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Biographies of famous people with date: 6 September | Biographies of anniversary

Biographies of historical figures and personalities

Note: This translation is provided for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.

Biographies of famous people in history and celebrity


1. Andrea Camilleri
2. John Dalton
3. Giovanni Fattori
4. Akira Kurosawa
5. Go Nagai
6. Dolores O'Riordan
7. Luciano Pavarotti
8. Sully Prudhomme
9. Suleyman the magnificent
10. Roger Waters

Note: this translation is presented for educational purposes only. Any translation of this web site may be inaccurate and imprecise.

Biography of Andrea Camilleri

The invention of the language
September 6, 1925

Who is Andrea Camilleri?

Born in Porto Empedocle (Agrigento), Andrea Camilleri September 6, 1925 has lived for years in Rome.

Just awarded the baccalaureate and not yet 18 witnesses the landing of the allies in his native Sicily indicated a deep impression. He attended the Academy of dramatic art (in which afterwards will teach directing Institutions) and from 1949 he worked as Director, author and screenwriter, both for television (his famous crime reductions as "Lieutenant Sheridan" and "Maigret") and for the theatre (specifically with works of Pirandello and Beckett).

Strong of this extraordinary experience, he then put his pen at the service of non-fiction, in which field he donated some of the writings and reflections around the topic show.

Over the years has added to these main tasks the most exquisitely creative writer. His debut in this field for the first world war; If the commitment to writing novels is bland, over time it is definitely more intense up to dedicate exclusive attention from when, arising on grounds of age, leaves the job in showbiz. A series of short stories and poems will be worth the Saint Vincent prize.

The success, however, came with the invention of the character of Inspector Montalbano, the main character of the novels that never leave the environments and the Sicilian atmosphere and make no concession to commercial reasons or to a easier to read. In fact, after the "course of things" (1978), passed almost unnoticed in 1980, "a wisp of smoke", the first in a series of novels set in the fictional town of Vigata, straddling the end of 800 and the beginning of ' 900. In all these novels Camilleri shows not only an extraordinary inventiveness, but manages to drop his characters in an environment totally invented and realistic at the same time, creating from scratch a new language, a new "language" (derived from the Sicilian dialect), making it a new G.

The universal affirmation in 1994 only explodes with the appearance of "the hunting season", followed in 1995 "the Brewer of Preston", "granting the phone" and "La mossa del cavallo" (1999).

The television, which he attended in his youth Camilleri prodigandovi great energy, has greatly contributed to the spread of the phenomenon of Sicilian writer, thanks to series dedicated to Mr Salvo Montalbano (played by a Masterful Luca Zingaretti).

A curiosity: his novels of the Sicilian scene were born from personal studies about the history of the island.

John Dalton biography

Stunning colors
September 6, 1766
July 27, 1844

Who is John Dalton?

John Dalton was born on 6 September 1766 at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, England, to a Quaker family. His childhood and adolescence are influenced by thoughts of Meteorologist Elihu Robinson, a prominent Quaker of his city, which he does excite the problems of meteorology and mathematics. Studying in Kendal, John helps to resolve questions and issues on various themes of "Gentlemen's and ladies ' diaries", and in 1787 he began to keep a weather diary (which will, for the next 57 years, with over 200,000 observations). At this time approaching the so-called "Hadley cell", i.e. George Hadley's theory concerning the atmospheric circulation.

Around twenty years of age takes into consideration the idea to study medicine or law, but its projects do not meet the support of parents: so, stays at home until, in 1793, doesn't move in Manchester. In that year he published "Meteorological observations and essays" (meteorological observations and essays), where there are the seeds of many of his later discoveries: the Treaty, however, receives little attention from academics, despite the originality of content.

John Dalton was appointed teacher of natural philosophy and mathematics at New College, thanks to the intervention of the blind philosopher John Gough and, in 1794, he was elected a member of the literary and philosophical society of Manchester ", the" Lit & Phil "; shortly after writes "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours" (extraordinary Facts relating to the vision of colours), in which he argues that poor colour perception depends on fluid discoloration of the eyeball; Moreover, since both he and his brother colorblind, claims that that condition is hereditary.

Although his theory loses scientific credibility in the following years, its importance-even from the point of view of research method in the study of vision problems is recognized to the extent that the disorder gets its name from him: color blindness. In fact, John Dalton is not color blind, but suffers from deuteroanopia, a disorder for which he is able to recognize, in addition to Fuchsia and blue, only the yellow, that is what he calls "the part of the image that others call it red, and that to me seems little more than a shadow. For this reason, the Orange, yellow and green seem to me to be a single color, resulting in a uniform from yellow, more or less intense ".

Maintains the role of teacher in college until 1800, when the precarious economic situation of the structure causes it to abandon the place to embark on a new career as a private teacher. The following year he published his second work, "Elements of English grammar" (elements of English grammar). In 1803 Dalton seeks, first, to describe the atom, from two of the three fundamental laws of chemistry, and sets out the law of multiple proportions, which will become the third. According to the British scholar, the atom is a kind of microscopic size ball, full and indivisible (actually later finds out that the atom can be broken down, separating the electrons and the nucleus).

In the theories of Dalton there are errors (for example, he believes that pure elements are composed of individual atoms, which occurs only in noble gases), but the fact remains that, in the early nineteenth century, he gains a significant reputation in science, and in 1804 he was chosen to give courses in natural philosophy at the Royal Institution in London.

In 1810 Sir Humphry Davy proposes a candidate to enter the Royal Society, but Dalton refuses the invitation, probably for financial reasons; twelve years later, however, is the candidate without his knowledge. Remained unmarried, since 1833 the British Government awarded him a pension of £ 150, which becomes the 300 pounds three years later. Lived for over a quarter of a century in George Street, in Manchester, with his friend Reverend Johns, stops his routine laboratory research and teaching only for annual trips to the Lake District and sporadic visits to London.

In 1837 he suffered a first stroke: the event is repeated the following year, and depriving it of menomandolo ability to speak (but not preventing him from continuing his experiments). In may 1844 John Dalton suffers another stroke, and on 26 July of that year marks in his diary the latest meteorological observations of his life; the next day, dies after falling out of bed. The news of his death provokes dismay in the academic environment, and his corpse on display at Manchester Town Hall, is visited by over 40,000 people. Buried in Ardwick in Manchester, Dalton is also commemorated with a bust at the entrance of the Royal Manchester Institution.

Biography of Giovanni Fattori

Images of a passion and social policy
September 6, 1825
August 30, 1908

Who is Giovanni Fattori?

Giovanni Fattori was born on September 6, 1825 in Livorno. Is a precocious child, because since tiny proves to have an extraordinary talent for drawing. For this reason the father Giuseppe, at the age of 15 years, decides to send him to school by a painter, Giuseppe Baldini. It is precisely in the workshop of B that factors begin to define his own style and it is in his teacher who finds the courage to turn this talent into a profession. But first he must devote himself to study and refine his technique, still very immature.

Giovanni Fattori at the age of 21 years leaves his Livorno to go to Florence and enroll at the Academy of fine arts. Unfortunately her schooling is bumpy; on the one hand there are the economic problems that forced him to work and ignore the lessons, on the other hand the historical moment. In 1848, also takes part in the uprisings. Factors believes in the unification of Italy and his paintings tell his political passion, but also some historical facts in which she stars.

What has marked his career, in this period, is the siege of her hometown, Livorno, from the Austrians. This battle grows in him patriotism and desire for freedom. But not only conflicts with the Austria to occupy it. Law factors very much and loves classic literature. For this reason, in 1850, he joined a very exclusive, made by anti-academic artists who hang out at the famous Caffè Michelangelo in Florence.

Leave this circle of friends in 1852 to begin his professional career in autonomous way. Is the turning point, for factors, making his way with family portraits, landscapes and cartoons. It is during this time that he founded with Telemaco Signorini, Florentine painter in the early days, met at the Caffè Michelangelo, the macchiaioli movement.

Signorini is a very interesting character: it is the first to realize the expressive capacity of stains and to look at the painting across the border. The blur becomes a means to shape and to those things, and especially to make them realistic and truthful. Both Giovanni Fattori, Telemaco Signorini and are extremely interested in the social dynamics, unlike other macchiaioli, more oriented to paint landscapes.

The outbreak of the June 4, 1859 battle of Magenta, one of the most famous episodes of the second Italian war of independence. The event marks the two artists deeply, so much so that paints one of the Factors most important in her career (which takes its name from the collision between franco-Piedmontese and Austrian): the canvas there is conflict, but the return of the wounded after the battle. The political passion then leaves the place to the emotions and men. Is a mature framework (factors has 34 years) and very symbolic. But there is more, because, for the first time, highlights in addition to its pictorial qualities of Narrator.

In the early 1960s, back home, Factors in his Livorno. It is in this phase of life, which the painter realizes its ambitions: bride, romantic indeed, his girlfriend, Settimia Vannucci who attends for six long years. Unfortunately the marriage did not last long, because a year from Jessica wedding falls ill with tuberculosis, then dying in 1867. Factors continued to paint, but the pain is very strong. There are many works that depict women, starting from "portrait of his first wife at" La Rotonda di Palmieri ".

In this phase of life more private factors change the political mood. In 1861 is declared the Kingdom of Italy, but there is the renewal that the painter had hoped. Has a hard time, but also disappointment to bitterness. On the one hand, the beloved and the ill feeling that his ideals were these forever. Alongside factors, though, there is an important person who gives him the desire to not give up. This is the friend Diego Martelli, who often goes to find Factors in Castiglioncello. It is in these travels that he began painting the Maremma.

His career, however, comes at a turning point in 1869, when he was appointed Professor at the Academy of fine arts in Florence. In the Seventies he cultivates his passion for painting and foreign travels in Paris. At this time in France is a very important movement blossomed that the Impressionists, but is seduced not Factors. Back instead so overbearing social theme: in 1880 (production period) completes the painting "the battle of Custoza.

This is a very serene phase of his life. Emily's memory is present, but not torments him more. It is also the period of the Maremma, so much so that the landscapes that portray this land loved by factors are definitely the subject more portrait by the artist. But there's more. Meet Amalia Nollemberg, a Hungarian girl in Italy working as a nanny. He falls in love with this woman, much younger than himself, and lives an overwhelming passion. The story, however, did not last, because after several critical factors-decides to close the connection.

His love life has many surprises though and travels parallel with that professional. In 1885, in fact, know Marianna Baker (then a widow), and a few years later becomes his wife. Meanwhile, his career continues to reap huge successes and in 1890, after exhibiting in galleries in Italy, receives a special mention at the universal exposition in Paris. We are almost at the end of the century and collect international awards and produces magnificent etchings and engravings. In 1903 he loses his second wife. But this time is not a pain so great, in fact, only four years later, in Rome, she met Fanny Martinelli, his third wife. Factors and Fanny in 1908, both die just a few months away from each other. Giovanni Fattori died in Florence on August 30, 1908, at 82 years of age.

Akira Kurosawa biography

Oriental symbols on celluloid
March 23, 1910
September 6, 1998

Who is Akira Kurosawa?

Director, screenwriter and film producer, Akira Kurosawa Japanese born in the suburbs of Tokyo on March 23, 1910. The last of six children, owes most of his training with his brother Heigo, intellectual and film buff (who died in 1932); He is passionate about Shakespeare and the classics of Russian literature, taking the career of "benshi", movie music commentator. Thanks to this activity he met, between 1920 and 1928, most of the filmmakers ' films of the time. Finished high school, Akira studied painting and became part of the "League of proletarian artists", but then take over as Assistant Director P.C.L studies and later by the production company Toho.

In 1936 he was hired by a film production company as a screenwriter and Assistant Director. Works primarily with Director Yamamoto Kajiro and while writing screenplays are not credited until it appears in the credits of "Uma" (the horse, 1940), directed by Yamamoto. Following the collaboration with Yamamoto in 1943, passes and directed his first film "Sanshiro Sugata" (the legend of judo), the story of the exploits of one of the first competitive sports champions Japan par excellence: the work seems premature, but immediately reveals a considerable knowledge of the medium and a strong stylistic originality.

Kurosawa's expressive title already appears entirely consolidated with his next film, "Ichiban Utsukushiku (the sweetest, 1944), the story of workers in a factory of war materiel, which brings into play the young director's interest for the social relationship and to the living conditions of the lower classes.

The horror of war, although not experienced personally, suggested "Tora no o wo fumu otokatachi" (those who worked the tail of the Tiger, 1945). With Asu or hitohito tsukuruku "" (those who make tomorrow, 1946), is exalted his radically democratic vision, highlighted even more in "Waga kunashi seishunni" (I don't regret my youth, 1946), in which a University Professor fights against authoritarian bureaucracy with the help of his students.

He shot the film "Subarashiki nichiyobi" (A wonderful Sunday, 1947) during the two-year strike against the production company Toho. The film reveals an unexpected change of register, with a deepening of the gaze towards the themes of the individual. Akira Kurosawa stresses dreams of escape from a destitute young loving couple surrounded by a world of desolation. With the next "Drunken Angel" (1948), one of the most intense and engaging film around the first Kurosawa film, comes the debut of Toshiro Mifune: this work marks the beginning of a partnership between Director and actor that will last at least a couple of decades. In addition to "Drunken Angel" is with "The stray dog (or wild)" (1949) Kurosawa proclaims his unmistakable style. "Shibun" (scandal, 1950) is the latest film to work alongside Mifune.

