opportunities for special activities. With God’s question in mind, do you have an intimate knowledge of snow, even of what it looks like? Oh, we know what a lot of it looks like, perhaps from photos of snowbanks or because we have actually seen plenty of snow. But what of individual snowflakes? Do you know what they look like, maybe having examined them at their source?
5 Some men have spent decades studying and photographing snowflakes. A snowflake may be composed of a hundred delicate ice crystals in a variety of beautiful designs. The book Atmosphere says: “The endless variety of snowflakes is legendary, and although scientists insist that no law of nature forbids their duplication, two identical flakes have never been found. One search of epic proportions was conducted by . . . Wilson A. Bentley, who spent more than 40 years examining and photographing snowflakes through a microscope without ever finding two that were exactly alike.” And even if, in a rare case, two appeared to be twins, would that really alter the wonder of the staggering variety of snowflakes?
6 Recall God’s question: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow?” Many think of clouds as the storehouses of snow. Can you imagine going to these storehouses to inventory snowflakes in their infinite variety and to study how they came to be? A science encyclopedia says: “The nature and origin of the ice nuclei, which are necessary to induce freezing of cloud droplets at temperatures about -40°F (-40°C), are still not clear.”—Psalm 147:16, 17; Isaiah 55:9, 10.

w01 4/15 pp. 11-12 pars. 15-17 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
God asked Job: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow, or do you see even the storehouses of the hail, which I have kept back for the time of distress, for the day of fight and war?” Snow, hail, rainstorms, wind, and lightning are all in his arsenal. And what staggeringly powerful natural forces they are!—Job 38:22, 23.
16 Probably you recall some local catastrophe caused by one of these—a hurricane, typhoon, cyclone, hailstorm, or flash flood. To illustrate, toward the end of the year 1999, a vast storm struck southwestern Europe. It surprised even weather experts. Gale winds reached 125 miles per hour [200 km/hr], ripping off thousands of roofs, toppling electric-line pylons, and overturning trucks. Try to visualize this: That storm period uprooted or broke in half some 270 million trees, 10,000 in just the park of Versailles, outside Paris. Millions of households lost electricity. The death toll was near 100. All of that in one brief period. What force!
17 One might call storms freak, undirected, uncontrolled occurrences. What, though, could happen if the all-powerful One performs wondrous works by using such forces in a controlled, directed way?

(JOB 38:23)
“Which I have reserved for the time of distress, For the day of battle and war?”

it-1 p. 1020 Hail
‘For the day of war.’ In speaking to Job out of the windstorm, Jehovah indicated that he had reserved storehouses of hail for “the day of fight and war.” (Job 38:1, 22, 23) Appropriately, therefore, hail is mentioned among the elements to be used against the attacking forces of “Gog.”—Eze 38:18, 22.

it-2 p. 1038 Storehouse
Also of other natural phenomena that he has at times used against his enemies, he asked Job: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow, or do you see even the storehouses of the hail, which I have kept back for the time of distress, for the day of fight and war?” (Job 38:22, 23; compare Jos 10:8-11; Jg 5:20, 21; Ps 105:32; 135:7.)

w05 11/15 p. 14 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Who Has Storehouses of Snow and Hail?
No man has escorted either light or darkness to its home or has entered the storehouses of snow and hail that God keeps back for “the day of fight and war.” (Job 38:19-23) When Jehovah used hail against his foes at Gibeon, “there were more who died from the hailstones than those whom the sons of Israel killed with the sword.” (Joshua 10:11) He may use hailstones of undisclosed size to destroy wicked humans led by Gog, or Satan.—Ezekiel 38:18, 22.
Egg-size hailstones killed 25 people and injured 200 others in central Henan Province, China, in July 2002. Regarding a hailstorm in 1545, Italian sculptor Benvenuto Cellini wrote: “We were one day distant from Lyons . . . when the heavens began to thunder with sharp rattling claps. . . . After the thunder the heavens made a noise so great and horrible that I thought the last day had come; so I reined in for a moment, while a shower of hail began to fall without a drop of water. . . . The hail now grew to the size of big lemons. . . . The storm raged for some while, but at last it stopped . . . We showed our scratches and bruises to each other; but about a mile farther on we came upon a scene of devastation which surpassed what we had suffered, and defies description. All the trees were stripped of their leaves and shattered; the beasts in the field lay dead; many of the herdsmen had also been killed; we observed large quantities of hailstones which could not have been grasped with two hands.”—Autobiography (Book II, 50), Harvard Classics, Volume 31, pages 352-3.
What will happen when Jehovah opens his storehouses of snow and hail against his enemies? They cannot possibly survive when snow or hail is used to carry out his will.

w01 4/15 p. 9 par. 3 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
3 At one point, God inquired of Job: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow, or do you see even the storehouses of the hail, which I have kept back for the time of distress, for the day of fight and war?” In many parts of our earth, snow and hail are part of life.

w01 4/15 p. 9 par. 3 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
Job 38:22, 23,

w01 4/15 p. 9 pars. 4-6 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
4 Some who live in a fast-paced society and who must travel may view snow merely as an obstacle. Yet, countless others view snow as a delight, producing a winter wonderland that opens up opportunities for special activities. With God’s question in mind, do you have an intimate knowledge of snow, even of what it looks like? Oh, we know what a lot of it looks like, perhaps from photos of snowbanks or because we have actually seen plenty of snow. But what of individual snowflakes? Do you know what they look like, maybe having examined them at their source?
5 Some men have spent decades studying and photographing snowflakes. A snowflake may be composed of a hundred delicate ice crystals in a variety of beautiful designs. The book Atmosphere says: “The endless variety of snowflakes is legendary, and although scientists insist that no law of nature forbids their duplication, two identical flakes have never been found. One search of epic proportions was conducted by . . . Wilson A. Bentley, who spent more than 40 years examining and photographing snowflakes through a microscope without ever finding two that were exactly alike.” And even if, in a rare case, two appeared to be twins, would that really alter the wonder of the staggering variety of snowflakes?
6 Recall God’s question: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow?” Many think of clouds as the storehouses of snow. Can you imagine going to these storehouses to inventory snowflakes in their infinite variety and to study how they came to be? A science encyclopedia says: “The nature and origin of the ice nuclei, which are necessary to induce freezing of cloud droplets at temperatures about -40°F (-40°C), are still not clear.”—Psalm 147:16, 17; Isaiah 55:9, 10.

w01 4/15 pp. 11-12 pars. 15-17 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
God asked Job: “Have you entered into the storehouses of the snow, or do you see even the storehouses of the hail, which I have kept back for the time of distress, for the day of fight and war?” Snow, hail, rainstorms, wind, and lightning are all in his arsenal. And what staggeringly powerful natural forces they are!—Job 38:22, 23.
16 Probably you recall some local catastrophe caused by one of these—a hurricane, typhoon, cyclone, hailstorm, or flash flood. To illustrate, toward the end of the year 1999, a vast storm struck southwestern Europe. It surprised even weather experts. Gale winds reached 125 miles per hour [200 km/hr], ripping off thousands of roofs, toppling electric-line pylons, and overturning trucks. Try to visualize this: That storm period uprooted or broke in half some 270 million trees, 10,000 in just the park of Versailles, outside Paris. Millions of households lost electricity. The death toll was near 100. All of that in one brief period. What force!
17 One might call storms freak, undirected, uncontrolled occurrences. What, though, could happen if the all-powerful One performs wondrous works by using such forces in a controlled, directed way?

(JOB 38:24)
“From what direction is light dispersed, And from where does the east wind blow on the earth?”

w04 6/1 p. 12 par. 14 Creation Declares the Glory of God!
14 Scientists cannot answer another question posed to Job: “Where, now, is the way by which the light distributes itself?” (Job 38:24) One writer called this inquiry about light “a profoundly modern scientific question.” By way of contrast, some Greek philosophers felt that light emanated from the human eye. In more modern times, scientists have thought that light consists of tiny particles. Others have thought of it as moving in waves. Today, scientists believe that light behaves both as a wave and as a particle. Still, the nature of light and how it “distributes itself” is far from fully understood.

(JOB 38:25)
“Who has cut a channel for the flood And made a path for the thunderous storm cloud,”

it-2 p. 729 Rain
It is Jehovah who prepared rain for the earth. (Ps 147:8; Isa 30:23) He “has divided a channel for the flood,” perhaps referring to the way in which God causes clouds to channel rain down over certain parts of the globe. (Job 38:25-27; compare Ps 135:7; Jer 10:13.)

(JOB 38:28)
“Does the rain have a father, Or who fathered the dewdrops?”

it-2 p. 729 Rain
Formation. Among the questions that Jehovah put to Job, emphasizing man’s limited understanding of the forces and laws of creation and the earth, was: “Does there exist a father for the rain?” (Job 38:28) Though meteorologists have studied extensively the formation of rain, what have emerged are, as The World Book Encyclopedia says, “theories.” (1987, Vol. 16, pp. 123, 124) As warm air containing water vapor rises and cools, moisture condenses into tiny water droplets. One theory holds that as the larger droplets fall through a cloud, they collide with smaller droplets and combine with them, until they become too heavy for the air to support. Another theory proposes that ice crystals form in cloud tops where the temperature is below the freezing point and change to rain as they fall through warmer air.

w01 4/15 p. 9 par. 3 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
Does there exist a father for the rain, or who gave birth to the dewdrops?

w01 4/15 pp. 9-10 par. 7 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
7 Or what about rain? God asked Job: “Does there exist a father for the rain, or who gave birth to the dewdrops?” The same science encyclopedia says: “Because of the complexity of atmospheric motions and the enormous variability in vapor and particle content of the air, it seems impossible to construct a detailed, general theory of the manner in which clouds and precipitation develop.” In simpler terms, scientists have offered detailed theories, but they really cannot fully explain rain. Yet, you know that the vital rain falls, watering the earth, sustaining plants, making life possible and pleasant.

(JOB 38:29)
“From whose womb did the ice emerge, And who gave birth to the frost of heaven”

it-1 p. 1126 Hoarfrost
Jehovah speaks to Job of “the hoarfrost of heaven,” doubtless because it is produced from the atmosphere by condensation. (Job 38:29)

(JOB 38:30)
“When the waters are covered as if with stone, And the surface of the deep waters is frozen solid?”

it-1 p. 1166 Ice
The very waters keep themselves hidden as by stone, and the surface of the watery deep makes itself compact.” (Job 36:1; 37:10; 38:1, 29, 30) The formation of ice as here referred to is possible only because of a most unusual property of water. As the water in lakes and seas cools, it becomes heavier. The lighter, warmer water is displaced by the heavier water and rises to the top. But when the water as a whole reaches about 4° C. (39° F.), this process reverses. The water becomes lighter as it nears the freezing point and remains as a layer above the warmer water beneath. This upper layer then turns to ice, “makes itself compact.” Being lighter than water, the ice keeps the waters beneath “hidden as by stone,” thus protecting marine life. Were it not for this phenomenon, much of the water in the lakes and even the oceans would in time become solid ice, thus making the earth inhospitable to life.

w05 11/15 pp. 14-15 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
The Nature Bulletin states: “The strangest and perhaps the most important property [of ice] is that water expands as it freezes . . . The blanket of ice that forms and floats on a pond in winter makes it possible for aquatic plants and animals (fish, etc.) to remain alive in the water underneath. If . . . water contracted and became denser as it solidified, ice would be heavier than water and sink to the bottom. More ice would form on the surface until the pond was frozen solid. . . . In the cooler parts of the world the rivers, ponds, lakes, and even the oceans would all be permanently frozen.”
How thankful we can be that bodies of water do not freeze solid!

