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Biographies of famous people born on October 21 | Biographies on-line

Biographies of historical figures and personalities
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Biographies of famous people in history and celebrity born on October 21


1. Mary Blair
2. Martin Castrogiovanni
3. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
4. Edmondo De Amicis
5. Alphonse de Lamartine
6. Dizzy Gillespie
7. Ursula K. Le Guin
8. Kim Kardashian
9. Benjamin Netanyahu
10. Alfred Nobel
11. Giuseppe Pinelli
12. Marina Ripa di Meana

1. Biography of Mary Blair

The colors of the animation
October 21, 1911
July 26, 1978

Who is Mary Blair?

Mary Blair was born on October 21, 1911 in Tulsa (Oklahoma, Usa) as Mary Browne Robinson. American artist, is best remembered for his work for the Walt Disney film animation company.

The productions of Mary Blair have scored major success shots: for example the concept for the film "Alice in Wonderland," "Peter Pan" and "Cinderella".

His style still lives through design immortal Disney characters. His works of art are housed in different buildings in the world (Disney) and dealing with the characters and stories so beloved by children, as the enormous mosaic inside Disney's Contemporary Resort inside the Walt Disney World, Florida.

Many of his illustrations, including in children's books since 1950, have never been out of print. Mary Blair was honored as a "Disney legend" in 1991, one of the first women to receive this honor.

Mary Blair died of a cerebral hemorrhage on July 26, 1978, at the age of 66 years.

His style in the use of color is still a source of inspiration for many contemporary designers and artists in animation.

2. Biography of Martin Castrogiovanni

A man into the fray
October 21, 1981

Who is Martin Castrogiovanni?

Martin Leandro Castrogiovanni, better known only as Martin Castrogiovanni, nicknamed "Castro", was born in Paraná, in Argentina, on 21 October 1981. Of Italian origins, is a naturalized rugby player "blue" to all intents and purposes grown sportingly in the peninsula, to become one of the best rugby players in the world.

He won the English Championship, as the ranks of pylon Leicester Tigers, winning in 2007 the prize for best player of the tournament. In 2011 was also included in the "Planet Rugby's Team of the Year".

With its aggressive look, long beard and long curly hair, is one of the most popular players of the national team and loved by the general public, which is credited with having revived and widely distributed both in Italy than in the rest of Europe the passion for this sport has always loved in countries such as Great Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand but still far from a real development in countries such as Italian.

Martin's family is originally from Enna, Sicily. Carney is the historical name of the country of his grandfather, Sicilian pure blood. Her mother is half German, Spanish and Argentine Aboriginal. The future rugby champion inherits quite a mixture of cultures, although he always felt from Argentina and, especially, Italian.

Martin is passionate about the sport already when he was very young. His first love, however, when he was a teenager, is basketball. Accomplice a discipline not really wholesome, as you will recall further over the years during some interviews the same rugby player, passes immediately to the oval ball, despite the misgivings.

At eighteen she throws herself into the fray for the first of many more times. Its role is to prop and start playing Rugby section of the Club Atlético Estudiantes of Paraná, his hometown. He puts little to get noticed in Italy and, at the age of just twenty years, in 2001, goes to professional Rugby Calvisano, historical structure of the province of Brescia.

Martin Castrogiovanni dispute five seasons playing for Calvisano, winning his first and only Italian League title in 2004, coming literally in the heart of Brescia fans. With a second place team scores then lombardo, losing the final, and won Italy Cup. In five seasons, "Castro" play 82 games and scored 8 goals.

Thanks to his Italian ancestors then, never having represented Argentina at senior level the, Carney makes his debut with the Azzurri, as early as 2002, at the age of twenty-one years. It's then-coach John Kirwan that summons him, putting him in the field against the legendary All Blacks, for an important test in Hamilton. From that point, it becomes a prop immovably Italian pack.

In 2006 is procured from Leicester Tigers, where he becomes literally an idol. The following year, in 2007, he was elected best player of the English Premiership after just one League played across the English channel.

He won the English League in seasons 2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10, becoming one of the strongest players in this parable the channel ever, totaling well 69 matches and 4 goals.

Meanwhile, it also becomes a staple of the Italian national team, called into question by all coaches that take place on the bench. Playing his first six Nations in 2003, only twenty-two years.