With the films up to now turn manages to win a solid reputation at home. The world famous doors open with a series of films in a row: "Rashomon" (which won the 1951 Academy Award for best foreign film and the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival), a work of authoritative suggestion that translates quickly into an undisputed symbol of Japanese cinema. Mifune interprets the figure of a gangster who kills a samurai and his wife violent. The narrative construction of the film is based on the contrast of opposite versions of the characters, each of which, in the process which goes through the Bandit, tells the "truth", but also the soul of the murdered is called to tell her.

The film "Vivere" (1952) is the final "Act" of the life of a bureaucrat that acid, came to the threshold of death, choose to pursue the only freedom Act authorizing the construction of a playground that had previously always prevented. His unforgettable masterpiece is "the seven samurai" (1954), considered a sort of western Japan: western actually has only operated by looting Hollywood six years later with the remake "the magnificent seven". With this film Kurosawa won the Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival, and received international acclaim earning the nickname of Tenno (Emperor). The movie runs in the West in a greatly reduced version; at home is criticized for "excessive concessions to Western taste. In truth the Kurosawa film contrasts with the bases of national tradition.

Kurosawa, now supported by major international awards, for a time managed to make a movie after the other.

After these great achievements, founded the "Kurosawa Films Production" with which he made films like "the bad sleep well" (1960), "Yojimbo" (1961) and "Sanjuro". It began to be considered the greatest Japanese Director and soon the rest of the world will consecrate him as a teacher. Trying to make inroads in the Olympus of Hollywood but to no avail, so back at home and with three other friends filmmakers (Kinoshita, Kobayashi and Ichikawa) founded a small independent production company, "the four horsemen". Following the failure of "Dodeskaden" (1970, overlooked by writers and panned by critics), Kurosawa knows a period of deep crisis at the height of which also attempts suicide. Its fortunes have since revived with "Dersu Uzala, the little man of the great plain" (1975), made in the Soviet Union.

In the early 1980s won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival with the film "Kagemusha", created as a result of the fruitful meeting with George Lucas and Francis Ford Coppola.

In 1990, at the age of 80 years, gets a special award, the Oscar for lifetime achievement. His last film, "Madadayo" (1993), seems almost a résum cold at the same time and stabbing of Kurosawa's vision of the world that, probably, is identified with the old Professor celebrated by his former students, who, when asked if he's ready to leave life, replies "not yet".

The master switches off the September 6, 1998 in Setagaya, Tokyo District.

Biography of Go Nagai

Spatial halberds
September 6, 1945

Who is Go Nagai?

Imagination has a protruding, irrepressible. Has created fictional universes where every kid with curiosity is lost, dreaming and spaventandosi but also recognizing always the guiding principle of good and noble sentiments in fight against evil forces. Despite the violence exhibited is not wrong to say that cartoons have always Go Nagai conveyed those values essential to a true amità you recognize in friendship, honor and sense of duty.

Go Nagai Kiyhioshi, born in Wajima, Japan, September 6, 1945), is the Prince of "manga" (so are called the Japanese comics), enough to be considered the greatest living author in the field. And the explanation for this lies in the coronation that titles conceived, whose single sequence cringe anyone in Italy has lived the epic 80 's robotic (but not only): Mazinger Z, great Mazinger, steel Jeeg, Grendizer, Gaiking, Getter Robo and Devilman, considered by many to the new psychological subtleties, his masterpiece.

But Go Nagai was not only involved in the creation of their works: in 1968, he founded a company called "Dynamic Production", creator of big productions comic. The master began back in 1967 with the comic "Meakashi Porikiki", but had to wait until 1972 to gain well-deserved success. In that year, they released the previously mentioned "Devilman", for much valued by Japanese young readers.

By Devilman, the success of Go Nagai was growing and his later works (Cutey Honey, Kekko Kamen, Violence Jack, Getter Robo, Mazinger, Grendizer, Hanappe Bazooka and Mazinkaiser) have done nothing but increase the stature of this giant of the manga.

The master has almost always had, over the years ' 70 and ' 80, total hegemony in cartoons and manga, robotic horror. His heroes are often driven by thirst for Justice, however are also accused of using the only violence as a means of conflict resolution; but the violence that Nagai manga Express have a cathartic function, certainly not convincing dress. The heroes created by Go have depopulated worldwide, generating a staggering trade induced. The exit of Grendizer, for example, the gadgets on the robot that "turns into a missile rocket" abounded.

The great popularity of Go Nagai is also due to the fact that they have been able to choose excellent employees. First of all, Ken Ishikawa, his student and colleague, with whom she collaborated continuously in his career, giving really works light fixtures as Getter Robo. Do not forget the character designer who has most contributed to the success of the animated Master Nagai: Kazuo Komatsubara.

Biography of Dolores O'Riordan

Ireland stamps
September 6, 1971

Who is Dolores o' Riordan?

Last of seven siblings, Dolores Mary Eileen O'Riordan was born in Ballybricken (Ireland) on September 6, 1971. He joined the musical group "The Cranberry Saw Us" in 1990 as a singer; the formation then change name to "The Cranberries".

On July 18, 1994 joins married Don Burton, the British tour manager of Duran Duran.

Dolores takes part in the making of four albums of Cranberries, "Uncertain" (1991), "Everybody else is doing it, so why can't we?" (1993), "No need to argue" (1994) and "To the faithful departed (1996); then Taylor Baxter was born November 23, 1997 Burton, her first child.

Dolores's career continues with the new album "Bury the Hatchet" (1999); After the tour following the album celebrates birth of daughter Molly Burton (January 27, 2001, a date which coincides with the birthday of her husband Don).

After two more publications, "Wake up and smell the coffee" and the compilation album "Stars-The Best of 1992-2002", in 2003 the band breaks up; the news is not much fanfare for the total absence of an official statement.

After thirteen years of dedication to the group, the first occasion on which appears the name of Dolores O'Riordan as a solo artist is on the soundtrack of the movie "Spider-Man 2," with his song "Black Widow" (composed on the occasion of the cancer death of mother-in-law).

In 2004 appears as a guest on the album "Zu & co." the Italian sugar, with the song "Pure Love".

On another little girl was born April 10, 2005, Dakota Rain Burton (which will dedicate the song "Ordinary Day").

Among its holdings include a Duet with Luciano Pavarotti and the recording of Ave Maria by Schubert (sung a cappella) for the soundtrack of the film "the passion of the Christ," Mel Gibson's.

Dolores also appeared in Adam Sandler's movie "change your life with a click" (2006), playing herself and singing her "Linger".

His first solo album was released in 2007 and is titled "Are you listening?".

Biography of Luciano Pavarotti

Big Luciano!
October 12, 1935
September 6, 2007

Who is Luciano Pavarotti?

Born on October 12, 1935 in Modena, the famous tenor emiliano showed immediately an early vocation to singing, as evidenced by family accounts. In fact, not only the small Luciano saliva on the kitchen table for his performances but infantile, driven by admiration for his father, himself an amateur content (with a beautiful voice and singer in "Corale Rossini"), he spent the whole day in front of the turntable, plundering the assets of the parent record. Lurking in that collection treasures of all kinds, with great prevalence for Heroes del belcanto, Pavarotti learned quickly to recognize and imitate.

His studies, however, were not only music and indeed for a long time this was just a passion cultivated in private.

In his teens, Pavarotti enrolled at teacher training in order to become a teacher of physical education, which was about to test, having taught for two years at elementary classes. At the same time, thankfully, continued vocal studies with Maestro Arrigo Pola (which will follow the principles and rules for the whole of his long career), and later-when three years later, Pola, content moved to jobs in Japan-with Maestro Ettore Campogalliani, who perfected the phrasing and concentration. These are, and forever will be, in the words of the master, his unique and highly-valued masters.

In 1961 she won the Pavarotti international competition "Achille Peri" which marks his real debut singing scene.

Finally, after much study, comes the long-awaited debut in 26 years (namely 29 April 1961), at the Teatro Municipale in Reggio Emilia with an artwork become emblematic for him, namely "Bohème" by Puccini, repeatedly echoed in later years, always as Rodolfo. On the podium there is also Francesco Molinari-Pradelli.

The 1961 is a pivotal year in the life of tenor, a sort of watershed between youth and maturity. In addition to the debut, is the year of the licence and the marriage to Adua Veroni after an engagement that lasted eight years.

In 1961-1962 the young tenor still interprets The Bohème in various cities of Italy, gets some writing off border Meanwhile engages with the role of the Duke of Mantua in another work particularly suited to its strings: "Rigoletto". Be staged in Carpi and Brescia but is under the guidance of maestro Tullio Serafin, at the Teatro Massimo of Palermo, which gets a huge success and gives a new, significant change in his career. From that moment he was invited by numerous theatres: in Italy is already considered a promise, but abroad, despite some prestigious incursion has not yet enforced.

Is in 1963 who, thanks to a fortunate coincidence, he reached international fame. Always on the way of the opera La Bohème at Covent Garden in London the fate of Luciano Pavarotti crosses to Giuseppe Di Stefano, one of its biggest myths. Is called to do some performances of the work before the arrival of acclaimed tenor, but then Stefano fell ill and Pavarotti replaces it. We are replacing it in the theater and also in the "Sunday Night at the Palladium," a tv show followed by 15 million Brits.

Gets a huge success and his name begins to gain weight on the world stage. Decca proposes early recordings, thus inaugurating the fabulous music production pavarottiana. The young conductor Richard Bonynge asks him to sing alongside his wife, Joan Sutherland.

In 1965 Pavarotti arrives for the first time in the United States, in Miami, and the superb, highly acclaimed Sutherland is a greatly acclaimed Lucia di Lammermoor conducted by Bonynge. Always with the Sutherland successfully debuted at Covent Garden in London in the work

"La Sonnambula". And continues with a lucky Australian tour he is the protagonist of "Elisir D'amore" and, along with Sutherland, of "La Traviata", "Lucia di Lammermoor" and "La Sonnambula."

But then reappeared "La Bohème": the 1965 is also the year of debut at La Scala in Milan, where the standard is specifically requested by Herbert von Karajan for a recital of Puccini's opera. The meeting leave a strong mark in 1966, Pavarotti is again directed by Karajan in "Messa da Requiem" in memory of Arturo Toscanini.

The 1965-1966 are also incisive interpretations of works like "I Capuleti e I Montecchi" under the direction of Claudio Abbado and "Rigoletto" conducted by Gianandrea Gavazzeni.

But the best of 1966 is Pavarotti's debut at Covent Garden, along with Joan Sutherland, in a work that has become legendary for "sequence of nine do di petto", "La Figlia del Reggimento". For the first time a tenor in full voice emits the nine do "Pour mon âme", that fate! ", written by Donizetti to be drawn in falsetto. The audience cheers, the theater is shaken by a kind of explosion that invests as well the English Royal House present at full force.

The sixties are also fundamental to the tenor's private life. It is from this period the birth of beloved daughters, Lorenza was born in 1962, followed in 1964 by Cristina and Giuliana arrives in 1967. Pavarotti has a strong bond with her daughters: that they are the most important of his life.

The pavarottiana career is all along the lines of these amazing achievements, in a series of engravings, interpretations and ovations on stages around the world and the most famous masters which only list them can grasp a sense of Vertigo. All this, however, is the solid foundation on which stands the myth, even popular, Pavarotti, a myth that, we must not forget, has been feeding primarily on the boards of palconscenico and thanks to the unforgettable interpretations in the directory "read", so much so that more than one sees in the modenese tenor not only one of the greatest tenors of the century but the star also able to darken Caruso's fame.

Pavarotti has an indisputable value, to have one of the most exquisitely "tenor" that you have never heard, a true miracle of nature. Has a very extensive voice, full, argentina, which joins a fraseggiare capacity with particular fascination in affectionate and tender song, the same that is well suited to the Repertoire of Donizetti, Bellini and Verdi in.

Following the success in the field of Opera, the tenor expanded his performances outside the narrow scope of the theater, organizing concerts in squares, parks and much more. It involved thousands of people in the most diverse corners of the Earth. A resounding result of this kind of event in 1980, in New York's Central Park, for a performance of "Rigoletto" in concert, with the presence of more than 200,000 people. Alongside this, he founded the Pavarotti International Voice Competition ", which since 1981 has been held every three or four years in Philadelphia at the behest of the master.

The late eighties and nineties saw the teacher engaged in large concerts and large international performances. In 1990, together with José Carreras and Placido Domingo, Pavarotti brings to life "the three Tenors", another great found that ensures results, in terms of audience and sales, top notch.

In 1991 fascinates more than 250 thousand people with a big concert in London's Hyde Park. Despite the pouring rain, falling on the enthusiastic Prince of Wales Charles and Diana, the show becomes a media event, broadcast live on television across Europe and the United States. The success of the London initiative is repeated in 1993 at Central Park in New York, where he landed a mammoth crowd of 500 thousand spectators. The concert, broadcast on television, is seen in America and Europe by millions and is undoubtedly a landmark in the artistic life of tenor.

Thanks to these increasingly popular hits, Pavarotti extended then embarked on a more controversial career dedicated to contamination of genres, made mostly in organizing concerts of great appeal colossal, thanks largely to the intervention, as "guests" pop stars of the first magnitude. It's the "Pavarotti & Friends", where the eclectic Master invites artists of world renown pop and rock to raise money for international humanitarian organisations. The Festival takes place every year and sees the presence of numerous Italian and foreign superospiti.

In 1993 resumes "I Lombardi alla prima crociata," at the Metropolitan in New York, a work that does not interpret from 1969, and celebrate the first 25 years of his career at the MET with a big gala. In late August, during the Pavarotti International Horse Show, encounters Nicoletta Mantovani, which then becomes partner in life and artistic collaborator. The 1994 is still full of Metropolitan where the tenor debuted with an entirely new work to his repertoire: "Clowns".

