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Who was Capra, Frank | Biography

Biografías de personajes históricos y personalidades



Capra, Frank (1897-1991)


Director of American cinema, born in Palermo (Italy) on May 18, 1897, and died in Hollywood on September 3, 1991.

Life


With just a few years, his family emigrated to the United States, specifically Los Angeles, a city would have to work to get ahead. He held various offices which not only brought money home, but also allowed him to pay for his studies of crafts and then the engineer, who performed at the California Institute of Technology.

Your entry and ascension in the film world came very soon. In the twenties took his first steps as a writer of "gags" to Mack Sennett and soon managed to direct two films that were well received, it was Cannon (1926) and his first Pants (1927) man. Signed by Columbia, which in those years was a modest study, Capra began an upward career, always skillfully addressing current issues, allowing you to connect with the situation of a company that was going to go through times of great difficulty.

At the start of the Great Depression, Capra was established as the quintessential representative of a new morality, a new way of understanding life as an expression in film attempts by President Roosevelt to give back to America "joie de vivre" and faith in the virtues of work, sincerity and innocence. The Italian-American manager always demonstrated a great ability to capture people's behaviors, and that philosophy casticismos man of the people, who for some years was established in an attempt to be certain brand of American society.

The win came with Happened One Night, delicious and smart comedy that would put you in the way of the Oscar, distancing environments ton for which he had traveled before.

With Lost Horizon develops an abstract tale, which seems to move away from his usual way of making films, but in the background is just been shaped, yes, a little more philosophical, their way of understanding life and applied to serve aforementioned policy Roosevelt. It is based on a novel by James Hilton, was a work which provided an excellent opportunity in the hands of a good writer, to express belief in the possibility of existence of a happier and just world. The utopian kingdom of Shangri-La, located in remote valleys of the Himalayas in a monastery of lamas strangers was as the embodiment of an ideal that is known in history as the "New Deal". However, the film suffered many ups and downs and was more estimable from a theoretical perspective as fully achieved cinematographic work.

However, in 1938 Capra regained a pulse adaptation of a play You Can not Take It with You. His vision of film director allowed him to delve into the psychology of the characters and their ideologies. An individual who lives only to hoard wealth is opposed to a picturesque family, which basically is more natural and human than his behavior might believe. Eventually the selfish end up being captured by the family that will eventually interpret tracks playing harmonica.

Mr. Smith poses a broader scenario. This is not to show the small, everyday "American hero" in the big city, but to capture the world of national policy dimensions that starts in the very capital of State in Washington. There will come a type, Boy Scout leader and owner of a pet store, which is elected to the Senate, precisely because of their ingenuity and natural goodness.

To some extent this treatment was a qualitative leap, because although Capra had always said interest in the poor, women and, in short, ordinary people, their specific political position was often tinged with a certain ambiguity. Their beliefs, there is no denying it, were quite simplistic and not very deep, but the image that gave the United States as a country where small groups helped each other was attractive and rewarding.

But all that idealism, that people skills, went for face to face with history walking in another direction, as World War II was already knocking on doors and that was something that Capra accused. Thus appears in 1941 John Doe. This time the man in the street, the ordinary individual, is manipulated by economic and political interests above. Realizing this, the protagonist calls nothing less than suicide. The result did not convince almost anyone.

After this work Capra was dedicated to documentaries war propaganda (especially the series Why do we fight?), Focusing on the world of aviation but not only- and thereby contributing to global conflict.

An event of such features left him unscathed and, returning to normal life, made one of his most famous works Wonderful Life !, where suicide becomes fluttered by the argument. And even need divine intervention. It was a demonstration of the inclination of the head by a deep, intimate America, whose supposed values were dying out or change.

By the late forties Capra company was acquired by Paramount and since then his work was under heavy fetters: he went on to develop a work of director weak romantic comedies. What led him to leave work for a period of eight years.