(JOB 38:31)
“Can you tie the ropes of the Kiʹmah constellation Or untie the cords of the Keʹsil constellation?”

it-2 p. 147 Kesil Constellation
KESIL CONSTELLATION
(Keʹsil) [Heb., kesilʹ, “stupid”].
Though this word is used many times in its basic sense of “stupid” (compare Ps 49:10; 92:6; Pr 1:22), yet the context in four places (Job 9:9; 38:31; Am 5:8; and Isa 13:10 [here in the plural]) indicates its use to designate a stellar body or group.
The term is generally considered to apply to Orion, also called the hunter, a very prominent constellation containing the giant stars Betelgeuse and Rigel. The Latin Vulgate translated kesilʹ as “Orion” in Job 9:9 and Amos 5:8. Most translations imitate the Latin Vulgate in viewing kesilʹ as referring to Orion. The ancient Targum and Syriac versions read “giant,” and this corresponds to the Arabic name for the Orion constellation, gabbar, or “strong one” (Hebrew equivalent, gib•bohrʹ).

it-2 p. 151 Kimah Constellation
At Job 38:31 Jehovah asks Job if he can “tie fast the bonds of the Kimah constellation,” and some relate this to the compactness of the Pleiades cluster, the star cluster most likely to be noted by the naked eye. While the identification of the particular constellation intended is indefinite, the sense of the question asked evidently is whether a mere man can bind together in a cluster a group of stars so that they comprise a permanent constellation. Thus, by this question, Jehovah brought home to Job man’s inferiority when compared with the Universal Sovereign.

it-2 p. 1032 Star
Orderly Arrangement. Additionally, the orderliness of the arrangement of these celestial bodies is emphasized in various texts, references being made to “statutes,” “regulations,” and “orbits” (“courses,” RS). (Jer 31:35-37; Jg 5:20; compare Jude 13.) The tremendous forces that determine the relative positions of certain stars according to physical laws are indicated by God’s questions to Job: “Can you tie fast the bonds of the Kimah constellation, or can you loosen the very cords of the Kesil constellation? Can you bring forth the Mazzaroth constellation in its appointed time? And as for the Ash constellation alongside its sons, can you conduct them? Have you come to know the statutes of the heavens, or could you put its authority in the earth?” (Job 38:31-33; see ASH CONSTELLATION; KESIL CONSTELLATION; KIMAH CONSTELLATION; MAZZAROTH CONSTELLATION.) Thus, the New Bible Dictionary states: “We assert, then, that the Bible consistently assumes a universe which is fully rational, and vast in size, in contrast to the typical contemporary world-view, in which the universe was not rational, and no larger than could actually be proved by the unaided senses.”—Edited by J. Douglas, 1985, p. 1144.

w11 7/1 p. 27 Who Made the Laws That Govern Our Universe?
“Kimah constellation” may have referred to the Pleiades star group. “Kesil constellation” was probably a reference to the Orion constellation. It takes tens of thousands of years for such star formations to change significantly.

w11 7/1 p. 27 Who Made the Laws That Govern Our Universe?
Further, the notion that nothing holds up the earth raises another question: What keeps it and other heavenly bodies on course? Notice the fascinating words with which God once addressed Job: “Can you tie fast the bonds of the Kimah constellation, or can you loosen the very cords of the Kesil constellation?” (Job 38:31) Night after night of his long life, Job saw those familiar star formations rise and set. But why did they look the same, year after year, decade after decade? What bonds held those stars, and all other heavenly bodies, in their relative positions? Surely, thinking about that was awe-inspiring to Job.
If the stars were simply affixed to celestial spheres, there would be no need for such bonds. Only thousands of years later did scientists learn more about the invisible “bonds” or “cords” that hold the heavenly bodies together in their long, slow dance through the blackness of space. Isaac Newton and later Albert Einstein became famous for their discoveries in this field. Of course, Job knew nothing of the forces God uses to bind the heavenly bodies together. Yet, the inspired words in the book of Job have withstood the test of time far better than have the notions of the learned Aristotle. Who but the Lawmaker could have such insight?

w05 11/15 p. 15 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
(Job 38:31-33) The Kimah constellation is usually identified as the Pleiades, a group consisting of seven large stars and a number of smaller ones some 380 light-years from the sun. Man cannot “tie fast the bonds of the Kimah constellation,” binding that group in a cluster. No human can “loosen the very cords of the Kesil constellation,” generally identified as the stellar group called Orion.

w04 6/1 p. 11 par. 13 Creation Declares the Glory of God!
13 Jehovah asked Job: “Can you tie fast the bonds of the Kimah constellation, or can you loosen the very cords of the Kesil constellation?” (Job 38:31) A constellation is a number of stars that appear to form a distinctive pattern. Although the stars could be huge distances from one another, their relative positions remain fixed from earth’s perspective. Because their positions are so precise, the stars are “helpful guides in navigation, to astronauts in spacecraft orientation, and for star identification.” (The Encyclopedia Americana) Yet, no one fully comprehends “the bonds” that hold the constellations together.

(JOB 38:32)
“Can you lead out a constellation in its season Or guide the Ash constellation along with its sons?”

it-1 p. 189 Ash Constellation
The fact that Job 38:32 refers to Ash “alongside its sons” strengthens the basis for believing that a constellation is involved. Ursa Major (the Great Bear) is the constellation most often suggested, having seven main stars in it that could be “its sons.” The important point in the text is, not the precise identification of the constellation, but the question there raised: “Can you conduct them?” Jehovah God thus impresses upon Job the wisdom and power of the Creator, inasmuch as it is utterly impossible for man to govern the movements of these immense stellar bodies.

it-2 pp. 355-356 Mazzaroth Constellation
MAZZAROTH CONSTELLATION
(Mazʹza•roth).
The Aramaic Targum equates Mazzaroth with the maz•za•lohthʹ of 2 Kings 23:5, “constellations of the zodiac,” or “twelve signs, or, constellations.” (NW; KJ margin) Some believe that the word is derived from a root meaning “engird” and that Mazzaroth refers to the zodiacal circle. However, at Job 38:32 a singular pronoun is used in Hebrew in the expression “in its appointed time,” whereas the reference in 2 Kings 23:5 is in the plural. Hence, Mazzaroth appears to refer to a particular constellation rather than to the entire zodiacal circle, but no positive identification is possible at present.
At Job 38:32 Jehovah asks Job: “Can you bring forth the Mazzaroth constellation in its appointed time? And as for the Ash constellation alongside its sons, can you conduct them?” Thus, whatever the identification of these particular constellations may be, God puts the question to Job whether he can control the visible celestial bodies, bringing forth a certain group at its proper season or guiding another constellation in its prescribed heavenly course.

(JOB 38:33)
“Do you know the laws governing the heavens, Or can you impose their authority on the earth?”

it-1 p. 867 Foundation
Though the earth hangs upon nothing, it has, as it were, durable foundations that will not be made to totter, for the unchangeable laws governing the universe hold it firmly in place, and God’s purpose toward the earth has remained unchanged. (Job 26:7; 38:33; Ps 104:5; Mal 3:6)

it-2 pp. 211-212 Law
Law of Divine Creation. One of the definitions of law given in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary is “the observed regularity of nature.” As Creator of all things in heaven and earth (Ac 4:24; Re 4:11), Jehovah has established laws governing all created things. Job 38:10 speaks of a “regulation” on the sea; Job 38:12, of ‘commanding the morning’; and Job 38:31-33 calls attention to star constellations and to “the statutes of the heavens.”

it-2 p. 1032 Star
Orderly Arrangement. Additionally, the orderliness of the arrangement of these celestial bodies is emphasized in various texts, references being made to “statutes,” “regulations,” and “orbits” (“courses,” RS). (Jer 31:35-37; Jg 5:20; compare Jude 13.) The tremendous forces that determine the relative positions of certain stars according to physical laws are indicated by God’s questions to Job: “Can you tie fast the bonds of the Kimah constellation, or can you loosen the very cords of the Kesil constellation? Can you bring forth the Mazzaroth constellation in its appointed time? And as for the Ash constellation alongside its sons, can you conduct them? Have you come to know the statutes of the heavens, or could you put its authority in the earth?” (Job 38:31-33; see ASH CONSTELLATION; KESIL CONSTELLATION; KIMAH CONSTELLATION; MAZZAROTH CONSTELLATION.) Thus, the New Bible Dictionary states: “We assert, then, that the Bible consistently assumes a universe which is fully rational, and vast in size, in contrast to the typical contemporary world-view, in which the universe was not rational, and no larger than could actually be proved by the unaided senses.”—Edited by J. Douglas, 1985, p. 1144.

w11 7/1 p. 24 Who Made the Laws That Govern Our Universe?
Who Made the Laws That Govern Our Universe?
“HAVE you grasped the celestial laws?” (Job 38:33, The New Jerusalem Bible) In asking Job that question, God was helping His troubled servant to understand just how little humans really know in comparison with the limitless wisdom of the Creator. What do you think of that comparison?
Humans have learned a great deal about the laws that govern the physical heavens, but most scientists will readily admit that there is much yet to be learned. Again and again, new discoveries have led scientists to rethink their theories on the workings of the universe.

w05 11/15 pp. 15-16 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Humans cannot alter “the statutes of the heavens,” the laws governing the universe.
God established the laws that guide the heavenly bodies, which influence earth’s weather, tides, atmosphere, and the very existence of life on this planet. Consider the sun. Concerning it, The Encyclopedia Americana (1996 Edition) states: “The sun’s rays supply the earth with heat and light, contribute to the growth of plant life, evaporate water from the ocean and other bodies of water, play a role in the production of winds, and perform many other functions that are vital to the existence of life on earth.” The same reference work says: “To appreciate the vastness of the power that is inherent in sunlight, one need only reflect that all the power represented in the winds and in dams and rivers and all the power contained in natural fuels such as wood, coal, and oil is nothing more than sunlight that has been stored up by a tiny planet [the earth] 93 million miles [150 million kilometers] away from the sun.”

w96 9/1 p. 8 par. 1 The Law Before Christ
SINCE childhood, Job had likely gazed up at the stars in wonder. Probably, his parents had taught him names for the great constellations and what they knew about the laws that governed the movement of the constellations through the sky. After all, people in ancient times used the steady motions of these vast, elegant star-patterns to mark the changing seasons. But for all the times he gazed at them in awe, Job did not know what mighty forces held these star formations together. Thus, he could scarcely begin to answer when Jehovah God asked him: “Have you grasped the celestial laws?” (Job 38:31-33, The New Jerusalem Bible) Yes, the stars are governed by laws—laws so precise and complex that today’s scientists do not fully comprehend them.

(JOB 38:34)
“Can you raise your voice to the clouds To cause a flood of water to cover you?”

w05 11/15 p. 16 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Who Put Wisdom in the Clouds?
Jehovah tells Job to consider the clouds. (Job 38:34-38) Man cannot order a single cloud to appear and release its water. But how dependent humans are on the water cycle that the Creator has established!
What is the water cycle? One reference work states: “The water cycle consists of four distinct stages: storage, evaporation, precipitation, and runoff. Water may be stored temporarily in the ground; in oceans, lakes, and rivers; and in ice caps and glaciers. It evaporates from the earth’s surface, condenses in clouds, falls back to the earth as precipitation (rain or snow), and eventually either runs into the seas or reevaporates into the atmosphere. Almost all the water on the earth has passed through the water cycle countless times.”—Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2005.

(JOB 38:35)
“Can you send out lightning bolts? Will they come and say to you, ‘Here we are!’”

w05 11/15 p. 16 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Rain is often accompanied by lightning, but man cannot cause it to fulfill his wishes. Lightnings are represented as reporting to God and saying, “Here we are!” Compton’s Encyclopedia states: “Lightning produces significant chemical changes in the atmosphere. As a stroke moves through the air, it generates tremendous heat that unites nitrogen and oxygen to form nitrates and other compounds. These compounds fall to the Earth with the rain. In this way, the atmosphere is able continually to help replenish the supply of nutrients that soil needs to produce plants.” Full knowledge of lightning remains a mystery to man but not to God.