In the 1995 Pavarotti made a long tour which took him to South America Chile, Peru, Uruguay and Mexico. While in 1996 he debuted with "Andrea Chénier" at the Metropolitan in New York and singing with Mirella Freni at Turin's celebrations for the centenary of the opera "La Bohéme". In 1997 resumes "Turandot" at the met, in 2000 she sang at the Opera of Rome for the centenary of "Tosca" and in 2001, always at the met, back on stage "Aida".

Luciano Pavarotti has passed the 40-year career, a career full of successes and intense, blurred only a few fleeting shadow (for example the famous "slat" at La Scala, a theater, however, the public particularly difficult and unforgiving). Nothing seemed indeed undermine the serenity of the Olympic Master, inner satisfaction which caused him to declare: "I think a life in music is a life spent in beauty and is what I have devoted my life."

In July 2006 is operated in an emergency hospital in New York to remove a malignant tumor in the pancreas. Then he settled in his villa near Modena trying to conduct a personal struggle against cancer. At the age of 71 years went off on September 6, 2007.

Sully Prudhomme biography

March 16, 1839
September 6, 1907

Who is Sully Prudhomme?

Rene Francois Armand Prudhomme was born on March 16, 1839 in Paris, Sully, a small merchant who only leave two years later his father died, and Clotilde Caillat. He first studies until Bachelor (diploma) in the Sciences which adds, in 1858, that in letters: his multiple interests, indeed, ranging from the sciences right through to philosophy and literature, but the latter shall track its path. In 1859, he found a job at le officine metallurgiche of Le Creusot, at Montcenis. The following year he returned to Paris to study at the Ecole de Droit and then leave, with some friends, to Brussels and Antwerp, traveling along the banks of the river Rhine.

In 1861 he joined the artistic-literary group "Conférence La Bruyère", a company of students has greatly appreciated his poems and representing the springboard for his career. Still, 24-year-old Sully Prudhomme (as decided to call themselves) already has a clear idea about the role of poetry and of the poets: contrary to the aggravations of romanticism, he means art as pure expression, free from any outside influence, so impersonal and not contaminated with social or political commitment. This vision of "perfection formelle" inevitably leads him to join the parnassiano movement, although his style-with the propensity to philosophical and scientific themes-remains intensely personal.

After the publication of his first book "and poems" (1865), which in 1879 earned him a Pulitzer Prize and which reaches notoriety, part to Italy with his friend, poet and art critic Georges Lafenestre.

The franco-Prussian War, which sees Paris besieged by the Germans in 1870, induces him to join the company of 8 ^ 13° Mobile guard battalion and will cost you serious harm to health. The war is treated by Sully Prudhomme in "Impressions de la guerre", in 1872, and "La France", in 1874. In 1875 he published "vain" tenderness, which, along with "lonelinesses" a few years earlier (1869), are the most representative of the style parnassiano. In 1876 travels to Holland and Belgium. In 1877 the Académie Française awarded him the prize "Vitet" for his literary activity; a few years later, in 1881, he joined the institution in its own right, as academician of France.

With "justice" (1878), philosophical poem, positivist ideas wedding; Follow The "Prism" (1884), "happiness" (1888), more philosophical poem, "the true religion according to Pascal" (1905). In the latter vein, however, fails to express the same poetic intensity of previous stage. Upon finding the first recipient of the Nobel Prize in literature, in 1901, the Academy of Sweden locates in Sully Prudhomme the winner "in recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of high idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of qualities of heart and intellect".

With the money received shall establish a poetry prize in the "society of men of letters" and, the following year, together with José-Maria de Heredia and Leon Dierx gives life to the "society of French poets".

The poor health forced him to isolation until death sudden, Châtenay-Malabry, September 6, 1907, at the age of 68 years. His heir is his nephew Henry Gerbault. Between 1883 and 1908 leaving the eight volumes of his works, entitled "Oeuvres".

Biography of Suleiman the magnificent

Cesare dei Cesari
November 6, 1494
September 6, 1566

Who is Suleiman the magnificent?

Süleyman, as it is known in modern Turkish, in the West known as Suleiman I said "the magnificent", was born in Trabzon, on 6 November 1494. Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death, his rise coincides with the time for the Ottoman culture, in addition to its military expansion and political influence. Sultan Caliph, protector of Mecca, during his reign he calls khans, claiming ancestral titles of the Ancient Orient, without renouncing to the other party of the then known world, often claiming to be termed the "Caesar of the Caesars", heir of Rome and Byzantium.

Suleiman is the son of Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, known to history as the "fierce". However the term, at least in the West, would be the result of an inaccurate translation from Arabic, indicating instead the term "weighted". The fact remains that his rise has coincided with the bloody events of the Empire about his own family. To ascend the throne in fact Suleiman's father in 1512 would force his father Bayezid II to abdicate, winning by force against his own brothers, who allegedly exterminated without hesitation.

As the heir to the Sultanate is no news of him since he is little more than a child. Seven years is sent to schools of Istanbul's Palace where he meets and becomes attached to Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, the slave who would be chosen by the future Sultan as his trusted advisor and staff. Pasha, also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha, would be appointed by Suleiman "Grand Vizier", i.e. dignitary, Overlord, the most influential Ministers of the Empire, including the first appointed by "future" at the time of her accession. In the capital, the small Süleyman learns science, history, languages and literature, as well as subjects such as theology and military techniques, that the need in the future.

Not even twenty, Suleiman makes first experiences in Government, administering several provinces, as Bolu, in northern Anatolia, and in 1509 Caffa in Crimea, where his mother was born, also conquered by Europeans.

In 1512 is in the region of Magnesia to administer it. There is also some eight years later, when his father, Selim I, in July, you start to Edirne, probably to arrange yet another military campaign. During the trip, however, in the small village of Sirt, falls seriously ill and dies, on 21 September 1520. From that point, the succession passed into the hands of his son Süleyman.

Among the first improvements from the new Ottoman Sultan is certainly cultural and religious tolerance. In those days if in the West at a Muslim is not allowed to reside between the Ottomans, instead, at the behest of their Sultan, is granted to Christians not only to live but also to freely profess their religious cults. This tolerance, coupled with other interventions equally lit, make for the capital Istanbul a welcoming and dynamic location. When Suleiman the magnificent settles, the city already has 400 thousand inhabitants, but at the end of his Government's experience the subjects will be almost doubled. The Empire includes other races, well aware that their contribution to enhancing the economic strength and cultural expansion.

Among other ideas of Suleiman there is an severa and autocracy. However, the fact of having virtually all under him, as real slaves, including Ministers and senior leaders, create some social mobility, nullifying a nobility of birth and allowing everyone to assert themselves in the Kingdom. This is also another explanation for the high number of Europeans during his Sultanate, demanding Turkish citizenship.

To confirm that you have every man equally, there is the episode of the death sentence of his Grand Vizier of trust, Pasha. When these reach an influence that seems excessive, it does condemn, confiscating their properties, in 1536.

To prevail, Suleiman pulls down a long list of enemies, his beloved army infantry Corps of janissaries, considered the best military apparatus of the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan forces for them, as the only source of income, proceeds from the results of war. For this and other reasons, the first part of the Sultanate of Magnificent orients itself to the military campaigns, the conquest of other peoples and borders.

One year after succession, therefore, the new Sultan taking full of Belgrade and Serbia, started by his father. Returned-he often personally drive the troops-is responsible for the city of Jerusalem, conquered by Selim, initiating a series of improvements, such as the construction of the fortress walls around the old city.

In 1522, with 400 ships, Suleiman takes the island of Rhodes in Greece, Christian fortress, occupying it with 200,000 men. Three years later, on the strength of his conquests, the Sultan allied with Francis I of France, fighting with the Emperor Charles V and attacked the territories of Hungary, other land coveted by the previous Sultan. The year after the Turks conquered the European territory and mark their maximum expansion in the West.

Subsequently, divided almost Europe between Ottomans and Christians, Charles V and his brother Ferdinand I, manage to recover the Hungary, despite the sieges of Suleiman, as the famous one in Vienna, 1532. The following year, a treaty dividing the boundaries.

In 30 of his Sultanate, their attention turns to the East, towards Persia. The fall of Baghdad came in 1534. Since that time, starts for the ancient Persian capital a long decline, under the rule of Istanbul, instead more prosperous every year. Getting stronger, Suleiman mira to the territories of Azerbaijan and Georgia, in the Caucasus. By his third campaign of war, dated 1555, the Turkish Sultan manages to get new boundaries in those areas, expanding their territories again.

For annexation, then at the same time, gets parts of North Africa, as Tripolitania, Tunisia and Algeria: all buffer States with its own limited independence, such as to allow the Sultan to always have an eye on Europe. Is right now, and on these shores, Ottoman naval troops reach their maximum in terms of military efficiency.

In 1554 the Portuguese troops manage to defeat the Turks in the Persian Gulf, until then in their control. From now starts the Ottomans a slow but inexorable decline and political military, marked by the death of their most important Sultan.

Suleiman the magnificent died in Szigetvár, in Hungary, between the 5 and 6 September, in 1566, during another military campaign, this time against the Emperor Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. He is buried next to his concubine Roxelana, most beloved, in the mausoleum located near the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.

Biography of Roger Waters

Think pink
September 6, 1943

Who is Roger Waters?

Talk about Roger Waters and his life means will inevitably follow, as filigree, even the glorious path of the rock band Pink Floyd from strong and inventive psychedelic connotations. It all began in 1965 when Syd Barrett, Bob Close, Rick Wright, Nick Mason and Roger Waters formed a group called Sigma 6. Waters, born in 1945, had long taken down lessons and harmony by a teacher in his native country, demonstrating for a remarkable creativity and an insatiable curiosity towards pop music that was circulating at the time.

George Roger Waters (born in Great Bookham, England, September 6, 1943) in the early 60 's he participated in the campaign for nuclear disarmament, made his first public appearance.

In a biographical note, that describes his first steps as a musician: ' I studied architecture at the Regent Street Polytechnic, where we formed several groups. It wasn't serious, not played for an audience. We had many names, a wonderful was the Meggadeaths. We spent the time thinking about how to spend the money that we would do. " I invested a part of subsidies in a Spanish guitar and taken two lessons at the Spanish Guitar Centre, but I could not with all those exercises. In college, there is always a room where people with their own tools or other things. On second thought, I should definitely have had a guitar even before then, because I remember having learned to play "Shanty Town". I was completely uninterested in what I was doing in college. The architecture in this country is such a compromise with the economic factor, which I wasn't really bothered. At that point I began like others spend all subsidies for musical instruments. I remember yelling at the Manager of a bank telling him that I was going to be rich one day while wondering a loan of £ 10. We learned about eighty songs, all of the Stones ".

After a short period the Group dissolves and, all founding members continued their musical activities along different paths. Afterwards, will form a new group consisting of a guitarist (Syd Barrett), a bassist (Roger Waters), a keyboardist (Richard Wright), and a drummer (Nick Mason). The Group changed its name several times, each time becoming "The Screaming Abdabs", "T-Set", "The Architectural Abdabs", "The Pink Floyd Sound".

In the long run, the latter group seems the most "noble" and significant. Much has been discussed and elucubrato about the origin of this strange name, but it is well established that it is the product of the Union of jazz names Pink Anderson and Floyd Council bluesman. The first appearances of the Group occur at the "Marquee" of London, became flagship of local underground culture. Pink Floyd during their performances, it features in endless "suites" that sent the young clubbers into raptures. Are the beginnings of the "psychedelic" was that, once ripe, see Pink Floyd among his more idiomatic and brilliant singers.

It's "Marquee" that Pink Floyd would encounter their first manager, Peter Jenner, the "demiurge" who can procure them a weekly contract with London Free School. During one of these events the Floyd used a slide projector pointed directly on them and synchronized with the music, creating the "Light Show" that becomes a characteristic feature of the group.

Then Floyd make many appearances in another newly opened local, "UFO", soon became one of the favorite haunts of the British underground movement.

As a result of this classic Cookset, Floyd finally arrive to record their first "45" rpm, dated March 11, 1967. Fortunately the success is almost immediate and projects the top 20 piece engraved in English, although some censorship problems emerge, due to the original title of the song "Let's roll another one", which literally means "another Rolliamone", with an explicit reference to the joint.

Subsequently, on 12 may, the Floyd play to "Queen Elizabeth Hall" in a concert called "Games for May" by making an innovative stereo system through which the sound spreads around the room in a sort of circularity giving the audience the feeling of being in the middle of the music. Following are the single "Games for May" that is published under the new title "See Emily Play".

For their first album, "the Piper At The Gates of Dawn" is used the name "The Pink Floyd" and later, eliminating the article "The" is published the second album A Saucerful Of Secret "using the final and now perfected the group name. At this time however there are problems with Syd Barrett, unable to emotionally handle the popularity achieved by "Piper At The Gates of Dawn". The guitarist begins to make a solid and continued use of LSD (at that time still legal), and, no longer able to continue in their work, calls in his old friend group and rhythm guitarist David Gilmour.

The continuous worsening of the condition of Syd, forcing the band to participate in some concerts. This marks the final exit from Barrett's Pink Floyd and the beginning of a period of crisis for the group that was dropped by Peter Jenner, intending to follow in his Syd Barrett solo career.

Remind me later Mason: "we were about to get loose; It seemed impossible to find a replacement for Syd ". The new Quartet, instead, finds a new charge and miraculously powerful inventiveness, such as to be able to churn out a series of masterpieces ranging from "More", to "Ummagumma", "Atom Heart Mother", "Obscured By Clouds". Floyd, at that time, they engage in finding a new style trying to stay as close as possible to the sound created by Syd Barrett, a psychedelic and visionary dough that retains a striking melodic profile.