With the settlement of color and Cinemascope he returned to his activity. Stresses the realization of a gangster for a miracle, one of his last works where the pulse regained their old productions.

Capra was one of the filmmakers who lived changes and technological developments in the film that was decisive in its development as an industry, media and art: the transition from silent to sound, color. Circumstances all of which have shaken many of the professionals who had even acquired a solid reputation. It was not his case and knew extricating himself from the difficulties that this entailed, won prestige and fame.

But what matters in this author's ability to develop his own style, far from strident and wisps. Capra's films flows naturally, we would say that almost a daily basis, ensuring that his characters are traceable, understandable beings. Not sure I ever got. There was in him-which has not been sufficiently destacada- a surreal touch that served to justify the actions of many of its protagonists. It is the apparent contradiction that the individual almost vulgar clothes, timid attitudes, if not bizarre, could prevail in a harsh world where evil had just nearly fell down and captured by the love and goodness of their heroes.

The film Capra entertained and made her laugh, but who came out to see his films, or rather those who were directed, then plunged into a hard life, poverty and difficulties where angels did not have to save or advise anyone . They were hard times, violent, against the director fought, plunging into a universe that coated everyday in the end had a few things that were fictitious.

Capra's characters have a lot of archetypes. On the one hand they are heroes of survival, with ability to find happiness in the most trying situations also absurd-and artificially isolating themselves from reality; on the other, is the full character, willing to sacrifice his life as an example of broken promises.

Actually Capra film presents equally the world as it is and would like to manage whatever. In the background does not give a Christian interpretation of life in which the miracle is something that exists. Capra largely refused to accept reality as it was and believed that traditional values were sufficient to achieve happiness of the people and society.

Bibliography


CAPRA, Frank: The name above the tittle. An autobiography. New York. Da Capo Press. 1997.
CARNEY, Raymond: American vision. The films of Frank Capra. Cambridge. University Press. 1986.
CIEUTAT, Michel: Frank Capra. Paris. Rivages. 1988.
Maland, Charles J .: Frank Capra. Boston. Twayne Publishers. 1980.
McBRIDE, Joseph: Frank Capra. The catastrophe of success. London-Boston. Faber and Faber. 1992.
VIVIANI, Christian: Frank Capra. Paris. Editions des quatre-vents. 1988.
WILLIS, Donald C .: Frank Capra. Madrid. Ediciones JC. 1988.
WOLFE, Charles: Frank Capra, a guide to references and resources. Boston. G. K. Hall & Co. 1987.

Universal DVD Encyclopedia © Micronet SA 1995-2006
Translated for educational purposes.

Who was Capote, Truman | Biography

Biografías de personajes históricos y personalidades



Capote, Truman (1924-1984)


American writer, born in New Orleans on September 30, 1924 and died in Los Angeles on August 15, 1984, whose production has established himself as one of the leaders of the neo-romantic South School. His real name was Truman Strekfas Persons, but is best known internationally for his literary pseudonym, Truman Capote.

Child of divorced parents, Capote had to be educated by other relatives and spent most of his childhood in Alabama accompanied by four elderly. Even as a child he began to collect written descriptions of everything around him. He studied at Trinity School and St. John's Academy in New York. At 17, he published for the first time, one of his short stories. After holding various jobs, which included the dancer on a riverboat and radio scripts broker, entered in The New Yorker for a position in their offices.

He had managed to publish in newspapers, when at age 19 he won the O. Henry Prize with a story entitled "Miriam". In 1943 he entered the world of the novel Summer crossing, which was not published until 2005; Capote always had hidden in a drawer because he considered mediocre. He became famous after the publication in 1948 of the novel Other voices, other rooms (Other Voices, Other, 1970), written at twenty-three and unquestionable autobiographical aspect; is one of the first novels that openly describes male homosexuality. We followed the Observations (1949) and Local color (1950) tests, and in 1951 comedy The grass harp (The Grass Harp, 1980), along with the collection of stories published in 1949 under the title of nihgt Tree (Tree night, 2000), which included the story "Miriam".