(JOB 38:36)
“Who put wisdom within the clouds Or gave understanding to the sky phenomenon?”

w98 11/1 p. 32 “Who Put Wisdom in the Cloud Layers”?
“Who Put Wisdom in the Cloud Layers”?
“WHEN you see a cloud rising in western parts, at once you say, ‘A storm is coming,’ and it turns out so. And when you see that a south wind is blowing, you say, ‘There will be a heat wave,’ and it occurs.” These words of Jesus, penned by the Gospel writer Luke, are examples of weather forecasts as they were made in ancient Palestine. (Luke 12:54, 55) In certain circumstances, the ancients could read the signs and make accurate short-term predictions.
Today, meteorologists use sophisticated instruments, such as earth-orbiting satellites, Doppler radar, and powerful computers, to gauge weather patterns over longer periods. But their predictions are often wrong. Why?
Many factors make accurate weather forecasting difficult. For example, unforeseen changes in temperature, humidity, air pressure, and wind-speed and direction can complicate matters. Added to these are the complex interactions of the sun, clouds, and oceans, which scientists do not yet fully understand. For that reason, weather forecasting remains an inexact science.
Man’s limited knowledge of weather reminds us of the questions asked of Job: “Who gave birth to the dewdrops? Out of whose belly does the ice actually come forth? . . . Can you raise your voice even to the cloud, so that a heaving mass of water itself may cover you? . . . Who put wisdom in the cloud layers, or who gave understanding to the sky phenomenon? Who can exactly number the clouds in wisdom, or the water jars of heaven—who can tip them over?”—Job 38:28-37.
The answer to all these questions is, Not man but Jehovah God. Yes, however wise humans may seem to be, the wisdom of our Creator is far, far superior. It is truly loving on his part that he has made his wisdom available to us in the pages of the Bible, so that we can make our way successful.—Proverbs 5:1, 2.

(JOB 38:37)
“Who is wise enough to count the clouds, Or who can tip over the water jars of heaven”

it-1 p. 483 Cloud
The wisdom and mightiness of Jehovah God the Creator are represented in his control over the clouds. He speaks of them as “water jars” that tip over and empty their contents on the earth. He says: “Who can exactly number the clouds in wisdom, or the water jars of heaven—who can tip them over?” (Job 38:37)

it-1 p. 1063 Heaven
The clouds are like “water jars” in the upper chambers of that storehouse, and the rain pours forth as by “sluices,” certain factors, such as mountains or even God’s miraculous intervention, causing water condensation and subsequent rainfall in specific regions. (Job 38:37; Jer 10:12, 13; 1Ki 18:41-45)

w05 11/15 p. 16 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Rain-filled clouds are like water jars of heaven. When Jehovah tips them, they may pour down so much rain that the dust becomes mire and the clods cleave together. God can produce rain or hold it back.—James 5:17, 18.

w93 6/15 p. 10 par. 8 Creation Says, “They Are Inexcusable”
8 These “water jars of heaven—who can tip them over” to cause rain to fall to earth? (Job 38:37) The One whose “consummate skill” put them there in the first place, who “distils rain from the mist he has made.” And what is needed to distill raindrops from the mists? There must be microscopic solid matter, such as dust or salt particles—from thousands to hundreds of thousands of them in each cubic inch [cm] of air—to act as nuclei for droplets to form around. It is estimated that it takes a million of the tiny cloud droplets to make up an average raindrop. Only after all this development can the clouds drop their torrents to earth to form the streams that return the water to the sea. Thus the water cycle completes itself. And all of this by blind chance? “Inexcusable,” indeed!

(JOB 38:38)
“When the dust pours into a mass And the clods of earth stick together?”

w05 11/15 p. 16 Wonders of Creation Exalt Jehovah
Rain-filled clouds are like water jars of heaven. When Jehovah tips them, they may pour down so much rain that the dust becomes mire and the clods cleave together. God can produce rain or hold it back.—James 5:17, 18.

(JOB 39:1)
““Do you know the time when the mountain goats give birth? Have you watched the deer give birth to their young?”

it-1 p. 966 Goat
Mountain Goat, Wild Goat. The Hebrew designation yeʽe•limʹ, rendered “mountain goats” (NW) and “wild goats” (KJ), is generally understood to refer to the Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), a mountain-dwelling wild goat with large, heavily ridged, backward-curving horns. This animal is at home in the high mountains (Ps 104:18), where it negotiates jagged crags and narrow mountain ledges with graceful ease. During the period of gestation these goats seek out places not easily found by man. This may be alluded to at Job 39:1, where the question raised points up the fact that these creatures are quite independent of man, the birth of their young taking place unobserved by man.

w97 7/15 p. 24 Acrobats of the Mountain Crags
‘Do You Know When Mountain Goats Give Birth?’
Mountain goats are very timid creatures. They prefer to live isolated from man. Indeed, people have difficulty getting near enough to observe them in their wild state. Thus, the Owner of “the beasts upon a thousand mountains” could rightfully ask the man Job: “Have you come to know the appointed time for the mountain goats of the crag to give birth?”—Psalm 50:10; Job 39:1.
God-given instinct tells the female mountain goat when it is time to give birth. She searches out a secure spot and delivers one or two kids, usually at the end of May or in June. Newborn kids acquire a sureness of step within just a few days.

(JOB 39:5)
“Who set the wild donkey free, And who untied the ropes of the wild donkey?”

it-1 p. 196 Ass
Wild Ass. The wild ass [Heb., ʽa•rohdhʹ; Aramaic, ʽaradhʹ] is distinguished from the domestic ass, not by its appearance, but by its wild and intractable disposition. This harmonizes completely with the Bible’s description of an animal with ‘loosened bands,’ as it were.—Job 39:5.

(JOB 39:6)
“I have made the desert plain its home And the salt land its dwelling.”

it-1 p. 196 Ass
The home of the wild ass (Equus hemionus) is the desert plain and the salt country, far away from the turmoil of a town. It instinctively avoids places inhabited by man, so “the noises of a stalker it does not hear.” Not that the wild ass cannot hear well; it is exceedingly wary because of its keen senses of hearing, sight, and smell. Should a man try to stalk this creature, it would dart off with utmost rapidity. Restlessly wild asses migrate in search of greenery, even exploring mountain areas for pasturage. They feed on every sort of green plant, gnawing even down into the roots. Salt also constitutes a part of their diet. (Job 39:5-8) The preference of the wild ass for free and unrestricted life far from human habitation adds significance to the fact that Nebuchadnezzar’s dwelling was with these creatures during his seven years of insanity.—Da 5:21; see ZEBRA.

(JOB 39:7)
“It scorns the tumult of the city; It does not hear the shouts of the driver.”

it-1 p. 196 Ass
The home of the wild ass (Equus hemionus) is the desert plain and the salt country, far away from the turmoil of a town. It instinctively avoids places inhabited by man, so “the noises of a stalker it does not hear.” Not that the wild ass cannot hear well; it is exceedingly wary because of its keen senses of hearing, sight, and smell. Should a man try to stalk this creature, it would dart off with utmost rapidity. Restlessly wild asses migrate in search of greenery, even exploring mountain areas for pasturage. They feed on every sort of green plant, gnawing even down into the roots. Salt also constitutes a part of their diet. (Job 39:5-8) The preference of the wild ass for free and unrestricted life far from human habitation adds significance to the fact that Nebuchadnezzar’s dwelling was with these creatures during his seven years of insanity.—Da 5:21; see ZEBRA.

w06 1/15 p. 14 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
This animal will not exchange its freedom for more easily obtained food in towns. “The noises of a stalker it does not hear,” for the wild ass darts away if a man invades its domain.

(JOB 39:8)
“It roams the hills, seeking pasture, Looking for every green plant.”

it-1 p. 196 Ass
The home of the wild ass (Equus hemionus) is the desert plain and the salt country, far away from the turmoil of a town. It instinctively avoids places inhabited by man, so “the noises of a stalker it does not hear.” Not that the wild ass cannot hear well; it is exceedingly wary because of its keen senses of hearing, sight, and smell. Should a man try to stalk this creature, it would dart off with utmost rapidity. Restlessly wild asses migrate in search of greenery, even exploring mountain areas for pasturage. They feed on every sort of green plant, gnawing even down into the roots. Salt also constitutes a part of their diet. (Job 39:5-8) The preference of the wild ass for free and unrestricted life far from human habitation adds significance to the fact that Nebuchadnezzar’s dwelling was with these creatures during his seven years of insanity.—Da 5:21; see ZEBRA.

w06 1/15 p. 14 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Job could not use the wild ass to bear burdens. It seeks “every sort of green plant,” exploring the hills for pasturage.

(JOB 39:9)
“Is the wild bull willing to serve you? Will it spend the night in your stable?”

cl chap. 4 p. 38 par. 5 “Jehovah Is . . . Great in Power”
People in the Palestine of Bible times rarely, if ever, faced anything stronger. But they did know of a more fearsome sort of bull—the wild bull, or aurochs, which has since become extinct. (Job 39:9-12) Roman Emperor Julius Caesar once observed that these bulls were scarcely smaller than elephants. “Great is their strength,” he wrote, “and great their speed.” Imagine how tiny and weak you would feel standing in the shadow of such a creature!

w06 1/15 p. 14 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
God next mentioned the wild bull. (Job 39:9-12) Concerning it, English archaeologist Austen Layard wrote: “The wild bull, from its frequent representation in the bas-reliefs, appears to have been considered scarcely less formidable and noble game than the lion. The king is frequently seen contending with it, and warriors pursue it both on horseback and on foot.” (Nineveh and Its Remains, 1849, Volume 2, page 326) Yet, no wise man tries to harness the uncontrollable wild bull.—Psalm 22:21.

w00 3/1 p. 11 Jehovah—The One Who Is Vigorous in Power
The wild bull referred to in the Bible was likely the aurochs (Latin urus). Two thousand years ago, these animals were found in Gaul (now France), and Julius Caesar wrote the following description of them: “These uri are scarcely less than elephants in size, but in their nature, colour, and form, are bulls. Great is their strength, and great their speed: they spare neither man nor beast when once they have caught sight of them.”

w00 3/1 pp. 10-11 pars. 5-6 Jehovah—The One Who Is Vigorous in Power
The fearsome power of the wild bull was also well-known in Bible times, and David prayed that he might be spared from “the mouth of the lion, and from the horns of wild bulls.”—Psalm 22:21; Job 39:9-11.
6 Because of its strength, the bull is used in the Bible to symbolize Jehovah’s power.

(JOB 39:10)
“Will you hold a wild bull to the furrow with a rope, Or will it follow you to plow the valley?”

it-1 p. 810 Farming Implements
The harrow is not referred to in the Bible, but the agricultural operation of harrowing is mentioned as being distinct from plowing. (Job 39:10; Isa 28:24; Ho 10:11) Pulverizing and smoothing the soil constitute the chief function of the modern harrow, though it is also used for mulching, covering seed, and removing weeds. Anciently, perhaps a weighted-down board or a rough log was dragged over the plowed soil to break up the clods and level the ground.

(JOB 39:13)
“The wings of the ostrich flap joyfully, But can her pinions and plumage compare with the stork’s?”

it-2 p. 562 Ostrich
Contrasted With Stork. Jehovah God later drew Job’s attention to the ostrich, and the things he pointed out strikingly illustrate some of the unusual features of that bird. (Job 39:13-18) In great contrast to the high-flying, majestically soaring storks with their broad powerful wings, the ostrich is flightless; its wings are incapable of sustaining the bird’s weight, and its flat breastbone lacks the “keel” that supports the flying muscles of birds of flight. The ostrich’s plumes, though lovely, lack even the tiny hooklike filaments that cling together and give the feathers of flying birds the resistance to air that makes flight possible.—Job 39:13.

it-2 p. 1039 Stork
Contrasting the flightless ostrich with the high-flying stork, Jehovah asked Job: “Has the wing of the female ostrich flapped joyously, or has she the pinions of a stork and the plumage?” (Job 39:13) The stork’s pinions are of great breadth and power, the secondary and tertiary feathers being almost as long as the primaries, giving an immense surface to the wing and enabling the stork to be a bird of lofty and long-continued flight. A stork in flight soaring on its powerful wings, with its neck extended and its long legs stretched out straight behind it, makes an imposing sight. The two women seen in Zechariah’s vision (Zec 5:6-11) carrying an ephah measure containing the woman called “Wickedness” are described as having “wings like the wings of the stork.” The reference to the ‘wind in their wings’ (vs 9) harmonizes also with the rushing sound produced by the air passing through the stork’s pinions. The primary feathers are fingered out in flight so that slots are formed at the ends of the wings, thereby controlling the airflow over the top of the wings and improving their lifting power.

g87 1/8 p. 16 The Ostrich and the Stork
Ostriches are not so blessed. Their large bodies remain earthbound even when their wings flap furiously. Thus the Bible asks: “Has the wing of the female ostrich flapped joyously, or has she the pinions of a stork and the plumage?”—Job 39:13.