After these albums, some of which undoubtedly strongly (just think of "Ummagumma", a double Lp in which every Member of the band had a frontage of the disc), is a stylistic breakthrough of great significance. A process that flows into the legendary "The Dark Side of the Moon". This is a disc that has collected records of all kinds (despite "difficult" music that contains): not only has sold over 25 million copies (for the digit era huge), but remained in the album charts for an infinite time: something like 14 years. Also, is still favourite.

Logical, therefore, that, after this drunkenness, the Group seek in every way to maintain the level achieved with that album. Which is very difficult, if not impossible. But in 1975 Pink Floyd still have many arrows to their bows and the inventiveness is still far from being exhausted. Here then appear in stores "Wish You Were Here", a strange and complex that enshrines the Pink Floyd as one of the greatest bands of all time. Even in this case, the commercial success was not long in coming.

To complete the "trilogy" about human alienation that is emerging with these two disks, then the band released "Animals", the most forgotten and the least known of the three (maybe also because of pessimism about human nature irreparable that transpires from the texts). During the exhausting tour following the release of "Animals", occur rather unpleasant episodes as the increasingly frequent and heated controversy between Roger Waters and the public: "became an alienating experience to perform in concerts, and that was how I became fully aware of the wall that now separated us from our audience"; These are the words of bassist. But, aside from touring, there is still a lot of material that needs to see the light: the case of the songs in "The Wall", released on November 16, 1979 after almost three years of silence.

"The Wall" stands for as a commercial success of vast proportions, characterized as a product of excellent workmanship, full of sound effects and full of a thousand shades attention to the smallest details. The tour follows the release of the vinyl, forcibly reduced to a few venues because of the imposing structure necessary to its completion, is an extraordinary success.

After the tour of "The Wall", Richard Wright, finding himself in disagreement with Roger Waters left the band and, later, Pink Floyd bring out a new album called "The Final Cut" written by Waters throughout this time (but don't forget that Waters is always been the soul creator of Pink Floyd). Some argue that "The Final Cut" can be considered the first solo album by Waters: to support this thesis also circulates that Gilmour went into the studio, recording solos, and leave. However, completion of the drafting of the score, Roger Waters left the band. In the judgment of critics and experts, "The Final Cut" is in fact a work covered by limits of progressive interiorisation of solo Roger Waters, haunted by nightmares of war and troubled and poignant memories.

All this has helped it to become autocratic, considering themselves the unique creator Floyd songs entering often at odds with the other members of the Group and bringing it in 1986, after previous controversies, to declare definitively disbanded the group, causing the reaction of Gilmour that in appealing to the decision of the High Court in London, reverses the judgment in his favour.

Later in 1987, Gilmour and Mason try the way of the resurgence of Pink Floyd, hoping to resurrect the huge interest that the original group aroused in public. Aside from the new work, "A Momentary Lapse of Reason", which has good but not extraordinary sales, the attempt is partially successful, particularly in light of the huge number of people willing to hear Pink Floyd in their rare live performances. The suspicion, though, is that it is still in the revival of an old love.

After several verbal fights and penalties, however, Waters continues with his solo career, although undoubtedly the public has made some effort to identify the artist, due to the fact that Pink Floyd have spent most of their careers in complete anonymity, showing and enjoying little to the media. Waters he proposing in 1990 "The Wall" (the fall of the Berlin Wall), organizing a charity concert for the Memorial Fund for Disaster Relief, performed in front of 25,000 spectators and is broadcast in many parts of the world, dividing the two Germanys.

As for the musical projects of other members, however, it is unquestionable that the absence of Waters, now taken from his solo projects (rather disappointing, according to the connoisseurs), has been felt so heavy. The world tour follows the partial reunion of Floyd, participates as a session-man even the "old" Richard Wright, reinstated permanently to the group. A year later the Floyd realize "Delicate Sound of Thunder", for some sign of an unstoppable decline. In 1994 the trio published "The Division Bell", while the last work dates back to 1995 with the creation of "Pulse".

The latest effort by Roger Waters is "Ça ira", an opera in three acts, libretto by Etienne Roda-Gil, world premiere on November 17, 2005 at the auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome. The theme of the work is the French Revolution (the title derives from a popular song of the same name of the French Revolution).
Translation authorized by the website: under Creative Commons License.

Biographies of famous people with date: 5 September | Biographies of anniversary

Biographies of historical figures and personalities

Note: This translation is provided for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.

Biographies of famous people in history and celebrity


1. Tommaso Campanella
2. Crazy Horse
3. Werner Herzog
4. Jesse James
5. Michael Keaton
6. Leonardo
7. Marianna Madia
8. Mother Teresa
9. Goffredo Mameli
10. Freddie Mercury
11. Gregory Paltrinieri
12. Charles Péguy
13. King Louis XIV
14. Clay Regazzoni
15. Raquel Welch

Note: this translation is presented for educational purposes only. Any translation of this web site may be inaccurate and imprecise.

Biography of Tommaso Campanella

Towards the modern thought
September 5, 1568
May 21, 1639

Who is Thomas Campanella?

Giovanni Domenico Campanella, with Giordano Bruno and Bernardino Telesio, is considered one of pioneered modern philosophy; his thought is conventional historical symbol of transition between the middle ages and the modern era.

Born in Calabria, stylus, September 5, 1568. Son of a poor Shoemaker and uneducated Campanella is a wunderkind. At thirteen he entered the Dominican order and arrives to take orders not yet year-old Dominican, with the name of brother Thomas in honor of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Successfully completes studies law at the same time, albeit secretly authors such as Erasmus, Ficino and Glynis.

Ideas in religion and interest in magic forced him to flee to Naples where he studied with the door. He finds himself under investigation by the ecclesiastical Tribunal so leaves the convent to head to Rome first, then in Florence and Padua, where finally comes into contact with Galileo.

Accused of heresy is locked up in jail but manages to return to his hometown; in 1599 tries to organize an uprising against Spanish rule and lay the groundwork for religious reform. On this occasion he was arrested and convicted; However escape from torture by pretending to be mad.

Cannot avoid prison where Bell remains locked up in Naples, for 27 years. in this long period of imprisonment continues to write, especially philosophy.

Composes a work dedicated to Galileo, in which Campanella greatly appreciates the work and thinking.

In 1626 regains a portion of freedom: out of jail, but must remain in Rome under the control of the Holy Office.

By Pope Urban VIII this constraint is later deleted; in 1633 it again

accused of heresy and anti-Spanish propaganda. He decided to take refuge in Paris where there is protection against Cardinal Richelieu. Is dedicated to the publication of his writings; financed by King, spends the rest of his life at the convent of Saint-Honoré. His latest work is a poem celebrating the birth of the future King Louis XIV ("Ecloga in portentosam Delphini nativitatem). One of his most famous works is "the city of the Sun", a work of utopian character in which, referring to Plato and the Utopia of Thomas more, describes an ideal city.

Tommaso Campanella died in Paris on May 21, 1639.

Biography of Crazy Horse

Year of birth: 1844
September 5, 1877

Who's crazy horse?

Crazy Horse (whose name in the original language is lakota, depending on Tȟašúŋke Witkó, transliterations, or Tashunka Witko Uitko Tashunka) was born probably in 1844 in the Black Hills (lakota language, Paha Sapa). Its name, in fact, supposed to mean specifically "her horse is crazy", although the term "Crazy Horse" is now universally and historically used. His dad, in turn named Crazy Horse (and later Waglula, after his own name to his son), belongs to the Oglala tribe, while his mother, Rattling Blanket Woman, is a Minneconjou.

Also known as Curly, especially in early life, by virtue of its very curly hair (rather rare event, among Native Americans, as well as their very light color), survives the destruction of his village (where he lived in the Lakota camp together with his younger brother, High Horse, and a cousin, small Eagle) put in place by Federal soldiers , and as a result of that event decides to drive the Sioux Oglala to resist the killings carried out by natives of the u.s. military.

He also participates in the conflict known as the "Grattan Massacre", leading the Sioux to kill u.s. Army forces. After witnessing the death of Conquering Bear, Lakota leader Crazy Horse begins to have visions. His father Waglula takes him into what is now known as Sylvan Lake, South Dakota, and here both sit for a request, a hemblecha vision: an eagle with red tail leads them on a hill, where both have different visions.

During the late 1950s and the early 1860s, Crazy Horse's reputation as a warrior grows exponentially, as well as his reputation among the Lakota, to the point that his exploits are reported in stories passed down from generation to generation. His first murder involves a member of the Shoshone who had killed a Lakota woman; It follows several battles against traditional enemies: the Arikara, Pawnee, Blackfeet, Crow and Shoshone. In 1864, after the Third Colorado Cavalry decimated the tribe of Arapaho and Cheyenne in the Sand Creek massacre, Minneconjou Oglala and ally with them against the army of the United States. Crazy Horse took part in the battle of Platte Bridge and the battle of Red Buttes, which take place in July 1865. At the same time, by virtue of his skill in battle, he was appointed A Tanka, i.e. Ogle a leader in war.

On 2 August of 1867 is one of the protagonists of the Wagon Box Fight, which will be staged near Fort Phil Kearny. The conflict, however, turns out to be a loser for the Lakota, the difference between the arms of the two sides. In the autumn of that year, Crazy Horse invited Black Buffalo Woman to accompany him on a Buffalo Hunt in the Slim Buttes area. Black Buffalo Woman is the wife of No Water, known as addicted to alcohol (at the time, the Lakota allowed women to divorce by their husbands at any time, provided that they move with another man or simply hang the objects of her husband outside their housing). No Water is located away from the camp at the time his wife and Crazy Horse Hunt: li tracks, though, in the Slim Buttes area, finding them in a tipi (tepee, or the typical Indian tents). After a gunfight in which Crazy Horse is saved by cousin Touch the Clouds, No Water escapes on horseback. The elders of the tribe convinced crazy horse to avoid bloodshed, and so he abandons the intentions of revenge; continues his love affair with No Water, which, as a reward for the snub, gives him three horses. He, however, must give up the title of Shirt Wearer, since it is linked to another man's wife.

Along with sitting bull, Crazy Horse is driving more than a thousand warriors on June 25, 1876, at the battle of Little Bighorn, have the better of Cavalry of the army led by George Custer. However, the success of the Indians does not last long, because the Feds immediately recovered from the blow, get new victories in the same year. And so crazy horse on May 6, 1877, after commanding the twentieth century Oglala and now starving, surrendered to the Commander of Fort Robinson, Lieutenant Philo Clark died just minutes from midnight on September 5, about thirty-seven years, after being hit by a bayonet. But the reasons for his murder circulate different versions: some refer to shots fired by an armed soldier; others claim that, after leaving the reserve without permission for the purpose of bringing his wife-now ill-parents, he was arrested by General George Crook, who was afraid to come back to fight: first crazy horse would not be opposed to capturing, but after realizing it would be doomed to a prison, would begin to rebel guards , and would have been impressed by William Gentiles, a soldier who would have killed him as he was being restrained by his old friend little big man, Member of the Indian police who was accompanying him.

Regardless of the reasons for his death, from that moment, the legendary figure of Crazy Horse enters the myth, in America as elsewhere in the world.

Biography of Werner Herzog

New German cinema
September 5, 1942

Who is Werner Herzog?

Werner Herzog, whose real name is Werner h. Stipetic was born on 5 September 1942 in Munich, the son of Dietrich and Elisabeth, both biologists. Abandoned by his father a few years during World War II, he moved with his mother from Munich in Sachrang, a small village in the mountains not far from Austria.

Here it grows in contact with nature, far away from television, radio and cinema. It is only eleven years he sees for the first time: a documentary about Eskimos screened at school.

Twelve years back with her mother Werner in Munich; After living in a guesthouse with Klaus Kinski, approaches to religion and at fourteen, converts to Catholicism, coming into conflict with the family, an atheist. At fifteen, embarks on a journey on foot to the Albania; at the same time, he began to develop a passion for cinema.

The first film work

To finance his first film, then, begins to work already while attending high school, with night duty as guardian of parking lots or welder. In 1962, in twenty years, manages to achieve "Ercole", his first short film, and the following year gives life to Werner Herzog Filmproduktion, the production company, which initially has very limited means and resources.

After high school he enrolled at the University of Munich, where he studied Theater, literature and history. After winning brands like 10,000 award for a screenplay ("signs of life"), "the defence of the fortress deutschkreuz", then get a scholarship to a University in Pennsylvania, Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, but decided to leave after a short time.

In the USA, Mexico and return to Germany

After being involved in a project for a film intended for Nasa and have lived even from homeless in New York, travels to Mexico, where he earns a living illegally, carrying goods to the border with the United States, and meanwhile learn Spanish.

In 1967 back in Germany: he married Martje Grohmann and strong financial aid, the German Film Institute, is finally able to turn "signs of life". The film, made in Greece, is in competition at the Berlin Film Festival, winning the silver bear, and is awarded the Deutscher Fimpreis.

At the end of 1968 Werner Herzog travels to Africa with a film crew, and remained there almost a year: despite falling ill from malaria, collects the material for a television documentary, entitled "the flying doctors of East Africa", and for the film "even dwarfs started small".

Gli anni ' 70

In 1971 he devotes to "land of silence and darkness", a documentary starring DeafBlind people, and later in "Future prevented", whose theme is always people with physical disabilities.

Moving in Peru with Klaus Kinski for a film focused on the search for El Dorado, clashed repeatedly with the actor, and even threaten him with death: ensue, however, the film "Aguirre, the wrath of God", which will get a warm response from the audience.