In these early works Truman Capote and showed as a skillful storyteller able to fuse the grotesque and fantastic humor and horror. Capote's articles published in prestigious journals such as The New Yorker, Story, Vogue and Theater Arts, dazzled by achenes years between the New York intelligentsia. Increasingly linked to the film world in 1954 collaborated in the scenery of the film Beat the Devil. That same year would be severely affected for ever after the suicide of her mother, unable to cope with its economic problems; Capote wrote in a letter to a friend: "He should not have died I had money..."

In 1956 he published The Duke in His Domain (The Duke in his domain), which depicts the figure of actor Marlon Brando, including his alleged homosexual and his mother's alcoholism meetings, which earned him a lawsuit for slander; Capote had met the actor during his stay in Kiota, accompanied by Cecil Beaton, during the filming of the movie Sayonara (1957).

In 1954 he published The Muses are Heard (The Muses are heard), a book with little impact but Capote considered one of his best works. This is a compilation of articles previously published in The New Yorker, describing the adventures of an American theater company in the USSR. Five years later came to bookstores one of their biggest hits, the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's (Breakfast at Tiffany, 1958), can be considered a parenthesis within its baroque, hallucinated and blending of fact and fiction style; Breakfast at Tiffany was filmed with great success by Blake Edwards in 1961, which created one of the most delightful comedies in film history, with Audrey Hepburn in the role of crazy young protagonist.

Opened in 1966 Capote In Cold Blood (In Cold Blood, 1972), a new narrative genre, the novel-document, or "nonfiction novel". Journalistic style, the novel is a faithful account of the multiple murder of the Clutter family and the lives of murderers, while a deep study of American society during those years. The idea for the book came on November 16, 1959, when Capote read in The New York Times about the murder of Cutter and decided to investigate the case, interviewing neighbors of the characters and even the murderers themselves, work that is it lasted for six years. The book made him one of the most popular and successful authors of his country; the most prominent entertainment personalities and finance attended the launch party for the novel, held at the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan and considered by many to be the party of the decade. In Cold Blood was also made into a film, this time by Richard Brooks in 1967.

In the production of Truman Capote these, always repulsive and evil for the puritanical American society sanctimonious sexual ghosts appear frequently. In 1980 he published Music for Chameleons (Music for Chamäleons), a work that is placed between the narrative, the story and the story. In this work the author was defined with these words: "I'm an alcoholic drug addict I am I'm gay I'm a genius....".

Other works include: The guest's Day Thanksgiving (1969), the script for the musical House of Flowers (1954) and Answered Prayers (Answered prayers), novel that was working at the time of his death and which was published posthumously. As for his relationship with the film, he also wrote screenplays for John Huston and Italian director Vittorio De Sica.

Eternal persecutor of the "perfect work, Capote never managed to win the Pulitzer and the National Book Award and but was twice awarded the O. Henry Prize Stories and was a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters.

In 2004, Random House published The complete stories of Truman Capote, a compilation of all stories written by Capote included one unpublished: "The Bargain". In 2005 Garald Clarke, the "official biographer" Capote edited a volume of over seven hundred pages that meets the author's letters: Too brief a treat (A fleeting pleasure, 2006). Also in 2005 was released in the US the film Capote, which again raised enormous interest by the author of New Orleans; what is rounded out with the appearance of a fleeting pleasure, a book in which his complete correspondence is collected.

Universal DVD Encyclopedia © Micronet SA 1995-2006
Translated for educational purposes.

Who was Capone, Al | Biography

Biografías de personajes históricos y personalidades

Capone, Al (1899-1947)


Italian-American Mafia. Born in Naples in a humble Italian family, but his father, a barber profession, decided to seek opportunities to thrive in the United States when he was still a child moved to New York.