(JOB 39:14)
“For she leaves her eggs on the ground, And she keeps them warm in the dust.”

it-2 p. 562 Ostrich
Again in contrast to the stork, which builds its big nest firmly in the tops of trees (Ps 104:17), buildings, or tall rocks, the ostrich merely scoops out a shallow depression in the ground surrounded by a low embankment. Here the female lays the eggs, weighing some 1.5 kg (3 lb) each, and since the ostrich is often polygamous (unlike the stork, which is renowned for its fidelity to one mate), there may be a good number of eggs laid in the nest by the two or three hens. The male ostrich warms the nest eggs during the night and the hen incubates them by day, but she is known to leave the nest for periods during the day when the sun is hot. At such times the eggs, though very thick-shelled, are, nevertheless, vulnerable to damage or despoiling by animals or man.—Job 39:14, 15.

w06 1/15 p. 14 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Unlike the stork, the ostrich does not place her eggs in a nest built in a tree. (Psalm 104:17) She scoops out a hollow in the sand and lays her eggs there. But this bird does not abandon the eggs. Covered with sand, the eggs are kept at a suitable temperature while both male and female tend them.

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
When an ostrich abandons its eggs or chicks, this distracts enemies. Sometimes ostriches display amazing bravery when doing this. One ostrich, on seeing an approaching truck, abandoned her chicks and ran toward the vehicle! She then veered to the side of it with one of her wings sagging, feigning injury.

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Actually, the seeming neglect of the ostrich works for its preservation. Those eggs carelessly left outside a nest are sometimes needed to feed new chicks.

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Job 39:14

g87 1/8 pp. 16-17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Ostriches, by contrast, are polygamous, and the hens are not overly concerned about their eggs. These are gathered into a communal nest, but some are left outside. When ostriches sense danger, they temporarily abandon their eggs or chicks.
Such seeming neglect harmonizes with the Bible’s description of the female ostrich: “She leaves her eggs to the earth itself

(JOB 39:15)
“She forgets that some foot may crush them Or that a wild animal may trample them.”

it-2 p. 562 Ostrich
Again in contrast to the stork, which builds its big nest firmly in the tops of trees (Ps 104:17), buildings, or tall rocks, the ostrich merely scoops out a shallow depression in the ground surrounded by a low embankment. Here the female lays the eggs, weighing some 1.5 kg (3 lb) each, and since the ostrich is often polygamous (unlike the stork, which is renowned for its fidelity to one mate), there may be a good number of eggs laid in the nest by the two or three hens. The male ostrich warms the nest eggs during the night and the hen incubates them by day, but she is known to leave the nest for periods during the day when the sun is hot. At such times the eggs, though very thick-shelled, are, nevertheless, vulnerable to damage or despoiling by animals or man.—Job 39:14, 15.

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Actually, the seeming neglect of the ostrich works for its preservation. Those eggs carelessly left outside a nest are sometimes needed to feed new chicks. Also, since the ostrich has no teeth, natural objects swallowed, like stones, are an important aid to digestion.
When an ostrich abandons its eggs or chicks, this distracts enemies. Sometimes ostriches display amazing bravery when doing this.

g87 1/8 pp. 16-17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Ostriches, by contrast, are polygamous, and the hens are not overly concerned about their eggs. These are gathered into a communal nest, but some are left outside. When ostriches sense danger, they temporarily abandon their eggs or chicks.
Such seeming neglect harmonizes with the Bible’s description of the female ostrich:

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
And she forgets that some foot may crush them . . .

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Job 39:14-16

(JOB 39:16)
“She treats her sons harshly, as if they were not hers; She has no fear that her labor may be in vain.”

it-2 p. 562 Ostrich
‘Treats Sons Roughly.’ The statement that the ostrich “does treat her sons roughly, as if not hers” (Job 39:16) and reference to ostriches as being “cruel” with respect to their offspring (La 4:3) have been objected to by some who claim that parent ostriches are quite solicitous in caring for their young. While it is true that the Hebrew term (rena•nimʹ) used at Job 39:13 may grammatically apply to either male or female ostriches, some lexicographers understand it to refer to the female birds. This would seem to be the case in view of the connection with the eggs laid, obviously, by the hen bird. When understood as applying to the female, there is certainly good basis for this poetic expression concerning the ‘cruelty’ of the bird in the fact that, once the young are hatched, the male “assumes all their care while the hens generally go off together.” (All the Birds of the Bible, by Alice Parmelee, 1959, p. 207) It is also true that these powerful birds, both male and female, quickly abandon the nest and their young when sensing danger, and even though they may use diversionary tactics to draw enemies away from the nest, this is still ‘rough’ treatment for the unprotected young. Only the protective coloration given by the Creator is what may save the undefended and abandoned chicks, causing the enemy beasts to overlook them and chase after the fleeing parents. The ostrich may properly be termed “cruel,” then, as compared with many other birds and particularly in contrast with the stork, whose affectionate attention and constant concern for its young are proverbial.

g99 7/22 pp. 17-18 Fleet-Footed, Flightless, and Fascinating—The Ostrich
Protection of the chicks rests with the parent birds. That the ostrich buries its head in the sand when faced with danger is a myth. On the contrary, parent birds can be fiercely aggressive when protecting their brood, driving away predators with powerful kicks. Another defense tactic they employ is distracting the predator by pretending to be wounded, thus drawing attention away from their young and to themselves. However, if a predator comes too close to them, the parents usually turn tail and run for their lives, leaving their young to fend for themselves. The Bible statement is proved true, for on these occasions the ostrich “does treat her sons roughly, as if not hers.”—Job 39:16.

g87 1/8 pp. 16-17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Ostriches, by contrast, are polygamous, and the hens are not overly concerned about their eggs. These are gathered into a communal nest, but some are left outside. When ostriches sense danger, they temporarily abandon their eggs or chicks.
Such seeming neglect harmonizes with the Bible’s description of the female ostrich:

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
She does treat her sons roughly, as if not hers.” (Job 39:14-16)

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Actually, the seeming neglect of the ostrich works for its preservation. Those eggs carelessly left outside a nest are sometimes needed to feed new chicks. Also, since the ostrich has no teeth, natural objects swallowed, like stones, are an important aid to digestion.
When an ostrich abandons its eggs or chicks, this distracts enemies. Sometimes ostriches display amazing bravery when doing this. One ostrich, on seeing an approaching truck, abandoned her chicks and ran toward the vehicle! She then veered to the side of it with one of her wings sagging, feigning injury.

(JOB 39:17)
“For God has deprived her of wisdom And given her no share in understanding.”

it-2 pp. 562-563 Ostrich
‘Forgets Wisdom.’ The ostrich is said to “forget wisdom” and ‘not share in understanding.’ (Job 39:17) Modern observers have acknowledged this. The Arabs have a saying “more foolish than an ostrich.” (Soncino Books of the Bible, edited by A. Cohen, London, 1946, Job, p. 205) The ostrich tends to run in a large curve, which permits its pursuers, if sufficient in number, to surround it.

w06 1/15 p. 14 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
It may seem that the ostrich ‘forgets wisdom’ when she detects danger from a predator and appears to run away. However, An Encyclopedia of Bible Animals says: “This is a distraction technique: [ostriches] will make themselves conspicuous and flap their wings to attract the attention of any animal or person who threatens, and thus lead them away from the eggs.”

g87 1/8 p. 16 The Ostrich and the Stork
Ostriches, by contrast, are polygamous, and the hens are not overly concerned about their eggs. These are gathered into a communal nest, but some are left outside. When ostriches sense danger, they temporarily abandon their eggs or chicks.

g87 1/8 p. 17 The Ostrich and the Stork
Ostriches have a small head, and their brain is the size of a walnut. This explains why zoo director Terry Murphy wrote: “If there is one species that is an exception to the rule that birds are intelligent creatures it is the ostrich.”
In his book Some of My Best Friends Are Animals, Murphy describes how one ostrich slept close to the fence on a cold night and froze to death. Another was strangled to death by entangling its neck between two bars of the fence. “But the most ridiculous thing about them,’’ wrote Murphy, “is the things they eat.”
Recently, while trying to get a closeup picture of an ostrich, a tourist had his camera wrenched from his grasp. In dismay he watched it slowly descend down the ostrich’s long neck! The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats lists the following items discovered in the stomach of one specimen: “A 3 ft long piece of rope, a spool of film, an alarm-clock key, a cycle valve, a pencil, a comb, three gloves, a handkerchief, glove-fasteners, pieces of a gold necklace, two collar-studs, a Belgian franc, two farthings and four halfpennies.”
Appropriately, the Bible speaks of the female ostrich: “God has made her forget wisdom.” (Job 39:17) Does this imply that an error was made by the Creator? By no means. Actually, the seeming neglect of the ostrich works for its preservation. Those eggs carelessly left outside a nest are sometimes needed to feed new chicks. Also, since the ostrich has no teeth, natural objects swallowed, like stones, are an important aid to digestion.
When an ostrich abandons its eggs or chicks, this distracts enemies. Sometimes ostriches display amazing bravery when doing this. One ostrich, on seeing an approaching truck, abandoned her chicks and ran toward the vehicle! She then veered to the side of it with one of her wings sagging, feigning injury.
The ostrich and the stork draw attention to the unfathomable mental resources of the One who designed them so differently. (Romans 11:33) As the psalmist exclaimed: “How many your works are, O Jehovah! All of them in wisdom you have made.”—Psalm 104:24.

(JOB 39:18)
“But when she rises up and flaps her wings, She laughs at the horse and at its rider.”

it-2 p. 563 Ostrich
But on a straight course the ostrich’s powerful legs enable it to ‘laugh at the horse and at its rider.’ (Job 39:18) When running, its strides lengthen out to cover as much as 3.5 m (11 ft) at a time, and its pace may reach as high as 70 km/hr (44 mph). The wings, useless for flight, nevertheless help to give balance to the bird’s heavy body as it runs.

cl chap. 5 p. 54 par. 16 Creative Power—“The Maker of Heaven and Earth”
Jehovah told Job of the ostrich, which “laughs at the horse and at its rider.” Indeed, this eight-foot-tall (2.5 m) bird may be flightless, but it can run 40 miles per hour (65 km/hr), covering up to 15 feet (4.5 m) in a single stride! (Job 39:13, 18)

g 8/14 p. 11 “Observe Intently the Birds”
The Bible makes many references to birds, often to teach valuable lessons. For example, concerning the ostrich and its incredible speed, God said to a man named Job: “When she rises up and flaps her wings, she laughs at the horse and at its rider.” (Job 39:13, 18)

g 8/14 p. 11 “Observe Intently the Birds”
The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it is the fastest runner, able to reach speeds of about 45 miles an hour (72 km/h) for short bursts.

w06 1/15 p. 14 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
It may seem that the ostrich ‘forgets wisdom’ when she detects danger from a predator and appears to run away. However, An Encyclopedia of Bible Animals says: “This is a distraction technique: [ostriches] will make themselves conspicuous and flap their wings to attract the attention of any animal or person who threatens, and thus lead them away from the eggs.”
How is it that the ostrich “laughs at the horse and at its rider”? Says The World Book Encyclopedia: “The ostrich cannot fly, but it is known for its speed on the ground. Its long legs can take 15-foot (4.6-meter) steps at speeds up to 40 miles (64 kilometers) per hour.”

g99 7/22 p. 16 Fleet-Footed, Flightless, and Fascinating—The Ostrich
Because of its great size and weight, it cannot fly. However, its muscular legs are powerful enough to make it one of the fastest creatures on earth. Running across desert country, it can attain speeds of up to 40 miles [65 km] per hour! The ostrich “laughs at the horse and at its rider,” notes the Bible. (Job 39:18) True to that observation, this two-legged speedster’s great swiftness and long-distance stamina allow it to outrun many of the fastest four-legged predators with ease.

g87 1/8 p. 16 The Ostrich and the Stork
When angered or frightened, however, an ostrich can run as fast as 40 miles per hour (64 km/hr) with the help of its wings. As the Bible states: “At the time she flaps her wings on high, she laughs at the horse and at its rider.” (Job 39:18) One observer watched an ostrich chase a horse, giving it powerful kicks.