In Werner Herzog's 1973 becomes father of Rudolph, her first child and is dedicated to the documentary "the great ecstasy of woodcarver Steiner", starring ski jumper Walter Steiner.

Afterwards, he made "the enigma of Kaspar Hauser" and "heart of glass", for which hypnotizes all the cast personally, by reciting the actors in trance. In the summer of 1976 he travels to Guadeloupe to shoot images of a volcano about to destroy an island: images that are used for the film "La Soufriere".

Thereafter, the Director acts in "La Soufrière," with filming between Germany and the United States. In 1978 for "Nosferatu the Vampyre", while a year later is "Woyzeck": in both, the protagonist is Klaus Kinski. Meanwhile, Herzog has a relationship with actress Eva Mattes in "Woyzeck", which gives him a daughter, Hanna, born in 1980.

Gli anni ' 80

During this same period, work on the film "Fitzcarraldo," for whose completion takes more than two years, the film was presented at the Cannes Festival in 1982, winning the award for Best Director. From then on, the production by German Director, since there very prolific, undergoes a significant slowdown.

In the 1980s, Herzog directed only two more films, "where the Green ants dream" and "Cobra verde", in addition to the short film "filmmaker Werner Herzog" and the documentaries "The Ballad of the little soldier" and "Wodaabe-herdsmen of the Sun".

Gli anni ' 90

In 1990 back behind the camera for "echoes from a somber Empire", repeating the feat the following year with "scream of stone" (also starring Vittorio Mezzogiorno): this is the first film directed by him without being the author of the screenplay.

In 1992 Werner Herzog heads to Kuwait to testify the first Gulf war with pictures that will then be included in the documentary "Apocalypse". After "bells from the deep", 1993, and "Gale-death for five voices" of 1995, Herzog directed the documentary "Kinski, my dearest enemy".

The years 2000

In 2001, after moving to Los Angeles, with "Invincible" back to fiction, and then devoted himself to documentaries "Kalachakra, wheel of time" and "the White Diamond".

In 2010 he was called to preside over the jury of the Berlin Film Festival that awards the victory to Roman Polanski for "the man in the shadows", and turns the 3D documentary "Forgotten dreams". In 2012 the movie "Jack Reacher" (by Christopher McQuarrie, Tom Cruise). In 2013 receives honorable mention at the Locarno Film Festival.

Biography of Jesse James

September 5, 1847
April 3, 1882

Who is Jesse James?

Jesse Woodson James was born on September 5, 1847 in Clay County, the son of Robert and Zerelda Cole Salee James, a Baptist Minister and farmer. Lost his father after a trip to California (where he had gone to spreading the word about religion among the prospectors) in just three years, sees her mother remarry first with Benjamins Simms, and then with Reuben Samuel, a doctor who moved to James House in 1855.

In 1863, Union soldiers coming into the House James, convinced that there lies William Clarke Quantrill: soldiers pick up Samuel and torture, after it tied to a tree, mulberry to confess and get them to reveal where they are men of Quantrill. Even Jesse, who has only fifteen years, is battered, threatened with bayonets, lashed with rope and forced to watch the torture that the stepfather must undergo. Samuel is then taken to a jail in Liberty, while Jesse decides to tag along to Quantrill's men in order to avenge the violence suffered. While her sister and her mother are arrested, imprisoned and raped by Federal soldiers, James enters the Quantrill's band.

After the civil war, which saw the success of Yankees, Jesse James is dedicated to bank robberies, vandalism and acts of Subversion: having managed to derail a train proves to the local population that the war is not over, and that it may be combated even in non-traditional ways.

During his robberies, doesn't bother to kill people, together with the other members of his gang: his brother Frank, and Clell Miller, Bob, Jim and Cole Younger, Charlie and Robert Ford. In his assaults, however, Jesse James outlaws and bandits recruit shot after shot, managed to escape each time to the army. Train robbery unionists and banks in Minnesota, Mississippi, Iowa, Texas, Kentucky and Missouri, becoming a symbol of resentment of the southern populations. He also manages to keep it from being built an impressive railway in Missouri, border area, and over the years is regarded as a hero by local farmers affected by the military South of the Union.

The end of the Bandit materializes because of the betrayal by Robert Ford, who is secretly agree with Missouri Governor Thomas t. Crittenden (who had made the capture of the Bandit his priority). Jesse James died on April 3, 1882 in Saint Joseph: after lunch with Rob and Charlie Ford, is killed by two brothers to gunshots, with a silver-plated Colt 45. The Fords take advantage of one of the few moments in which James wears its weapons, due to the heat: as he climbs on a Chair to clean a picture dusted, was hit from behind. It's Robert to shoot the lethal blow, directed to the back of the head with the gun that Jesse himself had given him.

The assassination was carried out on behalf of the Pinkertons, detectives on the trail of time Bandit James, and immediately becomes a story of national importance: the Ford brothers, however, do nothing to hide their role in the affair. In fact, after spreading the news of the death, begin kicking off voices speaking a Jesse James survived after a clever trick to pretend their organized death. None of James's biographers, however, considers these stories as plausible.

Biography of Michael Keaton

September 5, 1951

Who is Michael Keaton?

Michael Keaton, whose real name is Michael John Douglas was born on 5 September 1951 in Forest Grove, in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, the youngest of seven children of George, a civil engineer, and Leona Elizabeth, a homemaker.

Raised in a Catholic education, he attended Montour High School and studied for two years at Kent State, before leaving and moving to Pittsburgh.

The first appearances

After attempting unsuccessfully to become a stand-up comedian, he began working as a cameraman for the public television station WQED. in 1975 appears on the small screen in "Where the Heart" and "Mister Rogers ' Neighborhood" as one of the Flying Zookeeni Brothers.

After working as a production assistant on tv and in theatre as an actor (wearing the clothes of Rick in "Sticks and Bones," by David Rabe), Michael is leaving Pittsburgh to move to Los Angeles. Here is the protagonist of some appearances on "Maude" and "The Mary Tyler Moore Houre"; During this time, he decided to use the stage name Keaton to avoid being confused with his namesake Michael Douglas.

Gli anni ' 80

Later he collaborated to the sitcoms "Working Stiffs", alongside James Belushi, where has the opportunity to showcase their talent. Then, take part in "Night Shift," comedy directed by Ron Howard, where he impersonates Bill Blaze Blazejowski, a character who is appreciated by critics and that paves the way for other films: "Mr. Mom", "Johnny Dangerously" and "Gung Ho".

Married in 1982 to actress Caroline McWilliams, becoming father of Sean Maxwell, in 1988 Michael Keaton is the protagonist of "Beetlejuice," Tim Burton's horror comedy that also starring Winona Ryder, Geena Davis and Alec Baldwin.

At the same time is also the big screen with a dramatic film, "Clean and Sober", in which it lends the face to a businessman drug dependent.


The turning point in the career of Michael Keaton goes back to when Burton still wants him in 1989 to interpret "Batman": despite the Warner Bros reach thousands of protest letters from fans who feel that the wrong choice Keaton, particularly because of his previous work in comedies. The actor's performance, however, is applauded by critics and audiences.

Gli anni ' 90

Between the 1989 and the 1990 Michael embarks on a love affair with the actress Courtney Cox (their story will end in 1995) and separates from his wife Caroline.

On the professional front, in 1992 (the year in which the double animation film "Porco Rosso", by Hayao Miyazaki) finds himself the role of Batman in "Batman Returns", which in turn gets a great success despite the greater amount of violence than the first film.

In the 1990s, Michael Keaton has appeared in numerous films, including "Pacific Heights," "One Good Cop", "My Life" and "Much Ado About Nothing", finding Ron Howard behind the camera in "The Paper". Among the other films of the Decade, "Jack Frost" and the thriller "Desperate Measures".

The years 2000

In the 2000s, the actor is called dub episodes of "the Simpsons" and "King of the Hill" and "Gary the Rat"; also works in "Live from Baghdad", which was nominated for a Golden Globe, but also to "First Daughter", "White Noise" and "Herbie: Fully Loaded": Although these are films that guarantee excellent feedback from critics, none of them manages to repeat the takings at the box office.

In 2006 Keaton tries his hand again in the dubbing room, lending its voice to Chick Hicks in Disney's Pixar "Cars". At the same time, takes part in "Game 6", an independent thriller inspired by the famous World Series of 1986 and the defeat of the Boston Red Sox. After appearing in a short film by Drew Hancock "Tenacious d: Time Fixers", in 2007 Keaton took part in the tv miniseries "The Company", set in the cold war years, playing the character (actually existed) by James Jesus Angleton, one of the leaders of the Cia Counterintelligence: thanks to this role, he was nominated, Screen Actors Guild Award in the category "Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries".

In 2008 he devoted himself to directing, directing "The Merry Gentleman". She starred in "Tenacious d: The Complete Masterworks 2" and in "Post Grad," by Vicky Jenson.

The years 2010

In 2010 appears in "The Other Guys", directed by Adam McKay, where plays the role of a minor character, Captain Gene Mauch, and back in the dubbing for the film by Gary Rydstrom "Hawaiian Vacation" and to give his voice to Ken in the movie "Toy Story 3"; the following year Angus short double McLane "Small Fry", while in 2012 working for the voice in "Frankenweenie", by Tim Burton, and "Noah" by John Stronach and Bill Boyce, as well as the video game "Call of Duty: Black Ops II".

In 2013 the American actor is in "Penthouse North", by Joseph Ruben, before working for Scott Waugh in "Need for Speed" and José Padilha in "RoboCop".

In 2014 is the protagonist of the film by Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu "Birdman", starring Zach Galifianakis, Emma Stone, Naomi Watts and Edward Norton. In the film impersonates Riggan Thomson, a famous actor to have played the superhero Birdman, which serves to Broadway a representation based on a short story by Raymond Carver to regain past glory. For this role, Michael Keaton won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy, and is also nominated for an Oscar as best actor.

Biography of Leonardo

Milanese benches
September 5, 1969

Who is Leonardo?

Leonardo Nascimento de Araújo, known in the sports world with his abbreviated name Leonardo was born in Niterói, in the Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro, on 5 September 1969.

Professional footballer's career began in 1987 in the Flamengo team, with which he made his debut in the Brazilian championship at the age of eighteen. Not yet seventeen years old when he was able to play alongside his idol Zico as well as internationally renowned players such as Leandro, Bebeto and Renato Gaúcho. alongside these great won his first players Championship. From 1990 to 1991 Leonardo play in Sao Paulo, won the Brazilian title in 1991.

Then move on to the Spanish team Valencia. In 1993 he returned to Brazil to play again with the São Paulo; He won the Libertadores Cup and the Intercontinental Cup, the latter trophy is won by beating AC Milan in Tokyo, his future team.

With the Brazilian national team won the 1994 American World Cup final, on penalties, Italy led by Arrigo Sacchi. He then moved to Japan to play for the Kashima Antlers in the j. League baby girl in whose file includes also the friend Zico.

In 1996 he was signed by the French Leonardo of Paris Saint-Germain, with which the raggiunre Cup winners ' Cup final.

And then to Milan in her pink, so he hired in the summer of 1997: remains in the squad until 2001, playing 96 League games, scoring 22 goals and winning the League title 1998-1999 by protagonist (12 goals in 27 appearances).

At the end of the 2000-2001 season he decided to return to his homeland, where he played first in Sao Paulo and Flamengo. From time to time overcoming various injuries, thought several times to withdraw from competitive football, however he decides to surprise return to football in October 2002, when AC Milan still wants it. The new Italian experience is very short, and in March 2003 ends the player's career.

In addition to knowing the languages Portuguese, English, Spanish, French (and Japanese), speaks perfect Italian.

His fame as a footballer is at least equal to that of decent person especially for humanitarian initiatives, which over the years has got to move forward. In 1999 in Brazil gave birth to the Fundação Gol de Letra. It remained tied to the environment, so much so that Tony was Director of the Fondazione Milan until May 2006.

After football he worked as a consultant for transfer rumours: is Technical Operations Director of Milan, works as a viewer in America, so much so that he helps bring in Italy several young people who then turn out, phenomena such as Kaka, Pato and Thiago Silva.

Leonardo Italian citizen becomes officially in 2008. At the end of May 2009 the administrator Adriano Galliani announced that the new coach Carlo Ancelotti will replace Leonardo.

August 22, 2009 debuts. On October 21, 2009, under his direction, the Milan wins against Real Madrid Spanish Stadium Santiago Bernabéu (3-2) for the first time in its history.

On May 14, 2010, after achieving a direct qualification into the Champions League, Leonardo though his farewell announces the rossoneri club, which takes effect at the end of the season. Behind the decision to abandon the company that more than any other was tied there would be severe misunderstandings with President Silvio Berlusconi.

With the departure of Rafael Benitez in mid season, Massimo Moratti, a great admirer of Leonardo, calls him to ask him to drive the other Milan team: so, as a Christmas gift, on December 24, 2010 Leonardo becomes new coach of Inter Milan.

Biography of Marianna Madia

September 5, 1980

Who is Marianna Madia?

Maria Anna Madia, known as Marianna, was born on September 5, 1980 in Rome, the daughter of Stefano Madia, journalist, Director and actor, and great-grandson of Titta Madia, lawyer and politician. Marianna high school attends the "Chateaubriand" in Rome, a French public school, graduating with mention bien.

She graduated in political science with economics earning honors with a thesis on the economic theory of the labour market between regulation and Union, specializing at the Institute for advanced studies Lucca, obtaining a Ph.d. in labor economics.