His "career" began as a bodyguard for a union. But in 1919, Johnny Torrio, a gangster whose main source of income was prostitution and illegal gambling, so hired in Chicago as guardaespaldas.En 1920, with the establishment of Prohibition, Torrio is associated with Capone for smuggling beverages alcoholic, what immediately came to provide more than two million profit a year. These benefits, in addition, he grew his power and control over the underworld and organized underworld meant. But they were not the only ones who were dedicated to smuggle alcohol in Chicago, but also made them Oóbanion Dion competition, Genna and Bugs Moran brothers.

In 1924 they shot dead Oóbanion a florist, thus starting the war between gangs, gangsters in which 135 died. Torrio retired and left the field open to Capone, who brought all the bands in 1926. But two of them, Aiello and Bugs, refused to cooperate with others. They tried several times unsuccessfully to assassinate Capone. All members of the band Aiello died one by one. Five band Moran died in his garage Valentine's Day 1929 at the hands of Capone, disguised as policemen.

About that time, Capone was sentenced to one year in prison, accused of carrying weapons. In 1931, the FBI, got jail for tax evasion until 1939, and from there continued to run their businesses. On January 25, 1947 he died of a stroke at the age of 48 years in Miami.

Universal DVD Encyclopedia © Micronet SA 1995-2006
Translated for educational purposes.

Who was Camus, Albert | Biography

Biografías de personajes históricos y personalidades



French writer, born in Mondovi (Algeria) on November 7, 1913 and died in Villeblerin (Yonne, France) January 4, 1960. He was one of the main representatives of existentialism. It is one of the leading voices of French literature of the mid-twentieth century. With his novels, essays and plays reached universal fame, especially after being awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957.

Life


Mondovi (now called Drean) was a city of Algeria where he lived his family, who was French (at that time, Algeria belonged to France). At home there was not much money, so his parents had to make great sacrifices so that he could study at the University of Algiers. But soon he left college because of a serious illness (tuberculosis).

It was, as a child, a great lover of literature and theater. He founded a theater company that was touring the slums and places where there were workers, offering representation for the working class.

Then he found work as a journalist and, for work, began to travel frequently to Europe. During these trips was updating the fashions and the latest literary tastes.

He became known as a writer shortly before World War II, with the publication of a book entitled Weddings (1939). It collected his major articles on literature and travel. He gained fame as a columnist and reporter (specialties of journalism), and in 1940, he went to France, where he was hired as editor of Paris-Soir newspaper.

Soon after, during the invasion of France by the German army, defended his country as a member of the Resistance. Among other activities, Camus edited the magazine Combat, which was distributed among the members of the Resistance.

During World War II, Camus had published a novel that would bring fame worldwide: Alien (1942). Just after the armed struggle, also had great success as a playwright, while published other novels that was put at the head of the existentialist writers.

All these works earned him the Nobel Prize in 1957. Three years later, while driving in the municipality of Villeblerin, had an accident in which he lost his life.

Work


Albert Camus represents the culmination of existentialism in narrative fiction. In his narrative is perfectly reflect all the anxieties and fears of man the mid-twentieth century, terrified after a tragedy of proportions of the Second World War.

His most original feature within this common thought, is the praise of some qualities of being human. Camus sees something positive in man: its ability to overcome the disaster with dignity, and their need to share their joys and fears with other men. Thus Camus novels, written in a direct, dry and vigorous style, have hope and human solidarity as a solution to the absurd.

In The Stranger (1942), set in Algeria, like many works written after Camus, displayed its first thoughts on existentialism. But his masterpiece is The Plague (1947), in which more intensely appreciated your idea about how absurd can become human life. Camus a tragic situation, the terrible effects of an epidemic of plague in Oran (Algeria) is invented to present the different human responses to the disaster, misfortune and death.

He also wrote other stories like The Fall (1956); a collection of short stories entitled Exile and the Kingdom (1957); youth novel A happy death, which was not published until 1971; and the first man who could not finish.