(JOB 39:21)
“It paws the ground in the valley and exults mightily; It charges into the battle.”

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
In ancient times, warriors fought on horseback, and horses pulled chariots carrying a driver and perhaps two soldiers. Impatient for battle, a warhorse neighs and beats the ground with its hooves. It is not terrified and does not turn back on account of a sword.

(JOB 39:22)
“It laughs at fear and is afraid of nothing. It does not turn back because of the sword.”

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
In ancient times, warriors fought on horseback, and horses pulled chariots carrying a driver and perhaps two soldiers. Impatient for battle, a warhorse neighs and beats the ground with its hooves. It is not terrified and does not turn back on account of a sword.

(JOB 39:24)
“Trembling with excitement, it surges forward, It cannot stand still at the sound of the horn.”

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
At the sound of the horn, the warhorse reacts as though saying, “Aha!” It surges ahead, ‘swallowing up the ground.’ Yet, the warhorse obeys its rider.
In a comparable description, archaeologist Layard wrote: “Although docile as a lamb, and requiring no other guide than the halter, when the Arab mare hears the war-cry of the tribe, and sees the quivering spear of her rider, her eyes glitter with fire, her blood-red nostrils open wide, her neck is nobly arched, and her tail and mane are raised and spread out to the wind.”—Discoveries Among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, 1853, page 330.

(JOB 39:25)
“When the horn blows, it says, ‘Aha!’ It smells the battle from afar And hears the shouting of commanders and the battle cry.”

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
At the sound of the horn, the warhorse reacts as though saying, “Aha!” It surges ahead, ‘swallowing up the ground.’ Yet, the warhorse obeys its rider.
In a comparable description, archaeologist Layard wrote: “Although docile as a lamb, and requiring no other guide than the halter, when the Arab mare hears the war-cry of the tribe, and sees the quivering spear of her rider, her eyes glitter with fire, her blood-red nostrils open wide, her neck is nobly arched, and her tail and mane are raised and spread out to the wind.”—Discoveries Among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, 1853, page 330.

(JOB 39:26)
“Is it by your understanding that the falcon soars, Spreading its wings to the south?”

it-1 p. 806 Falcon
Job 39:26 describes the falcon’s ‘soaring up and spreading its wings to the south wind,’ and this is understood by some to refer to a southward migration (“spreads his wings to travel south,” JB), which would be true of the lesser kestrel of the falcon family and, to some extent, of the peregrine falcon. Others, however, believe that the text describes the bird as turning into the oncoming wind and, by the power of its wings, flying into it, ascending higher and higher. Falcons are said to “rise to a great height, always endeavoring to outsoar any bird of which they may be in pursuit” in order to be able to plummet down with fierce velocity upon the prey below, and in doing so they often “avail themselves of the wind, and by flying against it are borne aloft like a kite.” (Funk and Wagnalls New Standard Encyclopedia, 1931, Vol. XI, pp. 329, 330) Similarly the kestrel is sometimes called the windhover “because it hovers (stays in one place) in the air while it hunts. This bird faces into the wind and beats its wings while watching the ground for prey.”—The World Book Encyclopedia, 1987, Vol. 11, p. 237.

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Consider the Falcon and the Eagle
Jehovah turned his attention to certain other birds. (Job 39:26-30) Falcons ‘soar up and spread their wings to the wind.’ Citing the peregrine falcon as the fastest-flying bird, The Guinness Book of Records says that it “reaches record speed levels when swooping from great heights during territorial displays, or when catching prey in midair.” This bird has reached a speed of 217 miles per hour [349 km/hr] at a 45-degree angle of descent!

(JOB 39:27)
“Or is it at your order that an eagle flies upward And builds its nest high up,”

it-1 p. 663 Eagle
Lofty Nest and Farsightedness. The nest-building habits of the eagle are emphasized in God’s questioning of Job at Job 39:27-30. The nest or aerie may be in a high tree or on the crag of a cliff or rocky canyon. Over the years the nest may grow to be as much as 2 m (6.5 ft) high, that of some eagles coming to weigh as much as a ton! The apparent security and inaccessibility of the eagle’s nest were also used figuratively by the prophets in their messages against the lofty kingdom of Edom in the rugged mountains of the Arabah region.—Jer 49:16; Ob 3, 4.

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Eagles have flown at speeds of over 80 miles per hour [130 km/hr]. Job compared the swift passing of life to the speed of an eagle searching for prey. (Job 9:25, 26) God gives us strength to go on, as if we were on the seemingly tireless wings of the soaring eagle. (Isaiah 40:31) In flight, the eagle takes advantage of columns of rising warm air called thermals. The bird circles within a thermal, which carries it higher and higher. When the eagle attains a certain height, it glides to the next thermal and can stay aloft for hours with a minimal expenditure of energy.
An eagle “builds its nest high up” on inaccessible heights, placing its young out of danger. Jehovah has made the eagle do this instinctively.

(JOB 39:28)
“Spending the night on a cliff, Dwelling in its stronghold on a rocky crag?”

it-1 p. 663 Eagle
Lofty Nest and Farsightedness. The nest-building habits of the eagle are emphasized in God’s questioning of Job at Job 39:27-30. The nest or aerie may be in a high tree or on the crag of a cliff or rocky canyon. Over the years the nest may grow to be as much as 2 m (6.5 ft) high, that of some eagles coming to weigh as much as a ton!

(JOB 39:29)
“From there it searches for food; Its eyes look far into the distance.”

it-1 p. 663 Eagle
The farsightedness of the eagle, mentioned at Job 39:29, is borne out by Rutherford Platt in his book The River of Life (1956, pp. 215, 216), which also shows the unusual design of the eye of the eagle, testifying to the Creator’s wisdom. The book says:
“We find the championship eyes of the whole animal kingdom . . . [in] the eyes of the eagle, the vulture, and the hawk. So keen are they that they can look down from a thousand feet in the air and spot a rabbit or a grouse half hidden in the grass.
“Sharp eyesight of the hunter eye is caused by the reflection of the object falling on a dense clump of pointed, cone-shaped cells. This tiny spot in the back of the eyeball absorbs light rays from the object through thousands of points, in a special manner which summons up a clear image in the mind. For almost all hunters, such as the skunk, the cougar, and ourselves, the single spot of cones is enough; we look straight ahead and approach directly the object of our gaze. But not so the eagle or the hawk, which, having fixed the rabbit in the grass with its sharp focusing cones, may then approach by a long, slanting dive. This causes the image of the target to move across the back of the eyeball on a curved path. Such a path is precisely plotted for the eagle eye so that instead of a clump of cones the diving bird has a curved path of cones. As the eagle zooms down, the rabbit in the grass is thus held in constant focus.”—Compare Jer 49:22.

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
And with God-given vision, “far into the distance [the eagle’s] eyes keep looking.” The ability rapidly to change the focus of its eyes enables an eagle to keep its prey or a carcass in sight during a long dive.

g02 12/22 The Eye of an Eagle
The Eye of an Eagle
BY AWAKE! WRITER IN SPAIN
SPANIARDS describe a sharp-sighted man as having the eyesight of an eagle (vista de águila). Germans have a similar expression (Adlerauge). Not without reason, the eagle’s keen eyesight has been proverbial for centuries. The book of Job, written over three thousand years ago, says of the eagle: “Far into the distance its eyes keep looking.”—Job 39:27, 29.
How far into the distance can an eagle actually see? “Under ideal conditions a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) can detect the slight movements of a rabbit from more than [1 1⁄4 miles] [2 km] away,” explains The Guinness Book of Animal Records. Others have estimated that the eagle can see even farther!
What gives the eagle such acute vision? First of all, the golden eagle has two huge eyes, which occupy a large portion of the head. The Book of British Birds notes that in the case of the golden eagle, its eyes “are, in fact, as large as they could be without becoming so heavy as to impair flight.”
Furthermore, an eagle’s eye has approximately five times the number of light-receptor cells that we have—some 1,000,000 cones per square millimeter compared to our 200,000. Practically each receptor is connected to a neuron. As a result, the eagle’s optic nerve, which carries messages from the eye to the brain, contains double the number of fibers found in that of a human. Little wonder that these creatures have keen color perception! Finally, birds of prey, like other birds, have eyes equipped with a powerful lens that can change its focus quickly from objects an inch away [a few centimeters away] to those at a great distance. Their eyes far outmatch ours in this respect as well.
The eagle’s vision excels during broad daylight, but at night the owls have the advantage. These nocturnal raptors have eyes with abundant light-sensitive rods and a large lens surface. As a result, they can see 100 times better at night than we can. On those rare occasions when there is total darkness, however, owls must depend exclusively on their acute hearing to locate prey.
Who gave these birds such attributes? God asked Job: “Is it at your order that an eagle flies upward?” Obviously, no man can claim credit for this marvel of creation. Job himself humbly admitted: “I have come to know that you [Jehovah] are able to do all things.” (Job 39:27; 42:1, 2) The eye of the eagle is just one more testimony to the wisdom of our Creator.
[Picture on page 24]
Golden eagle

w96 6/15 p. 9 Mounting Up With Wings Like Eagles
The keen eyesight of the eagle has always been proverbial. Although the golden eagle rarely weighs more than ten pounds [5 kg], its eye is actually bigger than a man’s, and its eyesight is much keener. Jehovah himself, describing to Job the eagle’s ability to search out its food, said: “Far into the distance its eyes keep looking.” (Job 39:27, 29) Alice Parmelee, in her book All the Birds of the Bible, reports that “an eagle once spotted a dead fish floating in a lake three miles [5 km] away and made a diagonal dive to the exact place. Not only was the eagle able to see a small object at a far greater distance than a man could, but the bird kept the fish in constant focus through its three-mile dive.”

(JOB 39:30)
“Its young sip up blood; And wherever the slain are, there it is.””

w06 1/15 p. 15 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
An eagle may eat the carcasses of dead animals, so that “where the slain are, there it is.” This bird catches small animals and carries them to its young.

(JOB 40:2)
““Should a faultfinder contend with the Almighty? Let the one who wants to reprove God answer.””

it-1 p. 817 Fault, Faultfinding
For this reason and because of his almightiness, he can say, as in correcting Job: “Should there be any contending of a faultfinder [literally, one who chastises, corrects, disciplines] with the Almighty?” (Job 40:1, 2)

(JOB 40:7)
““Brace yourself, please, like a man; I will question you, and you inform me.”

it-1 p. 219 Attitudes and Gestures
Girding up of the loins implies preparation for action. This had reference to the custom in Bible times of binding up one’s flowing garments with a belt or girdle in order not to be hampered in connection with doing work, running, and so forth.—Job 40:7; Jer 1:17; Lu 12:37; 1Pe 1:13, ftn.

(JOB 40:15)
“Here, now, is Be•heʹmoth, which I made as I made you. It eats grass like a bull.”

it-1 p. 280 Behemoth
BEHEMOTH
(Be•heʹmoth).
The designation “Behemoth,” appearing at Job 40:15, has been variously viewed as (1) a derivative of an Egyptian word for “water ox,” (2) a word possibly of Assyrian origin meaning “monster,” and (3) an intensified plural of the Hebrew word behe•mahʹ (beast; domestic animal) that is understood to denote “great beast” or “huge beast.” In the Greek Septuagint the word the•riʹa (wild beasts) translates the Hebrew behe•mohthʹ. Evidently, though, a single animal is meant, as is indicated by the fact that the description given of Behemoth is not that of several creatures but of only one, generally considered to be the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). In fact, a number of Bible translations (AT, La, Ro, NW, JB, RS) use the word “hippopotamus” in the main text or in footnotes to identify the creature referred to by God.

it-1 pp. 280-281 Behemoth
The description in the 40th chapter of the book of Job offers a vivid word picture of this huge mammal, Behemoth. It is described as being herbivorous. (Vs 15) The sources of its tremendous power and energy are noted to be in the hips and in the tendons of its belly, that is, the muscles of its back and those of its belly. (Vs 16) The tail of Behemoth is like a cedar. Since the tail of a hippopotamus is fairly short, measuring about 46 to 51 cm (18 to 20 in.), this is likely to be understood as meaning that the animal can set its thick tail rigidly upright or swing it about like a tree. “The sinews of its thighs are interwoven,” so that the fiber and tendons of muscles of its thighs are twisted together and braided like powerful cables. (Vs 17) The bones of its legs are as strong as “tubes of copper,” thus being able to support the great weight of the body. The bones and ribs are like wrought-iron rods. (Vs 18)

w06 1/15 p. 16 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Behemoth climbs out of the river to feast on “green grass.” Why, the greenery of an entire mountain seems necessary to sustain it! Some 200 to 400 pounds [90-180 kg] of vegetation go into its stomach every day.

w94 11/15 p. 19 Job’s Reward—A Source of Hope
Behemoth and Leviathan
15 Jehovah next mentioned Behemoth, generally considered to be the hippopotamus. (Job 40:15-24) Remarkable for its huge size, great weight, and tough hide, this herbivorous animal ‘eats green grass.’