Later, he collaborated with the Research Department of Arel, research and Legislation Agency founded by Nino Andreatta, dealing with the coordination of Ele (European Economy Job), monthly magazine.

In 2006 Marianna Madia participates in transmitting Raitre "Economix", signing some services; starting from the same year is part of the technical secretariat of the Secretary to the Presidency of the Council during the Prodi government.

In 2007 is curator of the book "A senior welfare. Population ageing or rejuvenation of society? ", published by Il Mulino. Creator and author of the Rai Educational program "E-cube (ecology economy Energy)", which won the special prize of the festival "Green Wave 21° Century" dedicated to the environment, in February 2008, in view of the general elections, Marianna Madia receives the invitation of Walter Veltroni, Secretary of the Democratic Party, to apply: then, is presented as the leader in the 15TH District, one in Rome and province , being elected.

The appropriateness of his candidacy, however, unleashed controversy, due to his lack of political experience (she, instead, considers a value), both at his young age, is the fact that it has been in past Giulio Napolitano's Companion, son of the President of the Republic.

In spite of the hostility exists, however, the 22 April 2008 Sideboard officially became part of the Chamber of Deputies, by becoming a member of the Permanent Commission XI public and private work. Between 2008 and 2009 writes about Arel articles "Between Government and Parliament, the gray areas of financial", "the precarious workers are the weakest link" and "Tangentopoli nowadays. This is the time of disaffection ".

During his parliamentary career, part-among other things-of the twenty-two members of the Democratic Party showing absent during the vote on the measure of the tax shield staged on 2 October 2009: the measure is approved for twenty votes, and then thanks to the absence of European Parliament piddini, so the Pd group in the House decides to take action against the apologies including Marianna Madia, but defended himself claiming to be gone to Brazil to undergo some clinical findings.

As a member of the Committee work presents as a signatory to a Bill (signed among others by Livia Turco, Cesare Damiano, Arturo Parisi and Giulio Santagata) for the expansion of employment rights and overcoming of duality in the labour market, in favour of the fight against insecurity.

In 2010 on Arel is the author of "The Silver Tsunami risk between the demographic imbalance and the short view of politics" and "a country unfit for future generations". Become part of the Editorial Committee of the magazine ' Italianieuropei ' in 2011, writes about Arel "generations and cultures compared: How can I be women? Interview with Luciana Castellina and Giorgia Meloni "and" so far, so good: the true story of pensions "; In addition, the book is published by Rubbettino. " Stories of an Italy that works ", which makes use of the preface of Susanna Camusso, and in which are told the labor policies of the last three years of the Berlusconi Government.

In 2012 he became a member of the Steering Committee of Arel, on whose "time magazine writes: the horizon removed temporary contracts" and "welfare, that Pact that should be fair." In view of the general elections of February 2013 is a candidate in the primaries of the Democratic Party of December 30, 2012, taking about 5 thousand preferences and earning a useful position in the lists of the Lazio 1 constituency for election to the Chamber of Deputies.

Therefore, elected Deputy for the 17TH legislative period and remained in the Committee work, is first signed the draft law "Provisions for the establishment of a single contract and insertion for overcoming of duality in the labour market", as well as proposals for the establishment of a solidarity and income for banning financial transactions or economic organizations or companies based in foreign countries that do not allow the identification of the owners.

As a co-signatory, however, subscribes to the proposals for the establishment of the register of holders of public office, political movements and parties; for the discipline of how signing the letter of termination of employment and letter of resignation; and for the reduction of prison overcrowding. Occupatasi also the establishment of the minimum income of active citizenship and social security standards in support of workers who must assist relatives with severe disabilities, subsequently before signing of bills dealing with the introduction of an allowance for workers with atypical work contracts as a result of suspension or conclusion of employment and with the prevention of overlapping between work incomes and pensions.

In 2013, for Arel writes "Generation jobless, not only Italian drama" and "Rome needs uniform policy"; then, in December, after the election of the Democratic Party Secretary of Matteo Renzi, joins the National Secretary of the Democratic Party, with the role of the person responsible for the work. In February 2014 Marianna Madia was appointed Minister for public administration and Simplification in the new Government of Renzi.

Biography of Mother Teresa of Calcutta

Total gift
August 26, 1910
September 5, 1997

Who is Mother Teresa of Calcutta?

Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Agnes), the future Mother Teresa, was born on August 26, 1910 in Skopje (the former Yugoslavia).

A child receives a strongly Catholic education since his family, Albanian citizenship, was deeply rooted in the Christian religion.

Already in the 1928, Gonxha feels attracted to religious life, which afterwards will assign a "grace" by Mary fattale. Then plug the fateful decision is well founded in Dublin by the Sisters of our Lady of Loreto, whose rule is inspired by the spirituality type indicated in "the spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola. Thanks to meditations on the Holy pages developed Spanish mature Mother Teresa the feeling of wanting to "help all men."

Gonxha is drawn so irresistibly from missions. The superior sends her then in India, in Darjeeling, a town located at the foot of the Himalayas, where, on May 24, 1929, begins his novitiate. Given that teaching is the main vocation of the Sisters of Loreto, she undertakes this task, especially following the poor children. At the same time pursuing his personal studies to obtain the diploma of Professor.

On May 25, 1931, pronounced religious vows and became from that moment the name of sister Teresa in honor of St. Therese of Lisieux. To finish his studies, was sent, in 1935, at the Institute of Calcutta, unhealthy and overcrowded capital of Bengal. Ibid., it is suddenly confronted with the reality of abject poverty, at a level that lets it convulsed. In fact a whole population is born, lives and dies on the sidewalks; their roof, if all goes well, consists of a bench seat, from the corner of a doorway, from an abandoned cart. Others have only a few newspapers or cartons ... The average newborn children die, their bodies dumped in a dustbin or a drain.

Mother Teresa is horrified when he discovers that every morning, the remnants of those creatures are collected together with piles of garbage.

According to the Chronicles, the September 10, 1946, while praying, sister Teresa distinctly perceives an invitation from God to leave the Loreto convent to dedicate themselves to the service of the poor, to share their suffering living in their midst. Confides in the superior, which the fa wait, to test his obedience. Within a year, the Holy See authorizes you to live outside of the enclosure. On August 16, 1947, at thirty-seven years, sister Teresa is wearing for the first time a "sari" (traditional dress of Indian women) a rough white cotton, adorned with a blue trim, the colors of the Virgin Mary. On the shoulder, a small black crucifix. When it comes and goes, he brings with him a briefcase containing his belongings, but no money. Mother Teresa has never asked for money nor has ever had. Yet his works and foundations have prompted considerable expenses! She attributed this "miracle" in the work of Providence ...

From 1949 onwards, more and more young people are going to share the life of Mother Teresa. The latter, however, puts to the test a long time before they receive them. In the fall of 1950, Pope Pius XII officially authorizes the new institution, named "Congregation of the missionaries of charity".

During the winter of 1952, one day it goes looking for the poor, is a woman who agonizes on the street, too weak to combat the rats that gnaw his toes. The door to the nearest hospital, where, after many difficulties, the moribund is accepted. Sister Teresa is the idea of asking the municipality receiving a welcome the dying abandoned. A House that needed a time from kindergarten to the pilgrims of the Hindu temple of "Kali the black", and now used by vagrants and dealers of all sorts, is put at his disposal. Sister Teresa accepts it. Many years later, say, on the subject of thousands of dying that went from the House: "Die so admirably with God! We have not met, so far, no one who refuses to ask for "forgiveness", who refused to say: "my God, I love you."

Two years later, Mother Teresa creates the "Center of hope and life" for abandoned children. In fact, those that are taken there, wrapped in rags or even pieces of paper, have little hope of living. Then simply receive baptism to be greeted, according to Catholic doctrine, among the souls in heaven. Many of those who manage to recover, will be adopted by families in all countries. "An abandoned child that we had collected, was entrusted to a very wealthy family-says Mother Teresa-a family of high society, who wanted to adopt a child. A few months later, I hear that the child was very sick and that will remain paralyzed. I'm visiting family and I propose: "give me the child: replace him with another healthy.? I'd rather you killed me rather than be separated from this baby! "replies the father, whose face looked all sad." Mother Teresa: "Note That lacking more to the poor, is to feel useful, to feel loved. Is being made by imposing their poverty, that hurts them. For all sorts of diseases, there are medicines, cures, but when it is undesirable, if there are pitiful hands and loving hearts, then there is no hope for true healing. "

Mother Teresa is animated, in all its activities, from the love of Christ, from the desire to "do something beautiful for God," in the service of the Church. "Being Catholic has a total, absolute importance-says-we are at your complete disposal of the Church. We profess great love, deep and personal, for the Holy Father. We must attest to the truth of the Gospel, proclaiming the word of God without fear, openly, clearly, as the Church teaches ".

"The work that we do is, for us, only a means to realize our love of Christ ... We are dedicated to serving the poorest of the poor, namely of Christ, of which the poor are the painful image ... In the Eucharist Jesus and Jesus in the poor, under the appearances of bread and under the appearances of the poor, that's what makes us of Contemplatives in the heart of the world ".

Over the 60 years, Mother Teresa's work extends to almost all the dioceses of India. In 1965, leaving women in Venezuela. In March 1968, Pope Paul VI asked Mother Teresa to open a house in Rome. After visiting the suburbs of the city and found that the material and moral poverty also exists in "developed" countries, it accepts. At the same time, the sisters working in Bangladesh, a country ravaged by a horrific civil war. Many women were raped by soldiers: we recommend to those who are pregnant, have an abortion. Mother Teresa then the Government declares that she and her sisters take the children, but that we must not, at any cost, "that those women who had suffered violence, only to then commit a transgression that would be stuck in them for life". Mother Teresa has always fought with great energy against all forms of abortion.

In 1979 she was awarded the most prestigious recognition: the Nobel Peace Prize. Among the reasons is shown his commitment to the poorest of the poor, and his respect for the value and dignity of each person. Mother Teresa during the conventional ceremonial banquet refuses for the winners, and asks that the $ 6,000 prize is intended for the needy of Calcutta, that with this sum can get aid for an entire year.

In the years ' 80, the order she founded, on average, fifteen new homes a year. Since 1986, settles in Communist countries, hitherto prohibited the missionaries: Ethiopia, South Yemen, USSR, Albania, China.

In March 1967, Mother Teresa's work has been enriched by a male branch: the "Congregation of Friars". And, in 1969, the fraternity of lay collaborators of the missionaries of charity.

Requirement in many quarters where was his extraordinary moral force, Mother Teresa said: "my secret is infinitely simple. You are welcome. Through prayer, I become one in love with Christ. Pray, love him. " In addition, Mother Tersa has also explained how love is inextricably joined to joy: "joy is prayer that praises God: man is created to praise. Joy is hope of eternal happiness. Joy is a net of love to capture souls. True holiness consists in doing God's will with a smile ".

Many times Mother Teresa, responding to young people who experienced the desire to go to help in India, responded to remain in their country, to exercise charity towards the "poor" in their usual environment. Here are some suggestions: "In France, as in New York and anywhere how many beings are hungry to be loved: is a terrible poverty, this, without comparison with poverty of Africans and Indians ... Not as much as you like, but it's the love we put into giving that counts ... Pray for this to begin in your own family. Children often do not have anyone who will welcome them, when they return from school. When you meet with the parents, is to sit in front of the television, and do not exchange a Word. It is a very deep poverty ... You have to work to earn your family's life, but also have the courage to share with someone who hasn't? Maybe just a smile, a teacup-, propose to sit down to talk for a few moments; write maybe only one letter to a sick patient in hospital ... ".

After several hospital stays, Mother Teresa died in Calcutta on September 5, 1997, causing worldwide emotion.

The December 20, 2002 Pope John Paul II signed a decree recognizing the heroic virtue of "Saint of the poor", starting the fastest beatification process in the history of the "causes" of the Saints.

In the week that celebrated the 25 years of his pontificate sounds, October 19, 2003, Pope John Paul II presided over the beatification of Mother Teresa in front of an excited crowd of three hundred thousand faithful.

Biography of Goffredo Mameli

Tragedy of a Patriot
September 5, 1827
July 6, 1849

Who is Goffredo Mameli?

Italian poet and patriot who died prematurely at the age of twenty-two, Mameli was born in Genoa on September 5, 1827 from a Sardinian Navy Admiral and the Marquise Adelaide Zoagli Lomellini. Ill health, he first studies under the guidance of his mother. His home was frequented by intellectuals of the Genoese environment as Jacopo Sanvitale, Teresa Doria or Giuseppe channel.

In 1835 the family is forced to relocate for a year in Sardinia, the paternal grandparents because of the cholera epidemic that hit Genova during that year.

Godfrey continued his studies under the guidance of Giuseppe Canale, polygraph of great culture very active politically. It is almost certainly from these that Mameli drew his great love for the motherland and for national autonomy. Channel, watched by the Austrian police, was not in fact free from suspects Cameron and strong sympathies Mazzini, all of which, in full swing, could cause considerable trouble.

The 13-year-old Godfrey later attended public school, run by the Church at the time, and he studied rhetoric under the guidance of father Augustine wall, an exponent of the ' scolopi ', a religious order which, in contrast with other ecclesiastical orders (and particularly the Jesuits), imparted to address liberal education. Already in the period of his early high school years, Geoffrey expresses his poetic vocation, supported by a strong imagination and a passion that peeks more vigorously in the works written in his maturity fulminant. Enrolled after the school of philosophy of the University of Genoa, suffers because of his exuberant temperament, many official recalls. However at that time the Faculty of philosophy could also be in preparation for the passage of other studies and in fact M in ' 46 is admitted to the graduate program in literature, although, given his inconstancy, congenital fails to attend. The following year, he left the University to join the "Entelema Society" founded in Chiavari and spread in Genoa in the University environment. From historical and literary themes, the company passed soon to discuss political issues and ended up bringing the young Democrats. Approaches to Mazzini coming into relationship with some co-workers of Exile (Nino Bixio).