His most famous plays are trying existentialist themes (like his novels) and Misunderstanding (1944), The State of Siege (1948) and Fair (1950). Caligula, written in 1938 but not shown until 1945, is his masterpiece in the theatrical genre, and one of the most representative pieces of existentialist theater.

Many of the existentialist ideas that Camus presents in his novels and plays were also reflected in his writings of thought and reflection (or trials). For example, The Myth of Sisyphus (1942) is an essay on suicide, and The Rebel (1951) served as the starting point for his novel The Fall.

Camus collected many of his articles in books like Current (published in three volumes: 1950, 1953 and 1958) and Summer (1954).


Universal DVD Encyclopedia © Micronet SA 1995-2006
Translated for educational purposes.

Who was Calvin, John | Biography

Biografías de personajes históricos y personalidades

Calvin, John (1509-1564).


Theologian and French Protestant reformer, born 10 July 1509 in Noyon (Picardy) and died in Geneva on May 27, 1564, which is considered the largest of the Protestant theologians, and the second most important reformer after Lutero. Its institutions have remained, as he wrote them, as norm of Orthodox Protestantism of all the so-called "Reformed" Churches (see Calvinism).

Life


Member of a family of French middle class, Calvin - name derived from its original French Cauvin, Latinized Calvinus- was the son of a lawyer, who had bought the license in the town of Noyon, where was the practice of civil and Canon law. Unlike Luther, Calvin or was ordered priest in the Catholic Church, nor issued religious vows. In the middle of a Catholic environment, his mother strove to introduce the child to Catholic devotions. In his private life was strong and quiet, simple habits, unconcerned of the riches and delivered to work tirelessly character. He received his first training in schools of la Marche and Montaigne, dependent of the University of Paris. In this city he graduated in arts in 1528. At the insistence of his father, followed the career of law in the universities of Orléans and Bourges, in 1532. His father died, he returned to Paris to devote itself fully to the humanities, result of which was his commentary on De clementia, of Seneca. Already by then he had learned Greek and Hebrew, attracted as it was by the study of the Bible. In Paris he came into contact with of Erasmus of Rotterdam and supporters of reform, such as Le Fevre d´Etaples (Estapulenses), famous for his translation of the Bible into French; Lacorderius, guardian, man of austere life and excellent command of latin; Jorge Cop, doctor of King Francis I, but also a friend of the current religious issues. Beside these teachers became a humanist and a reformer.

After a religious experience, which believed to have received a mission from God to restore the Church to its pristine purity, broke with the Catholic Church (1533) and channeled his life in the work of reform, for which he came in contact with the reformers of Germany and Switzerland. Calvin adopted the broad themes of Lutheran theology - the Bible as the only rule in matters of faith and morals; radical corruption of man after original sin; Salvation result solely and exclusively provided by grace-faith, but developed them independently.

In 1534, Francisco I, triggered a persecution against the reformers, irritated by the emergence of irreverent leaflets against the mass. Feeling threatened, Calvin fled to Switzerland, settling in Basel. During his peaceful stay in this city, he soaked in the study of the Bible and the writings of Luther and Zwingli. Also took time to write his most important work: Christianae Religionis Institutio ('institution of Religion Christian'), short compendium of doctrine Evangelical, as he understood it, published in 1536. This first edition was preceded by a dedication to King Francisco I, in defense of the French Protestants. The text of the Institutio was expanding it in successive editions, and he himself translated it into French in 1541. The definitive edition was made by the author between 1559 and 1560, when already had become a vast treatise of dogmatic, distributed in four volumes and 80 chapters. It exposes its doctrine organic and systematically, in such a way that it forms the basis of the thought and the Calvinist praxis. The text appeared, moreover, at a time in which the expansion of the reformist ideas and Lutheranism were losing dynamism, and in danger of dividing. Calvin with his work, believers, confused and bewildered by a reformed but too intellectualized and disorderly, religion offered a clear, logical, simple and accessible to all doctrine. It said: "is more God's work than mine".