(JOB 40:16)
“Look at the strength in its hips And the power in the muscles of its belly!”

it-1 pp. 280-281 Behemoth
The description in the 40th chapter of the book of Job offers a vivid word picture of this huge mammal, Behemoth. It is described as being herbivorous. (Vs 15) The sources of its tremendous power and energy are noted to be in the hips and in the tendons of its belly, that is, the muscles of its back and those of its belly. (Vs 16) The tail of Behemoth is like a cedar. Since the tail of a hippopotamus is fairly short, measuring about 46 to 51 cm (18 to 20 in.), this is likely to be understood as meaning that the animal can set its thick tail rigidly upright or swing it about like a tree. “The sinews of its thighs are interwoven,” so that the fiber and tendons of muscles of its thighs are twisted together and braided like powerful cables. (Vs 17) The bones of its legs are as strong as “tubes of copper,” thus being able to support the great weight of the body. The bones and ribs are like wrought-iron rods. (Vs 18)

w06 1/15 p. 16 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Behemoth’s “power is in its hips”—the muscles in its back. The thick hide of its belly is a real advantage as short-legged Behemoth drags its body over stones in riverbeds. Surely a man is no match for Behemoth, with its massive body, huge mouth, and powerful jaws.

(JOB 40:17)
“It stiffens its tail like a cedar; The sinews of its thighs are woven together.”

it-1 pp. 280-281 Behemoth
The description in the 40th chapter of the book of Job offers a vivid word picture of this huge mammal, Behemoth. It is described as being herbivorous. (Vs 15) The sources of its tremendous power and energy are noted to be in the hips and in the tendons of its belly, that is, the muscles of its back and those of its belly. (Vs 16) The tail of Behemoth is like a cedar. Since the tail of a hippopotamus is fairly short, measuring about 46 to 51 cm (18 to 20 in.), this is likely to be understood as meaning that the animal can set its thick tail rigidly upright or swing it about like a tree. “The sinews of its thighs are interwoven,” so that the fiber and tendons of muscles of its thighs are twisted together and braided like powerful cables. (Vs 17) The bones of its legs are as strong as “tubes of copper,” thus being able to support the great weight of the body. The bones and ribs are like wrought-iron rods. (Vs 18)

(JOB 40:18)
“Its bones are tubes of copper; Its limbs are like wrought-iron rods.”

it-1 pp. 280-281 Behemoth
The description in the 40th chapter of the book of Job offers a vivid word picture of this huge mammal, Behemoth. It is described as being herbivorous. (Vs 15) The sources of its tremendous power and energy are noted to be in the hips and in the tendons of its belly, that is, the muscles of its back and those of its belly. (Vs 16) The tail of Behemoth is like a cedar. Since the tail of a hippopotamus is fairly short, measuring about 46 to 51 cm (18 to 20 in.), this is likely to be understood as meaning that the animal can set its thick tail rigidly upright or swing it about like a tree. “The sinews of its thighs are interwoven,” so that the fiber and tendons of muscles of its thighs are twisted together and braided like powerful cables. (Vs 17) The bones of its legs are as strong as “tubes of copper,” thus being able to support the great weight of the body. The bones and ribs are like wrought-iron rods. (Vs 18)

it-1 p. 352 Bones
Pound for pound, bone is stronger than steel, and its construction is comparable to reinforced concrete. In fact, in describing “Behemoth,” Jehovah says: “Its bones are tubes of copper; its strong bones are like wrought-iron rods.” (Job 40:15, 18) The description aptly fits the hippopotamus, the bones of whose short, powerful legs and heavily built hips support his massive weight of from 2,300 to 3,600 kg (5,000 to 8,000 lb).

(JOB 40:20)
“For the mountains produce food for it, Where all the wild animals play.”

w06 1/15 p. 16 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Behemoth climbs out of the river to feast on “green grass.” Why, the greenery of an entire mountain seems necessary to sustain it! Some 200 to 400 pounds [90-180 kg] of vegetation go into its stomach every day.

(JOB 40:21)
“It lies down under the lotus trees, In the shelter of the reeds of the marsh.”

it-2 p. 273 Lotus Tree
LOTUS TREE
[Heb., tse•ʼelimʹ (plural)].
The thorny lotus (Zizyphus lotus) is a thickly branched shrub or low tree, often growing to a height of only 1.5 m (5 ft). The leaves are small, oval, and leathery, and at the base of each leaf is a pair of thorns. The only reference to it is at Job 40:21, 22, which speaks of Behemoth (the hippopotamus) as lying in the shade cast by the tree. While this tree is found in dry places in Palestine, A Dictionary of Life in Bible Times speaks of it as “flourishing in the hot and humid marshland” of N Africa.—By W. Corswant, Suffolk, 1960, p. 177.

(JOB 40:23)
“If the river is turbulent, it does not panic. It is confident, although the Jordan rushes against its mouth.”

it-1 p. 281 Behemoth
Even when a river overflows its banks, this creature does not panic, for it can still keep its head above the level of water and swim against the force of the deluge. (Vs 23)

w94 11/15 p. 19 par. 15 Job’s Reward—A Source of Hope
Behemoth does not panic in torrential waters but easily swims against the tide.

(JOB 41:1)
““Can you catch Le•viʹa•than with a fishhook Or hold down its tongue with a rope?”

g96 3/8 pp. 18-19 Studying the Bible—In the Zoo!
“Out Of Its Nostrils Smoke Goes Forth”
But there are more animals we definitely want to see. The other day in our Bible study, we came across “Leviathan,” the crocodile. At first, Pepijn described it as ‘a kind of fish, but then a very large one!’ As crocodiles are very sensitive to temperature variations, they are accommodated in the Africa House, where a tropical climate is maintained. Upon entering, we are struck by the heat and the humidity, which steam up our glasses. In addition to that, we have to get accustomed to the darkness. Walking across a wooden suspension bridge, we suddenly come face-to-face with a couple of huge crocodiles holding sway over the wallows on either side of the bridge. They lie there so motionless that Pepijn is prompted to say: “They are not real.”
Crocodiles are among the largest extant reptiles. Some may reach a length of 20 feet [6 m] and may weigh as much as 2,000 pounds [900 kg]. The strength of their jaws is stunning—even a relatively small crocodile weighing 100 pounds [50 kg] is able to exert a force equal to over 1,500 pounds [700 kg]. When a crocodile surfaces after a period of submersion, the rapid exhalation of air through its nostrils can produce a spray that in the glare of the morning sun may well be the ‘flash of light’ and the ‘going forth of smoke out of its nostrils’ that the book of Job describes.—Job 41:1, 18-21.

(JOB 41:2)
“Can you put a rope through its nostrils Or pierce its jaws with a hook?”

it-2 pp. 827-828 Rush
RUSH
[Heb., ʼagh•mohnʹ].
Any of a variety of grasslike plants commonly growing in marshes. The true rushes have round, frequently hollow, stems with three rows of grasslike leaves, and small brownish or greenish flowers. The designation ʼagh•mohnʹ may have included the various kinds of true rushes as well as the rushlike plants of the sedge family.
Anciently, rushes were employed in starting the fire in a furnace. (Job 41:20) At Job 41:2 “rush” may refer to a cord of twisted rushes or to one spun from their fibers.
The other Scriptural references to ʼagh•mohnʹ are illustrative. Jehovah took no delight in renegade Israel’s fasting, attended by bowing their heads ceremonially like a rush. (Isa 58:5) At Isaiah 9:14, “rush” seems to refer to the false prophets (the “tail”) who merely spoke what the leaders of the nation of Israel (the “head,” or “shoot”) wanted to hear.—Isa 9:15; see also 19:15, where “rush” appears to denote the Egyptians in general.

it-2 p. 1175 Weeds
Another Hebrew term, chohʹach, is understood to designate thorny plants generally, thorny weeds that grow on cultivated ground and quickly take possession of desolated land. (Job 31:40; Isa 34:13; Ho 9:6) The same word appears at Job 41:2, where the allusion seems to be to a thorn put into the gills of a fish for carrying purposes.

(JOB 41:6)
“Will traders barter for it? Will they divide it up among merchants?”

it-1 p. 405 Canaan
Commercial and Geopolitical Importance. Canaan formed a land bridge connecting Egypt with Asia and, more particularly, Mesopotamia. Though the economy of the country was basically agricultural, commercial trade was also engaged in, and the seaport cities of Tyre and Sidon became major trade centers with fleets of ships that were renowned throughout the then-known world. (Compare Eze 27.) Thus, as far back as Job’s time, the word “Canaanite” had become synonymous with ‘tradesman’ and is so translated. (Job 41:6; Zep 1:11; note also the reference to Babylon as “the land of Canaan,” Eze 17:4, 12.)

(JOB 41:7)
“Will you fill its hide with harpoons Or its head with fishing spears?”

it-1 p. 1039 Harpoon
HARPOON
A barbed, spearlike instrument generally used in striking large fish. Reference is made to the harpoon only at Job 41:7, drawing attention to the armorlike quality of the skin of Leviathan (the crocodile), which resists penetration by an ordinary harpoon.

(JOB 41:8)
“Lay your hand on it; You will remember the battle and never do it again!”

g95 3/22 pp. 16-18 A Closer Look at the Crocodile
Visitors to Africa’s rivers, lakes, and swamps often get to see crocodiles, although for the above-mentioned terrified tourist, the encounter was probably a bit too close. Kenya is home to the Nile crocodile. In the local Swahili language, he is simply known as mamba. Reaching up to 23 feet [7 m] in length, crocodiles are reptiles, agile both on land and in water. In water they can attain great speed because of the flattened, paddlelike shape of their tails. They can swim at speeds up to 25 miles an hour [40 km/hr]! And it is not unusual for them to stay underwater for two hours, even three. On land they can run in short, very fast bursts.
Little wonder, then, that the Bible evidently refers to the crocodile as an example of a fear-inspiring creation of God called Leviathan. Job 41:8, 10 says: “Put your hand upon [Leviathan]. Remember the battle. Do not do it again. . . . None is so audacious that he should stir it up.” Very wise warnings! According to the book The Fascination of Reptiles, by Maurice Richardson, crocodiles have even been known to attack outboard motorboats! Job 41:25 appropriately says: “Due to its rising up the strong get frightened; due to consternation they get bewildered.”

(JOB 41:10)
“No one dares to stir it up. So who is it who can stand up to me?”

w00 3/15 p. 25 An Exemplary Man Who Accepted Correction
“ZAMBIA Crocs Eat 30 People a Month.” So reported an African newspaper some years ago. According to a zoologist who caught these reptiles for study, “it took 12 men to hold down one croc.” With a powerful tail and mighty jaws, the crocodile can be a terrifying animal!
Apparently referring to the crocodile as “Leviathan,” the Creator used this “king over all majestic wild beasts” to teach his servant Job an important lesson. (Job 41:1, 34) This took place about 3,500 years ago in the land of Uz, likely somewhere in northern Arabia. While describing this creature, God told Job: “None is so audacious that he should stir it up. And who is it that can hold his ground before me?” (Job 41:10) How true!