Meanwhile, the environment is formed of the intellectuals, the bourgeoisie and nobility, the progressive "order Committee" (which also joins M), with the task of organizing initiatives to attract liberal reforms in the Kingdom of Sardinia, avoiding the excesses of the popular masses. King Charles Albert, who had already granted the first timid reforms, arrives in Genoa, greeted by enthusiastic events organized by the Committee. The streets are already singing the hymn "Brothers of Italy" composed by musician Michele Novaro on words by Goffredo Mameli.

About the anthem, the testimony is that, although many years later by Charles Albert Barrili, Patriot and poet, friend and biographer of M. The action takes place in Turin: "There, in an evening of September means House of Lorenzo Valerio, Patriot and writer of good name, music and politics together. In fact, to make them agree, you read several hymns on the piano blossomed in that year for every region of Italy, from that of Meucci, of Rome, set to music by Magazzari-the new year already the dawn of the very recent Prime-Piedmontese Bertoldi-blue chest With rosette-music from Rossi. In that medium enters the living room a new guest, Ulysses Borzino, dear all my painter genovesi recall.

He arrived from Genoa; and held to a package Novaro, who had taken out of pocket at that point:-Well said; I send Godfrey. -The Novaro opens the package, law, recoils. Ask him what is; the crush of fans around. -A wonderful thing! -exclaims the maestro; and reads aloud, and raises for all her audience enthusiasm. -I felt-the teacher told me in April of ' 75, when I asked about the anthem, for a memorial service that I had to keep the M-I felt inside me something extraordinary, which I couldn't define now, with all twenty-seven years. I know I cried, I was upset, and I couldn't stop stars. I asked myself at the harpsichord, with verses by Godfrey on the lectern, and noodled on assassinavo Hill, fingers convulsed that poor tool, always with his eyes the anthem, putting down melodic phrases, one over the other, but far the mille miglia from the idea that they could adapt to those words.

I got unhappy with me; I tarried a little more at home, but always with Valerio those verses before the eyes of the mind. I saw that there was no remedy, I took my leave and courses at home. There, without even get the hat, I threw myself at the piano. I headed back to memory the reason Valerio: homemade strummed wrote it on a sheet of paper, the first that came to blows: in my excitement I overthrew the Lucerne on harpsichord and, consequently, also on the poor sheet; This was the anthem's original brothers of Italy. "

The King's Party, resumed the demonstrations, in which M is among the most active organizers to get organic reform: freedom of the press, expulsion of the Jesuits and the National Guard. M on these occasions come to recite some of his patriotic compositions or to wave, despite the Government ban, the Tricolor flag.

However, numerous internal dissensions soon lead to the dissolution of the "Committee of order", mainly because of the discussions about the line to hold. Very hard, for example, was the clash between those who supported the mazziniana line and who was for a political-social interventionism more gradual and therefore more moderate.

In February of ' 48 celebrates the granting of the Constitution in Naples; the cheering reached its peak with the announcement that Charles Albert granted the status. On the other side of Italy, instead, Milan arises. M with other three hundred volunteers led by General Torres (but then, on the way, will join the Group of Bixio), moves to the cities of Lombardy with intent to make a personal contribution to the battle of the Patriots. M has the rank of captain.

Arrived on 18 April in Milan finally meets his idol, Mazzini; between the two is a great value, even by virtue of subsequent meetings, where M is the spokesman of the column.

However, in August Milan falls, the revolt is off in the blood. It's the time of the Armistice of Salasco. The Patriot back to Genoa dejected but still combative. Here, she joined the "Italian Club", which collects Mazzini and moderate Liberals, he writes for "Il Pensiero Italian" and publishes the "war song", composed by Mazzini.

In September is the promoter of a massive demonstration at the Carlo Felice to raise funds for Venice; in this occasion reads the poem "Milan and Venice", which is an invective against Charles Albert "traitor" of the Italian cause. Arrives in Genoa also to arrange a Garibaldi volunteer corps. Mameli is among its most active contributors. Then a mission takes place in Ancona, on behalf of the "Italian Club", to bring the fleet to Sardinian proclamation accord in aid of Venice.

Also assumes the direction of the newspaper Diario del popolo "promoting a campaign to press for the resumption of war with Austria.

In November published on Diario del popolo "Mazzini's call for insurrection in Val D'intelvi. The column reaches valance Garibaldi to Tuscany to get him to go to the aid of Mazzini. The news of the riots after the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi, induced him to move towards Rome. The program called Roman Association Committee to promote the convening in Rome a costituente nazionale according to the dictates of political Mazzini: popular sovereignty, independence war, postponing the question of the choice of form of Government after the expulsion of the foreigner.

In January 1849, after the flight of Pius IX in Rome formed a Provisional Government Junta; Mameli is primarily concerned with military organization. Day 9 is the proclamation of the Roman Republic. It's national anthem the telegram "come, Rome, La repubblica in which he invited Mazzini to the Roman Republic.

At this point M back to Genoa and resumed his place in the movement of opinion that will propel Carlo Alberto to the resumption of war. With Bixio arrives in Genoa, where the population has meanwhile risen, although suppressed by General hard Lamarmora. Mameli with the leaders of the uprising he returned to Rome. Works wonders in the defense of the Roman Republic attacked by the French, by participating in the essential facts, despite the poor physical conditions causategli by a persistent fever.

In the fighting outside Porta San Pancrazio, Mameli, then aide-de-camp to Garibaldi, injured his left leg during a bayonet charge. It's his own companion, a legion soldier Manara, hitting him unintentionally in the bustle of the attack. The wound seems slight, but replaced by an infection that progressively worsens the illness of the sick. On June 10 "in view of skill and courage shown in the feat of arms of 3 June" Mameli is promoted to captain of the General staff.

The condition of the patient deteriorates and, in order to prevent gangrene, he amputated the leg. Unfortunately, despite drastic remedy proves insufficient. Goffredo Mameli, at only 22 years, dies reciting verses in delirium. The same day the Interior Minister Pinelli had extraordinary Commissioner of Genoa not allow M returning to his city.

Freddie Mercury biography

The show must go on
September 5, 1946
November 24, 1991

Who is Freddie Mercury?

Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the legendary Queen (real name Frederick Bulsara) was born on September 5, 1946, the exotic island of Zanzibar, currently owned by Tanzania. Son of a British politician always traveling for work, Freddie finds himself performing elementary studies in Bombay, India and then complete them in England, land of origin of the family. The highly international education will allow future sensitive singer to build a significant experience. Initially, among other things, the fate of Mercury did not seem at all the music, since it was enrolled at Ealing art college, majoring in art and design.

He soon shows his extraordinary skills as a pianist and vocalist in big groups like "Sour Milk Sea" and "Wreckage". With these will begin to develop his artistic skills and performing arts. But it is the encounter with Brian May and Roger Taylor that changes lives. The three merge that group now universally known by the name very glamour of "Queen", suggested by the same Mercury that takes advantage of it and also changes its name.

Bulsara it definitely sounds wrong and then choose, always with attention to its theatrical vein, "Mercury" in homage to the mythological Messenger of the gods. The need for a bassist John Deacon then take to complete the training.

On stage, as in life after all, Mercury proves an extraordinary interpreter full of dramatic gestures, a true stage animal. It was, in short, one of the few performers can really brighten a stadium with his mere presence and capture the attention of thousands of onlookers with a single gesture.

All Queen concerts (around the 20th anniversary of their career if they count 707) were absolutely spectacular and unforgettable, thanks to Mercury scenic qualities. The singer, then, proved to be always very courageous in living his identity, claiming multiple times without embarrassment his homosexuality.

You develop Aids (perhaps in the 1986 agreement) that will take him to a premature death on November 24, 1991 for pneumonia.

Biography of Gregorio Paltrinieri

September 5, 1994

Who is Gregory Pablo?

Gregory Pablo was born on 5 September 1994 in Carpi, near Modena, the son of Lorraine, employed in a knitwear factory, and Luke, a pool manager in Novellara. From the earliest months of life comes into contact with the pool, and even as a child is a very good swimmer: first competitions date back to when he was six years old.

The first competitive swim

Initially he specialised in frog; then, around twelve years, aided by physical development (at the age of sixteen will already be 1 metre high and 90), converts to free style specializing in long distances (being too skinny for speed). Enrolled at the high school his city's Infantry (though not love math), participates in the 2011 European Youth Championships in Belgrade, Serbia, where he earned the bronze in the 800 m freestyle with a time of 8 ' 01 ' 31 ' and gold in the 1500 freestyle with a time of 15 ' 12 '' 16; qualifying for the World Cup in Shanghai, fails to pass the batteries.

Youth World Championships which are held in Lima, Peru, on the other hand, won the bronze in the 800 (8 ' 00 '' 22) and stops at the silver in 1500 (15 ' 15 ' 02). Is consoled in the following year with victory in the 1500 short course Championships of Chartres, in France, with a time of 14 ' 27 '' 78.

Champion of Europe

On 25 may 2012, two months after he became Italian champion in the 800, Gregory Pablo won the gold medal at the European Championships in Debrecen, Hungary, in the 1500 freestyle, defeating home samples Kis Gergely Gyurta and Jargon; his time of 14 ' 48 '' 92 allows him to qualify for the Olympic Games, and is the new record of the Championships.

In the same event takes the second step of the podium in the 800 freestyle.

The first Olympics

In August 2012 participates for the first time at the Olympic Games: in five exhibition held in London, will arrive first in the 1500 freestyle battery scoring 14 time ' 50 '' 11, representing its second best performance of all time and the fourth qualifying time for the final, where it will not get past the fifth.

At the end of 2012 Gregorio Paltrinieri takes part in the short course World Championships held in Istanbul, Turkey, winning the silver medal in the 1500 behind Danish Mads Glaesner. The latter, however, in June of 2013 is disqualified for doping, and so Pablo is elected to world champion.

In August of that year the Carpi swimmer takes part in long course World Championships in Barcelona, where she received a bronze medal in 1500 by the time 14 ' 45 '' 37 which, in addition to being its best ever performance, is also the Italian records over the distance; in the 800, however, stops at sixth place in the final, locking in 7 ' 50 '' 29.

In 2014: UPS, downs and records

In February 2014 the Court of arbitration for Sport in Lausanne revokes the disqualification for doping to Glaesner (the test performed after 1500 he didn't notice the positivity, which was recorded after the 400 freestyle, where he arrived to bronze) and reassign the obtained gold at the World Championships in Istanbul: Gregory is relegated to second place.

Also in 2014, after being defeated by Gabriele Italian Championships in 800 Sayings (Detti sets record of European distance), Pacey goes back in 1500, with the new Italian record of the distance in 14 ' 44 ' 50.

In August of the same year he participated at the European Championships in Berlin, where-in the final, which saw him finish in first place-sets new European record 14 ' 39 '' 93, breaking down the previous record of Jirij Russian Prilukov: thus becomes the fifth swimmer ever to drop below 14 ' 40 '' 00 in 1500. In that same event, blue swimmer won the gold medal in the 800 freestyle.

At the end of the year, in December, then, becomes world champion 1500 m freestyle in short course World Championships in Doha, Qatar, with the time 14 ' 16 ' 10, which is also the second time ever swam in the world, behind the record of Australian Grant Hackett: this time there are suspensions for doping.

In August 2015 takes part in the World Swimming Championships in Kazan, Russia: get an amazing silver in the distance of 800 m freestyle. A few days later, the world champion over the distance of 1500 meters.

Biography of Charles Péguy

From socialism to Catholicism
January 7, 1873
September 5, 1914

Who is Charles Peguy?

Charles Péguy was born on 7 January 1873 in Orléans, France. Brilliant essayist, playwright, poet, critic, and writer, is regarded as a landmark of modern Christianity, that more open and enlightened who rediscovered after his death, despite his critical attitude towards authoritarianism.

The little Charles was born and raised in a family of humble origins in the countryside, accustomed to live of their hard work. The father, Désiré Péguy, is a Carpenter, but died due to injuries sustained during the franco-Prussian War, a few months after the birth of her eldest son, Charles. The mother, Cécile Quéré, must learn a trade and do the impagliatrice of chairs, as well as his grandmother, which follows his example. It is with these two maternal figures that Péguy spends youth, giving himself to do to help the mother and grandmother, cutting the stems of straw for the job, beating rye with mallet and learning the basics of manual labor. Grandma also illiterate but Narrator of stories belonging to the oral tradition, the young Charles learned the French language.

At the age of seven years is enrolled in school, where he learned the Catechism also thanks to the teachings of his first teacher, monsieur Fautras, defined by the future writer as a man "sweet and serious". In 1884 elementary license.

Theophile Naudy, then Director of the istituto magistrale, press to ensure that Charles will continue their studies. With a scholarship he manages to enroll in College in 1891 and lower thanks to a municipal financing, go to Lakanal in Paris. high school Time for the young and brilliant Péguy is propitious and decides to take part in the competition to be admitted to the University. But he rejected for military service, at 131° infantry regiment.

In 1894, on his second attempt, Charles Péguy enters the École Normale. The experience is for him: after admiring the Greek and Latin Classics, while the high school experience, and have approached the study of Christianity, the brilliant scholar is literally infatuated Socialist and revolutionary ideas of Proudhon and Leroux. But not only. In this period he met and frequented the Socialist Herr, the philosopher Bergson, but begins to believe especially now culturally ready to write, to work on something of her own, important.