In 1536, Calvin began a journey to Strasbourg, but invited by Guillaume Farel, agreed to stay in Geneva, to help you bring order to that Church had adopted the reformation of Luther. Appointed preacher and pastor of the community of Geneva, contributed to the drafting of the "Articles concernant l'Organisation de l' église", presented to the City Council in 1537. In them, he insisted on the need for an ordering of the community and a church discipline for the worthy celebration of the supper. Then, published a catechism in French, which exposed the foundations of Christian doctrine, and to which was added a "confession of faith", that "they must follow and maintain all citizens and inhabitants of Geneva, and that all nationals of the territory must be bound under oath". Who refused to swear, would lose their citizenship rights, and should leave the city. They were not well received instructions through much of the city, by which, in 1538, when the people chose to lay rectors of the city to the opponents of Calvin, they imposed new uses Catholic, rejecting the rules established by the reformer. Calvin was forced to leave the city, taking advantage of to end his trip to Strasbourg, started years ago. In this city, where he remained until 1541, he married Idelette de Bure, a converted theirs, which had a son, who died in 1542, shortly after birth. There he wrote his commentary on the letter to the Romans , and matured his theological system and your organization, Church, much more strict and rigid than the Organization of Luther. From Strasbourg he got in touch with reformation of Germany, especially with Melanchthon (1497-1560), whom he knew personally, did not with Luther, with whom he was linked only by correspondence.

Organization of the Church of Geneva


In 1541, the invaluable begged him to come back to his hometown, invitation only Calvin accepted once the city pledged to accept the "ecclesiastical ordinances of the Church of Geneva". It remained there the rest of his life, only leaving for trips of promotion of reform by different countries of Europe. In 1542, published the Geneva catechism, in the form of questions and answers, stating the following order: faith, law, prayer and sacraments. With confidence given to it by the invaluable, dedicated to organizing the cult and to structure the new Church, encompassing all aspects of social life. The new community comprised four occupations: shepherds (or preachers), doctors, priests, and deacons. The shepherds had the mission to preach and administer the sacraments; the doctors gave Scripture lessons and prepared the new parish priests; the priests and elders were monitoring the conduct of members of the community; Finally, the deacons dealt with social assistance to poor and sick. Over the ministries was Calvin, who possessed the personal charisma of the Prophet and reformer. To regulate the life of the invaluable and ensure discipline to the interior of the Church, was established a consistory (something like the Catholic Inquisition), integrated by a group of pastors and delegates of the Government. The characteristic note of the ecclesial organization of Calvin was the rigor and fundamentalism. Is censored and banned secular readings and watched the sacred; be controlled life and the study of young people, who were not allowed to fun, or dance, or other holidays and songs which were not religious. Everything was monopolized by catechesis, religious services and by the word of God.

In November 1552, the Council declared Calvin institutions provided "doctrine to which nobody should contradict". In addition, did not fit doubt, nor nor critical disobedience which put in danger the dogmatic solidity or discipline. In this way the religious intolerance of Calvin, was installed as standard to those who do not profess their ideas. The State promulgating dogmatic decrees, with freedom to prosecute, banish and execute those who dared contradict them. Typical cases of this persecution were banishment from Castiello, the punishments inflicted on Bolsec - moderate who dissented from the points of view radical in discipline and doctrine, and the execution of the Spanish doctor Miguel Servet, condemned to the stake for heresy, October 27, 1553. In five years there were in Geneva 58 death sentences and exile, as well as numerous imprisonments 77 to relevant people. In the same way, in 1555 was suffocated the rebellion attempt led by the Perrin family - which always expressed its opposition to the leadership of Calvin in the city - thus reaffirming is this power. Repression and punishment helped consolidate the comprehensive power of Calvin, power that remained until his death, becoming a ciudad-iglesia, in the new Rome, the ideal of the new Jerusalem to Geneva.

Although it received House and salary of the Government, had no official position and not became a citizen of Geneva until 1559. This year he founded the Academy of Geneva, (which later became the University of Geneva) for theological training of pastors, which played a role in the cosmopolitan aspect of the city. The Academy was the main focus of study and propaganda of its doctrine.