(JOB 41:14)
“Who can pry open the doors of its mouth? Its teeth all around are fearsome.”

it-1 p. 645 Doorway
Leviathan, with its double jaw, is represented as having “doors” in its face. (Job 41:1, 13, 14)

g95 3/22 p. 18 A Closer Look at the Crocodile
Why do people flee in terror at the sight of this scaly beast? Verse 14 explains one reason: “The doors of its face who has opened? Its teeth round about are frightful.” Each of the crocodile’s jaws, both upper and lower, has up to 24 teeth of various sizes, all being continuously replaced during its lifetime. Interestingly, the crocodile’s fourth tooth of the lower jaw fits outside in a groove in the upper jaw and can easily be seen when the jaws are closed. This helps to distinguish it from its cousin, the alligator. The problem is, if you get too close in making this little dental exam, you could very well find yourself examining all the crocodile’s teeth from the inside!

(JOB 41:16)
“Each one fits so closely to the other That no air can come between them.”

it-2 p. 1018 Spirit
Job 41:15, 16 says of Leviathan’s closely fitting scales that “not even air [weruʹach] can come in between them.” Here again ruʹach represents air in motion, not merely air in a quiescent or motionless state. Thus the thought of an invisible force is present, the basic characteristic of the Hebrew ruʹach.

(JOB 41:18)
“Its snorting flashes out light, And its eyes are like the rays of dawn.”

w06 1/15 p. 16 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
As Leviathan lifts its head above water at sunrise, its eyes flash “like the beams of dawn.”

g96 3/8 p. 19 Studying the Bible—In the Zoo!
When a crocodile surfaces after a period of submersion, the rapid exhalation of air through its nostrils can produce a spray that in the glare of the morning sun may well be the ‘flash of light’ and the ‘going forth of smoke out of its nostrils’ that the book of Job describes.—Job 41:1, 18-21.

(JOB 41:20)
“Smoke pours out of its nostrils, Like a furnace fueled with rushes.”

it-2 p. 982 Smoke
Jehovah, in describing his creations to Job, calls attention to Leviathan, saying: “Out of [its] nostrils smoke goes forth, like a furnace set aflame even with rushes.” (Job 41:20) Many Bible scholars believe that God here had reference to the crocodile, which, when coming up out of the water, breathes out a thick, steamy vapor with a thundering sound.

g96 3/8 p. 19 Studying the Bible—In the Zoo!
When a crocodile surfaces after a period of submersion, the rapid exhalation of air through its nostrils can produce a spray that in the glare of the morning sun may well be the ‘flash of light’ and the ‘going forth of smoke out of its nostrils’ that the book of Job describes.—Job 41:1, 18-21.

(JOB 41:30)
“Underneath, it is like sharp fragments of pottery; It spreads itself in the mud like a threshing sledge.”

w06 1/15 p. 16 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Sharp scales on a crocodile’s belly leave the impression of “a threshing instrument” on mud banks.

(JOB 41:31)
“It makes the deep boil just like a pot; It stirs up the sea like an ointment pot.”

it-2 p. 240 Leviathan
The description of “Leviathan” at Job 41:1-34 aptly fits the crocodile, and the “sea” of verse 31 may refer to a river such as the Nile or another body of fresh water. It should be noted, however, that some crocodiles, as the Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), are found along the seacoast and at times go out into the sea some distance from land.

w06 1/15 p. 16 Animal Creation Magnifies Jehovah
Its fury in water stirs up a froth like foaming ointment.

(JOB 42:2)
““Now I know that you are able to do all things And that nothing you have in mind to do is impossible for you.”

w01 4/15 p. 11 par. 13 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
13 Job chapter 42 shows us what effect God’s questioning had on Job. Earlier Job gave too much attention to himself and others. But accepting the correction implicit in God’s questions, Job changed his thinking. He confessed: “I have come to know that you [Jehovah] are able to do all things, and there is no idea that is unattainable for you. ‘Who is this that is obscuring counsel without knowledge?’ Therefore I talked, but I was not understanding things too wonderful for me, which I do not know.” (Job 42:2, 3) Yes, after giving attention to God’s works, Job said that these things were too wonderful for him. After reviewing these creative marvels, we should likewise be impressed with God’s wisdom and power.

(JOB 42:3)
“You said, ‘Who is this who is obscuring my counsel without knowledge?’ Therefore I spoke, but without understanding About things too wonderful for me, which I do not know.”

w01 4/15 p. 11 par. 13 Give Attention to God’s Wonderful Works
13 Job chapter 42 shows us what effect God’s questioning had on Job. Earlier Job gave too much attention to himself and others. But accepting the correction implicit in God’s questions, Job changed his thinking. He confessed: “I have come to know that you [Jehovah] are able to do all things, and there is no idea that is unattainable for you. ‘Who is this that is obscuring counsel without knowledge?’ Therefore I talked, but I was not understanding things too wonderful for me, which I do not know.” (Job 42:2, 3) Yes, after giving attention to God’s works, Job said that these things were too wonderful for him. After reviewing these creative marvels, we should likewise be impressed with God’s wisdom and power.

(JOB 42:5)
“My ears have heard about you, But now I do see you with my eyes.”

it-2 p. 55 Jesus Christ
After God’s interrogation of Job out of a windstorm had clarified that man’s understanding, Job said: “In hearsay I have heard about you, but now my own eye does see you.” (Job 38:1; 42:5; see also Jg 13:21, 22.) The ‘eyes of his heart’ had been enlightened. (Compare Eph 1:18.)

it-2 p. 678 Presence
Job, being spoken to by Jehovah “out of the windstorm” (likely accompanied by clouds), afterward said: “In hearsay I have heard about you, but now my own eye does see you.” (Job 38:1; 42:5) This, too, must have been by perception of mind and heart rather than the literal eye, in view of the clear Scriptural teaching that “no man has seen God at any time.”—Joh 1:18; 5:37; 6:46; 1Jo 4:12.

w06 3/15 p. 16 par. 7 Highlights From the Book of Job
42:1-6. Hearing Jehovah’s word and being reminded of the manifestation of his power helped Job to “behold God,” or see the truth about him. (Job 19:26)

w88 8/15 p. 12 par. 11 Build Trust in Jehovah—By Diligently Studying His Word
11 Job was one “fearing God and turning aside from bad.” But after Jehovah further revealed himself in a windstorm, Job could say: “In hearsay I have heard about you, but now my own eye does see you.” (Job 1:1; 42:5) Can we today “see” God, that is, go beyond mere acquaintance, intimately know the many facets of his personality? Indeed we can! Through the pages of the Bible, Jehovah has revealed more of himself than was known even to Job.

(JOB 42:7)
“After Jehovah had spoken these words to Job, Jehovah said to Elʹi•phaz the Teʹman•ite: “My anger burns against you and your two companions, for you have not spoken the truth about me as my servant Job has.”

it-2 p. 81 Job
Jehovah loved Job. At the end of Job’s faithful course under test, God constituted him a priest for his three companions who had contended with him, and God restored Job to his former status. He again had a fine family (evidently by the same wife) and double the wealth he had previously possessed. All his relatives and former associates returned to pay respect to him and to bring him gifts. (Job 42:7-15) He lived to see his sons and his grandsons to four generations.—Job 42:16.

w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
First, Jehovah reproved Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. Addressing Eliphaz, evidently the eldest, he said: “My anger has grown hot against you and your two companions, for you men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful as has my servant Job. And now take for yourselves seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job, and you men must offer up a burnt sacrifice in your own behalf; and Job my servant will himself pray for you.” (Job 42:7, 8) Think of what this implied!
Jehovah required a considerable sacrifice from Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, perhaps to impress upon them the gravity of their sin. Indeed, either wittingly or unwittingly, they had blasphemed God by saying that he ‘has no faith in his servants’ and that it did not really matter to him whether Job was faithful or not. Eliphaz even said that in God’s eyes Job was of no more value than a moth! (Job 4:18, 19; 22:2, 3) No wonder Jehovah said: “You men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful”!
But that is not all. Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar also sinned against Job personally by telling him that his problems were of his own making. Their baseless accusations and utter lack of empathy left Job embittered and depressed, causing him to cry out: “How long will you men keep irritating my soul and keep crushing me with words?” (Job 10:1; 19:2) Imagine the expressions of shame on the faces of these three men as they now had to present Job with an offering for their sins!
But Job was not to gloat over their humiliation. Indeed, Jehovah required that he pray in behalf of his accusers. Job did just as he was instructed, and for this he was blessed.

w95 2/15 pp. 27-28 A Lesson in How to Handle Problems
His three companions further disheartened Job by voicing personal ideas rather than godly wisdom. Eliphaz went so far as to say that ‘God has no faith in his servants’ and that it did not really matter to Jehovah whether Job was righteous or not. (Job 4:18; 22:2, 3) It is hard to imagine a more discouraging—or more untruthful—remark than that! Not surprisingly, Jehovah later rebuked Eliphaz and his companions for this blasphemy. “You men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful,” he said. (Job 42:7)

(JOB 42:8)
“Now take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job, and offer up a burnt sacrifice for yourselves. And my servant Job will pray for you. I will surely accept his request not to deal with you according to your foolishness, for you have not spoken the truth about me as my servant Job has.””

w13 6/15 p. 21 par. 17 Appreciate Jehovah’s Loyalty and Forgiveness
If we have been hurt by a fellow believer, what can help us? Consider Job. He was deeply hurt when his “friends”—Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar—hurled baseless accusations at him. (Job 10:1; 19:2) In the end, Jehovah reproved those false accusers. God directed them to go to Job and present an offering for their sins. (Job 42:7-9) But Jehovah also required that Job do something. What was it? Jehovah directed Job to pray in behalf of his former accusers. Job did as Jehovah asked, and Jehovah blessed him for his forgiving spirit. (Read Job 42:10, 12, 16, 17.) The lesson for us? A sincere prayer in behalf of someone who has offended us may help us to let go of resentment.

w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
First, Jehovah reproved Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. Addressing Eliphaz, evidently the eldest, he said: “My anger has grown hot against you and your two companions, for you men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful as has my servant Job. And now take for yourselves seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job, and you men must offer up a burnt sacrifice in your own behalf; and Job my servant will himself pray for you.” (Job 42:7, 8) Think of what this implied!
Jehovah required a considerable sacrifice from Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, perhaps to impress upon them the gravity of their sin. Indeed, either wittingly or unwittingly, they had blasphemed God by saying that he ‘has no faith in his servants’ and that it did not really matter to him whether Job was faithful or not. Eliphaz even said that in God’s eyes Job was of no more value than a moth! (Job 4:18, 19; 22:2, 3) No wonder Jehovah said: “You men have not spoken concerning me what is truthful”!
But that is not all. Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar also sinned against Job personally by telling him that his problems were of his own making. Their baseless accusations and utter lack of empathy left Job embittered and depressed, causing him to cry out: “How long will you men keep irritating my soul and keep crushing me with words?” (Job 10:1; 19:2) Imagine the expressions of shame on the faces of these three men as they now had to present Job with an offering for their sins!
But Job was not to gloat over their humiliation. Indeed, Jehovah required that he pray in behalf of his accusers. Job did just as he was instructed, and for this he was blessed.

w98 5/1 p. 31 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
Before Job was restored to a healthy state, Jehovah required that he pray in behalf of those who transgressed against him. What a fine example for us! Jehovah requires that we forgive those who sin against us before our own sins can be forgiven. (Matthew 6:12; Ephesians 4:32) If we are not willing to forgive others when there is sound basis for doing so, can we rightly expect Jehovah to be merciful to us?—Matthew 18:21-35.

w98 8/15 p. 30 Do You Remember?
What lesson can we learn from Jehovah’s requiring Job to pray for those who transgressed against him? (Job 42:8)
Before Job was restored to a healthy state, Jehovah required that he pray in behalf of those who had transgressed against him. This shows that Jehovah requires that we forgive those who sin against us before we can have our sins forgiven. (Matthew 6:12; Ephesians 4:32)—5/1, page 31.

(JOB 42:10)
“After Job had prayed for his companions, Jehovah removed Job’s tribulation and restored his prosperity. Jehovah gave him double what he had before.”

it-1 p. 413 Captive
In a sense Job, although no war casualty, was in a “captive condition” until Jehovah rescued him from his misery.—Job 42:10.