Gets the first licence in letters and then, in August 1895, the baccalaureate in Sciences. However, after about two years, leaves the University and falls in Orléans, where he began to write a play about Joan of arc, which engages him for about three years.

On 15 July 1896 Marcel dies Baudouin, his close friend. Charles Péguy decides to help his family and falls in love with Charlotte, sister of his friend, who married in October 1897. A year after getting the first son, Marcel, followed by Charlotte in 1901, 1903, and Pierre in Charles-Pierre, the last to arrive, which was founded shortly after the death of the writer, in 1915.

In 1897 Péguy manages to publish "Joan of Arc", but is completely ignored by audiences and critics. Text sells just a copy. However it is condensed around the thought of Péguy during those years, committed and impregnated with socialism, but conceived in view of a desire and a will all facing a radical salvation, there is room for everyone. The same Joan of arc that describes in his work is paradigmatic: you, the need for salvation that the young author tries and claims from their own political beliefs.

In this period, it should be added, while teaching and to do politically, Charles Péguy also takes an active position in the famous "Dreyfus affair", defending the Jewish officer of the French State, which is falsely accused of spying for the Germans.

Péguy Socialist fervour goes out. On May 1, 1898 in Paris, he founded the "library Bellais" around the Sorbonne and in whose experience physical and economic forces invests, including dowry. However, the project fails in no time.

Then he founded the magazine "Les Cahiers de la Quinzaine," time to investigate and bring to light new literary talent, by publishing their works. It is the beginning of his way, which intersects with other prominent members of the French artistic and literary culture of the time, such as Romain Rolland, Julien Benda and André Suarès. The magazine lasted thirteen years and comes out every two weeks, for a total of 229 and with numbers debut release dated January 5, 1900.

In 1907 Charles Péguy converts to Catholicism. And so returns to the play about Joan of arc, beginning a feverish rewrite, which gives rise to a real "mystery" as it is written in the "Cahiers" of 1909, and this despite the silence of the audience which, after a brief and initial interest, it seems like not that much the author's work.

Péguy however goes on. Writes two other "mysteries": "The Portico of the mystery of the second virtue", dated October 22, 1911, and "the mystery of the Holy Innocents", of March 24, 1912. The books don't sell, the magazine's subscribers are falling and the founder of "Cahiers", is in trouble. Opposed to the Socialists for his conversion, does not breach even in the heart of the Catholics, who accuse some suspicious lifestyle choices, like that of not baptizing children, to meet the wishes of his wife.

In 1912 his youngest son Pierre falls seriously ill. The father makes the vow to go on a pilgrimage to Chartres, in case of healing. This arrives and takes a path of Péguy 144 kilometres in three days, to the Cathedral of Chartres, in midsummer. Is its largest demonstration of faith.

In December 1913, now Catholic writer, writes a poem, which baffles audiences and critics. It's called "Eve", and consists of verses 7,644. Almost at the same time one of his most controversial and brilliant essays sees the light: "money".

In 1914 World War I breaks out. The author enlists volunteer and the September 5, 1914, on the first day of the bloody battle of the Marne, Charles Péguy dies, hit right at the front.

Biography of Louis XIV

The absolute power of the Sun King
September 5, 1638
September 1, 1715

Who is King Louis XIV?

Luigi Deodato di Borbone, better known as King Louis XIV was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, on 5 September 1638. Third King of France and Navarre, a member of the House of Bourbon, is considered the true founder of what monarchical absolutism says, which is to make every decision relating to the people only from their sovereign. For this reason and for the image, lush and impressive, he managed to give himself, has passed into history with the names of the Sun King and King Louis the great.

Son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, his birth is already worthy of being told, after twenty-three years of marriage passed without children. The second name, Deodato, derives from this extraordinary, divine's fatherly advice.

Formally, Luigi Deodato became King of France at age five, in 1643, i.e. upon the death of his father. But for almost twenty years after the event, the Italian Cardinal Mazzarino, famous for his library, to govern the country, thanks to its great influence on the mother of the future King. The death of the high priest, in 1661, the courtiers gather and disoriented, not knowing where else to turn, first and only child of the real French, Louis, asking him who would have to take orders from then on. The future ruler was only twenty-two years old then, but responds flatly that he would be, from that moment, the sole repository of sovereign power.

During the Fronde, turbulent era for France, full of threats and conspiracies, characterized by continuous attacks by the nobility at the French Royal power, Louis XIV wants to avoid at any price to relive those moments of unrest and realizes that he must get to the head of a numerous people, representing the absolute Summit. Welcomes and transforms, making concrete, Hobbes ' ideas, dating back some thirty years earlier, placing himself at the head of Leviathan, as written by the same English philosopher, which is at the top of the arms represented by countless people, which would form all the force of the State.

The image, of the central power, finance and war, even for propaganda purposes, are its resources. Besides a food court in order to obtain the consensus of writers and poets, often abusing power iron censorship, with the ultimate goal to appear as something far beyond the ground. This, in essence, the formula that turns in the Sun King.

After a short time since taking office, the King of France Appoints Jean-Baptiste Colbert as "Comptroller General", i.e. the Ministry of finance. Choose the son of a merchant, and avoid fishing in strong powers to prevent a powerful aristocracy could overshadow his figure. Same thing is for the Minister of war, preferring the Marquis de Luvois, son of a Royal Chancellor. It is surrounded by officials and stewards, exploiting the teachings of Cardinal Richelieu, who had preceded him and the Mazarin. Every single district or Department, as it is called, must do in a set state appointed by the King, according to a modern and efficient administrative system, in which the sovereign power and its control over every aspect of the State.

Does an old hunting then, Versailles, the only major court in Europe, home of the infamous Royal Palace. By 1682 the city, away from riots in Paris, becomes the only real home. Here, already before, in 1668 and in 1672, Louis XIV organizes two large parties, go to the history of France "of the ancien regime. Theatre, dance, Fireworks and lighting effects and canal water, draw the nobles at Court and build the myth of the Sun King and the Palace of Versailles. Soon, the great artists of the stage as Racine and Moliere, take her. With them, painters, sculptors, singers of all sorts. Not to mention the music of a great composer as the Italian Giovanni Battista Lulli.

In the eighties of the 17th century, Louis XIV thus reached the height of his fame, known all over the world. Noted, the phrase "l ' état, c'est moi", meaning "I am the State", attributed to it by his biographers and symptomatic of his way of governing, which centralizes all State power in a single person.

To show their strength and loyalty, then get the King of France also uses of war, when not just religious persecution, like the one against the Huguenots, who considers it a sect able to give headaches to their power. On 17 October 1685, therefore the edict of Fontainebleau, which officially decreed that Catholic France, without divisions or religious differences. Against papal power, relegate him to the Roman borders, offers the Gallican Church whose four bearing points, are a direct consequence of the first sort, which States that the power of the Pope is to be understood in a purely spiritual.

With the arrival of the 18th century, the wars also, maybe too many and too expensive during the reign of Louis Deodato. Indeed, even before the ' 700 there had been several wars, in which the French Crown had inserted, such as devolution of 1667 or those fought between the Netherlands and England. However, the war of the Spanish succession, as it is called by historians because for dynastic events erupted regarding the throne of Spain, for sure is the most bloody addressed by Louis XIV.

The King of France from 1660 is married to Maria Theresa of Austria, also known as Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter of the King of Spain, Philip IV and designated as heir to the Spanish throne. Iberian legacy is huge, including the Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, the Duchy of Milan, the Spanish Netherlands and a vast colonial empire in South America. When he died without heirs the banned Spanish King Charles II, France and Austria themselves again against each other over the succession to the throne, because both related to the Spanish Crown. Luigi offers the Duke of Anjou, the great-grandson of the eldest daughter of Philip III of Spain, Anne of Austria, and the grandson of the eldest daughter of Philip IV of Spain, Maria Teresa, wife of Louis XIV. The Austria has in Charles, Archduke of Austria and son of Emperor Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, her suitor, because her grandmother Maria Anna, a daughter of the King of Spain.

The constraint however left by Charles in his will for those who would rule after him is pretty heavy: the pretender would have to give up their title with the promise to keep intact the Spanish borders.

The war breaks out after the appointment of Philip of Anjou, named Philip V, who too soon, in 1701 promulgates "Asiento", i.e. the law giving exclusive rights to France by Spain on sale of slaves in the colonies of the new world. You create a new Grand Alliance, including the uk, and the war becomes inevitable and aimed at avoiding that the France of Louis take a domain too large on other European countries.

The war of the Spanish succession in practice throughout the latter part of the life of Louis, marking the end of his reign and compromising its size, because of the huge economic and military costs. After the initial victories, the war machine of the Sun King. The Duke of Marlborough and Prince of Savoy obtained several victories over France, Portugal sided with the Alliance and the battles of Ramillies and Oudenaarde do miss franco-Spanish forces in the Spanish Netherlands, as well as the battle of Turin forced the King to abandon the Italian front.

In 1709 Louis XIV, weakened, it must give all conquered territories, keeping France at the Treaty of Westphalia, signed more than sixty years before. It is, in practice, the end of his reign and his greatness. Permanently compromised by excessive use of force, at the expense of a population increasingly plagued by hunger and hardships of war, as well as from taxes.

Louis XIV dies of gangrene in one leg, on 1 September 1715, a few days before his 77th birthday and after 72 years 3 months and 18 days. His great-grandson Louis, Duke of Anjou, with the name of Louis XV.

Biography of Clay Regazzoni

The ride continues
September 5, 1939
December 15, 2006

Who is Clay Regazzoni?

Italy, a country that forgets too easily the heroes. Okay as long as you're on track, and get results. Put in a corner and not considered just exit from the Grand Tour. This is the case of Shri "Clay" Regazzoni, true myth of Formula 1, great champion and, as they say with perhaps a little obvious image, even in life. This is rhetoric, perhaps, but in this case with good reason. It is true that Regazzoni is Swiss, but it is also true that his most important successes achieved them with the Tricolor of Ferrari and that in our country, when won, was a beloved champion.

The great Clay, has been able to deal with as few misfortune to end up in a wheelchair during the years of his professional heyday, bending this tragedy in a rush to make new positive undertakings, such as the Club Clay Regazzoni Onlus-Aiutiamo La Paraplegia-whose purpose is to raise funds to donate to institutions and institutes operating in the research on problems of paraplegia; in its years of activity were collected tens of thousands of euros, paid at the Uroparaplegia Department of the hospital in Magenta).

Gian Claudio Giuseppe Regazzoni was born on September 5, 1939 in Lugano, in the canton of Ticino, and closing all in all quite late to the world of racing cars (it was 1963) but, after the first approaches in Formula 3, Formula 2 a Flash as the official pilot of techno.

In 1970 he made his debut in Formula 1 at the wheel of the Ferrari getting a resounding victory in the Grand Prix of Italy at Monza. His collaboration with "red" continues in the two subsequent seasons but the results, given the lack of competitiveness of the car, are not adequate to its value. In 1973 "emigrated" to English but is a Brm pest season: only two points in the year.

The best year for Regazzoni is the 1974 when back at Ferrari to be paired with a young promise, Niki Lauda, to "orders" of a young and passionate sports Director, Luca Cordero di Montezemolo. The 1976 is the last season behind the wheel of the Ferrari. The following year passes to the Ensign of results as in 1978 to the Shadow. In 1979 the emerging Williams pass sponsored by Arab donors and leads to the first, historical victory in the British Grand Prix at Silverstone.

At the beginning of 1980 back to Ensign but a dramatic incident in the Long Beach race will put an end to his career in Formula 1 and will force him out of a wheelchair. In the years after Regazzoni, who has never left the world of motoring, has continued to guide and participate in competitions, including many and exhausting "marathons" African off-road cars and even trucks. In this whirlwind of races and competitions, did not miss the historical car competitions. In 2000 came a great satisfaction: voted, alongside former skier Michela Figini, ticinese sports of the century.

Clay Regazzoni, also the author of two books "matter of the heart" (winner of the literary prize Premio Bancarella and Cones), and "and the ride continues", passed away tragically on December 15, 2006, fatally in a road accident on the A1 autostrada della Cisa Italian.

Raquel Welch biography

September 5, 1940

Who is Raquel Welch?

Jo Raquel Tejada, Raquel Welch, was born in Chicago, Illinois, USA on September 5, 1940.

Parents are Bolivian source: at the age of two he moved with his family in a suburb of San Diego, California.

The young future promise of cinema studies dance and begins to participate in numerous beauty pageants. In 1958 James wedding Welch, with whom she has a daughter, the actress Tahnee Welch. Later the couple divorced.

Raquel Welch debuts in cinemas alongside Elvis Presley in "the singer of Luna Park" (1964); After some television experiences (including "the Virginian") enters with strength in the imagination of generations of the sixties for the role of Juliet in "prosperous one million years ago".

The poster of this film, with the first floor of the actress in primitive clothing became a symbol and object of worship; as a result the beautiful Raquel Welch become a sex symbol and icon of those years.

Its fame and beauty take her to face the kind of comedy-"Shoot strong, stronger ... I don't understand!" by Eduardo De Filippo-and the western genre-including "the Texas and the brothers of Penitence" 1972. From then on his career is limited to appearances in television series and a variety show.

In 1975 he won a Golden Globe as best actress for her role as Constance Bonacieux in the film "the three Musketeers" (1973, by Richard Lester, with Oliver Reed, Richard Chamberlain, Michael York, Frank Finlay, Christopher Lee and Charlton Heston).
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