During the time that was in front of the Church in Geneva, Calvin worked for the improvement of the lives of the inhabitants of the city in many ways: it supported the creation of hospitals, promoted the sewer, the protection of the upper floors railings, special attention to the poor and sick, and the introduction of new industries. In addition, it encouraged the use of French in the churches, thus confirming the important personal contribution in the formation of the French as a modern language.

Affected by a precarious health, suffered in the last years of his life from asthma chronic and colds. In 1558 he was affected by a violent attack's quartan fever. Died on May 27, 1564, he was buried in Geneva, in an anonymous grave. Then their ideas were already seated in Geneva, and had already spread its doctrine by Germany (Gaspar Olevianus), the Netherlands (Philip Marnix of St. Aldegonde), Scotland (John Knox), the same as in Poland, Hungary and Transylvania. Calvin himself had contributed in the formation of communities in these countries through its extensive epistolary communication.

His writings


The most lasting contribution of Calvin to the Church has been, without doubt, his literary production, which was very extensive, comprising letters, sermons, theological treatises and opinions despite the precision that characterizes the author. His letters, some 4.270, are collected in two large volumes; among them is his carta-respuesta Cardinal Sadolecero, one of the most brilliant works written on the reform. . Its treated theological treated fundamentally the Eucharist, relics and predestination (1552). Of their Sermones, taquigraficamente taken from 1549, barely one-fourth is preserved. Reviews many of the books of the Bible make Calvin in one of the greatest commentators of the biblical text. Unlike Luther, for whom the return to the sources was fundamentally return to the Gospel, and of Zwingli - which advocated the return to the original revelation granted to pagans and Christians, for Calvin the return to the origins was the return to the old testament, so that will be the concepts of this which will prevail in his work.

What really explains the influence and success of the teachings of Calvin was the consistency of its doctrine and order and clarity with which exposes her in his writings. If it provided Luther great popularity the power of his eloquence, his sense of humor, and even the vulgarity of his style, Calvin differentiated culture that displayed at all times, even when he addressed the crowds. He wrote in French with the same correction that Lutero did in German. Little sense of humor, he ever wore a classic style; instead of fustigar with a rod, he fustigaba with his overwhelming logic, and persuaded with the authority of the master, and not with the insults of a demagogue. What Luther had Mystic, Calvin had it from scholastic. With that clarity of mind he imposed order on the principles that Lutero threw in a stormy way in his vehement tirades. Elegance and austerity, the French disciples Calvinist movement called "religion", name that characterizes him outside the scope of the Catholic Church.

The philosophical thinking


The examination of important doctrinal Calvin production allows the constant presence of a budget of philosophical nature that determines and explains all his thought: the concept of absolute sovereignty of God, the reformer magnifying a omniabsorbente and irredeemable reality, and that summed up in its slogan "Omnia ad Dei gloriam "".

This perspective is explained the nature of this knowledge, conditioned by the a priori ideas that Dios has instilled in all men; understand also apply to God as the source of all truth, which the man, after the original sin, not have been more than some debris. Also, this principle follows the doctrine of the "servo arbitrio", whereby the actual beginning of human actions is located in the Divine Providence, which relies on man as an instrument, being this coerced internally by the will to divine; a metaphysics that is unfavorable to the man, in contradiction with that enthusiasm is humanist that Calvin had demonstrated during the period of their training. The recognition of the sovereignty of God is also projected in the field of social life: political life will be the field of Christian sanctification; the work becomes a religious vocation which materialize in the world the designs of God; the State is understood as an external environment of salvation, in the sense that should guarantee peaceful coexistence, combat the idolatry and advocating the recognition of the true religion. Why Christians should participate in social life and to obey the authorities, unless they do not abide by the word of God, in which case it is licit, even armed resistance.

Translated for educational purposes.


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