(JOB 42:11)
“All his brothers and sisters and all his former friends came to him and ate a meal with him in his house. They sympathized with him and comforted him over all the calamity that Jehovah had allowed to come upon him. Each of them gave him a piece of money and a gold ring.”

it-1 p. 935 Gifts, Presents
It may have been a practice in patriarchal times to give gifts to those who had suffered adversity. When Jehovah turned back the captive condition of Job, his brothers, sisters, and former acquaintances not only came to comfort him but each one gave him “a piece of money and each one a gold ring.”—Job 42:10, 11.

w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
First, Jehovah cured his dreaded disease. Then, Job’s brothers, sisters, and former associates came to comfort him, “and they proceeded each one to give him a piece of money and each one a gold ring.”

w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
The value of “a piece of money” (Hebrew, qesi•tahʹ) cannot be determined. But “a hundred pieces of money” bought a sizable tract of land in Jacob’s day. (Joshua 24:32) Therefore, “a piece of money” from each visitor was likely more than a token gift.

(JOB 42:12)
“So Jehovah blessed the last part of Job’s life more than the beginning, and Job came to have 14,000 sheep, 6,000 camels, 1,000 pairs of cattle, and 1,000 female donkeys.”

w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
Moreover, Job “came to have fourteen thousand sheep and six thousand camels and a thousand spans of cattle and a thousand she-asses.”

w98 5/1 p. 30 Job’s Integrity Is Rewarded
Likely, the gender of the asses is mentioned because of their value as breeders.

(JOB 42:14)
“He named the first daughter Je•miʹmah, the second Ke•ziʹah, and the third Kerʹen-hapʹpuch.”

it-1 p. 422 Cassia
CASSIA
[Heb., qid•dahʹ; qetsi•ʽahʹ].
Although two Hebrew words are used to refer to this plant in the Bible, the Syriac and Targum versions indicate that they apply to the same tree or a product of it. The cassia bark tree (Cinnamomum cassia) now grows in eastern Asia and is of the same family as the cinnamon tree. It may reach a height of 12 m (40 ft) and has glossy, stiff leaves. The inner bark of the branches (called cassia lignea), when cut, dries and peels off, rolling itself into tubes, which are then sent to market. The cassia bark is coarser and more pungent than cinnamon bark. The buds are used as cloves in preparing food dishes, and the mature flowers, when dried, serve as an aromatic incense.

it-1 p. 422 Cassia
The only other occurrence of this word is as the name of Job’s second daughter, Keziah, born after his recovery from illness.—Job 42:14.

it-1 p. 515 Cosmetics
When Jehu came to Jezreel, Jezebel, in addition to attending to her coiffure or doing her head up beautifully, “proceeded to paint her eyes with black paint.” (2Ki 9:30) At least some women in Israel, like those in other Middle Eastern lands of antiquity, used eye paint. (Eze 23:40) Eye paint was often black, which color would contrast with the white of the eye and tend to make the eyes look larger. (Jer 4:30) Scriptural references to eye painting do not associate the practice with faithful women of Israel in general, though one of Job’s daughters was named Keren-happuch, which possibly means “Horn of the Black (Eye) Paint [that is, a receptacle for makeup].”—Job 42:14.

it-2 pp. 146-147 Keren-happuch
KEREN-HAPPUCH
(Kerʹen-hapʹpuch) [possibly, Horn of the Black (Eye) Paint [that is, a receptacle for makeup]].
The third and youngest of the daughters born to Job after his great test and suffering had ended and Jehovah had blessed him. (Job 42:12-14) The name may be suggestive of beautiful eyes, or it may be indicative of her great beauty generally, as “no women were found as pretty as Job’s daughters in all the land.” (Job 42:15) The bluish-white metallic substance antimony produces a brilliant black color that was used by Oriental women of Biblical days to dye their eyelashes and perhaps their eyebrows, or it was used to color the edges of their eyelids, thus making the eyes appear large and lustrous.—See 2Ki 9:30; Jer 4:30.

it-2 p. 149 Keziah
KEZIAH
(Ke•ziʹah) [possibly, Cassia].
The second of the three daughters of Job born after his severe trial and subsequent restoration and blessing by Jehovah. (Job 42:14) The Hebrew word for “cassia” was used as a feminine name, likely because of the fragrance of cassia, and may have been given to this girl as an indication of her beauty.—Job 42:15.

w12 12/1 p. 24 The Use of Cosmetics in Bible Times
For the Eyes
In the Bible, one of Job’s daughters is named “Keren-happuch.” In Hebrew, this name could mean “Horn of the Black (Eye) Paint,” that is, a receptacle or box used to store makeup, perhaps kohl, or eye makeup. (Job 42:14) The name could have alluded to her beauty in general, but it also seems to suggest that the use of cosmetics was known at that time.

(JOB 42:15)
“No women in all the land were as beautiful as Job’s daughters, and their father gave them an inheritance along with their brothers.”

it-1 p. 1199 Inheritance
In the case of the patriarch Job, his daughters received an inheritance in among their brothers. It is not stated whether this included land inheritance.—Job 42:15.

(JOB 42:17)
“Finally Job died, after a long and satisfying life.”

it-1 p. 680 Edom
The Greek Septuagint contains an addition to Job 42:17 that would identify Job with Jobab, the Edomite king of Genesis 36:33. Job, however, was from the land of Uz, a name given originally to an Aramaean tribe and repeated in Aramaean Nahor’s lineage. (Job 1:1; compare Ge 10:23; 22:20, 21.) Lamentations 4:21 does speak of Edom as ‘dwelling in the land of Uz,’ but this text, written many centuries after the probable time of Job’s life, does not equate Uz with Edom, especially since, at Jeremiah 25:20, 21, “the kings of the land of Uz” are distinct from Edom. The text may rather indicate an extension of the Edomite domain.—See UZ No. 4.

BIBLE READING: (4 MIN. OR LESS) JOB 41:1-26


Job 41:1-26 New World Translation
41 “Can you catch Le•viʹa•than with a fishhook
Or hold down its tongue with a rope?
2 Can you put a rope through its nostrils
Or pierce its jaws with a hook?
3 Will it make many pleas to you,
Or will it speak gently to you?
4 Will it make a covenant with you,
So that you may make it your slave for life?
5 Will you play with it as with a bird
Or tie it on a leash for your little girls?
6 Will traders barter for it?
Will they divide it up among merchants?
7 Will you fill its hide with harpoons
Or its head with fishing spears?
8 Lay your hand on it;
You will remember the battle and never do it again!
9 Any hope of subduing it is futile.
The mere sight of it would overwhelm you.
10 No one dares to stir it up.
So who is it who can stand up to me?
11 Who has given me anything first that I should repay him?
Whatever is under the heavens is mine.
12 I will not be silent about its limbs,
About its mightiness and its well-formed body.
13 Who has removed its outer covering?
Who will enter its open jaws?
14 Who can pry open the doors of its mouth?
Its teeth all around are fearsome.
15 Its back has rows of scales
Tightly sealed together.
16 Each one fits so closely to the other
That no air can come between them.
17 They are stuck to one another;
They cling together and cannot be separated.
18 Its snorting flashes out light,
And its eyes are like the rays of dawn.
19 Flashes of lightning go out of its mouth;
Fiery sparks escape.
20 Smoke pours out of its nostrils,
Like a furnace fueled with rushes.
21 Its breath sets coals ablaze,
And a flame shoots from its mouth.
22 There is great strength in its neck,
And dismay runs before it.
23 The folds of its flesh are tightly joined together;
They are firm, as though cast upon it and immovable.
24 Its heart is hard as stone,
Yes, hard as a lower millstone.
25 When it rises up, even the mighty are frightened;
Its thrashing causes bewilderment.
26 No sword that reaches it will prevail;
Nor will spear, dart, or arrowhead.

APPLY YOURSELF TO THE FIELD MINISTRY


Prepare This Month’s Presentations: (15 min.)

Discussion. Play each sample presentation video, and then discuss the highlights. Briefly refer to “Ways to Use JW Library” when discussing the use of a mobile device. Remind the audience to report each month the number of times they showed a video in the ministry. Encourage publishers to build their own presentation.


Ways to Use JW Library
FOR STUDY:
• Read the Bible and the daily text
• Read the Yearbook, magazines, and other publications. Use the bookmark feature
• Prepare for congregation meetings, and highlight the answers
• Watch videos
AT MEETINGS:
• Look up scriptures referred to by the speaker. Use the history feature to return to a scripture
• Instead of bringing multiple printed publications to the meeting, use your device to follow the various parts and to sing the songs. JW Library has the new songs that are not yet in the printed songbook
IN THE MINISTRY:
• Show an interested person something from JW Library, and then help him download the app and publications to his own device
• Use the search feature to locate a Bible verse. If a phrase does not appear in the revised New World Translation, switch to the Reference Bible and search again
• Show a video. If the householder has children, you can play one of the Become Jehovah’s Friend videos. Or you can show the video Why Study the Bible? to stimulate interest in a Bible study. If someone speaks another language, show a video in his language
• Show someone a scripture in another language, using a translation that you previously downloaded. Go to the scripture, tap the verse number, and then tap the parallel rendering icon

LIVING AS CHRISTIANS


“Are You Using JW Library?”: (15 min.)

Begin with a five-minute discussion of the article. Then play and briefly discuss the video Start Using “JW Library.” Afterward, do the same with the videos Download and Manage Publications and Customize the Reading Experience. Encourage all who can to install the JW Library app and download publications to their mobile device before the part “Ways to Use JW Library” is discussed during the week of May 16.


Are You Using JW Library?
JW Library is a free app (software application) that will allow you to download the Bible and other publications, videos, and audio programs to your phone, tablet, or computer.
HOW TO GET IT: Go online, and install JW Library from an app store. The app is available for various devices. While online, open the app and choose the items you wish to download to your device. If you cannot get online at home, perhaps you can do so at the Kingdom Hall, a public library, or a nearby coffee shop. Once publications are downloaded to your device, you do not need to connect to the Internet to access them. Because new features are regularly added to JW Library, you should go online from time to time and install app updates when they are available.
WHY GET IT? JW Library makes it very convenient to do personal study and follow along during congregation meetings. It is also useful for the ministry, especially when witnessing informally.

CONGREGATION BIBLE STUDY: (30 MIN.) IA CHAP. 14 ¶14-22 AND THE CHAPTER REVIEW


CHAPTER FOURTEEN
He Learned a Lesson in Mercy


par. 14 (Jonah 4:1) But this was highly displeasing to Jo′nah, and he became hot with anger.
par. 14 (Jonah 4:2, 3) So he prayed to Jehovah: “Ah, now, Jehovah, was this not my concern when I was in my own land? That is why I tried to flee to Tar′shish in the first place; for I knew that you are a compassionate and merciful God, slow to anger and abundant in loyal love, one who feels grieved over calamity. 3 Now, O Jehovah, please take away my life, for it is better for me to die than to live.”
par. 15 (Jonah 4:4) Jehovah asked: “Is it right for you to be so angry?”
par. 18 (Jonah 4:6-8) Jehovah God then provided a bottle-gourd plant to grow up over Jo′nah, to give him shade for his head and to relieve his misery. And Jo′nah was very pleased with the bottle-gourd plant. 7 But the true God sent a worm at the break of dawn on the next day, and it attacked the bottle-gourd plant, and it withered. 8 When the sun began to shine, God also sent a scorching east wind, and the sun beat down on Jo′nah’s head, and he grew faint. He kept asking to die, and he kept saying, “It is better for me to die than to live.”
par. 19 (Jonah 4:9) God asked Jo′nah: “Is it right for you to be so angry over the bottle-gourd plant?” At that he said: “I have a right to be angry, so angry that I want to die.”
par. 20 (Jonah 4:10, 11) But Jehovah said: “You felt sorry for the bottle-gourd plant, which you did not work for, nor did you make it grow; it grew in one night and perished in one night. 11 Should I not also feel sorry for Nin′e•veh the great city, in which there are more than 120,000 men who do not even know right from wrong, as well as their many animals?”
par. 22 (Matt. 5:7) “Happy are the merciful, since they will be shown mercy.

par. 20 God’s saying that those people did not know right from left suggested their childlike ignorance of divine standards.

TO THINK ABOUT . . .

• How did Jonah show faith and courage as he preached in Nineveh?
• What can we learn from the Ninevites’ repentance?
• What can we learn from Jonah’s attitude toward the repentance of the Ninevites?
• In what ways would you like to imitate the faith of Jonah when you receive corrective counsel?

Review Followed by Preview of Next Week (3 min.)


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