Great fighter, proves that he has a very good sense of the goal, despite his prop, as in the match played against Japan in 2004, where he made three markings on the same test-match.

Even the new coach Pierre Berbizier then, considers it one of the landmarks, and inserts since 2007 French World Cup on a permanent basis.

With new coach Nick Mallett, during the 2008 RBS 6 Nations "Castro" become the best blues in the first half, going to metaman four of five matches of the tournament, against Ireland, England, Wales and France.

Plays also the 2011 rugby World Cup and, even with the new CT Jacques Brunel, is summoned to the Six Nations in 2012, where he played once against England. On this last occasion, on the eve of important and sincere match, Martin Castrogiovanni gives an interesting and sympathetic interview with the newspaper Repubblica, where declares that the only rule that counts for him, in rugby, is this: "lower your head and push."

Boyfriend for many years with the former skier azzurra Riza Caguicla, trevigiana born in 1986 and several times on the podium in slalom, Carlson owns, along with fellow Irishman Geordan Murphy, two Italian restaurants in Leicester.

3. Biography of Samuel Taylor Coleridge

The ideal, poetry
21 October 1772
25 July 1834

Who is Coleridge?

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one of the most important figures of the Romantic movement, was born in England in Ottery St Mary (Devon) on 21 October 1772. The last of ten children, after his father's death he was sent to Christ's hospital school in London. Becomes an avid reader and a good student.

In 1791 he moved to Cambridge; early interrupts his studies to enlist in the light Dragoons Regiment. Is readmitted to Cambridge later: here meets the poet Robert Southey (1774-1843), which will influence in a particular way. Coleridge became an ardent Republican. The two attempt to create a utopian community (the "Holy shit", in Pennsylvania), based on egalitarian and socialist principles; the goal is the achievement of social peace and equitable economic development for all. The project was however abandoned. Their friendship is born, however, the dramatic work in verse, "The fall of Robenspierre" (1794).

In 1795 Southey leaves for Portugal while Coleridge remains to England to write and give lectures. In 1796 publishes several poems. Shortly before Coleridge had met the poet William Wordsworth, with whom friendship that will last a lifetime. Together, the two writers publish a book of poetry titled "lyrical ballads" (1798); cornerstone of poetry in the English literature, this work contains the first great works of the romantic school, including the famous "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" (The Rime of The Ancient Mariner).

The period between 1797 and 1798 is among the most productive artistic life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge; In addition to the "Ancient Mariner" writes "Kubla Khan", a work of great descriptive imagination almost musical rhythm, "Christabel" poetic composition narrative from mystical character, as well as other poems are considered among his best verses in tone "colloquial".

In the autumn of 1798 Coleridge and Wordsworth went on a trip to continental Europe; Coleridge continued on his own: spending much time in Germany. At this time are less the sympathies of the past for political radicalism; starts to be interested in German philosophy, and in particular Immanuel Kant's idealism, the writings of mystical character of Jakob Boehme and literary criticism of the playwright G.E. Lessing.

Coleridge studied German and translated into English the dramatic "Wallenstein" trilogy of romantic poet Friedrich von Schiller. As a result of these studies, Coleridge became the most influential interpreter of German romanticism.

Back in England in 1800. Between 1808 and 1819 he holds lectures on literature and philosophy; among its objectives is to renew interest in the great English playwright William Shakespeare. In his essays and in his lectures Coleridge shows great mastery and engrossing dialectic, elements that will make it the most influential English literary critic of the 19th century.

He settled finally in London where he wrote his major works in prose, "Biographia literaria" (1817), a series of essays and autobiographical notes on various topics, which includes excerpts of literary criticism that show his great intuitive brilliance. Particularly relevant are the parts where Coleridge expresses its upgrade considerations on the nature of poetry and imagination, and in which he discusses the works of Wordsworth. Other works from this period are "Sibylline Leaves" (1817) and "Aids to reflection" (1825). According to his poetic theory, the cause of one of the central ideas of the romantic aesthetic, artistic imagination could play a mediating role between modern cultures different from one another.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge dies at Highgate on 25 July 1834.

Today it is generally recognized as an important lyric poet and literary critic. He is named after the crater Coleridge, present on the surface of mercury.

4. Biography of Edmondo De Amicis

The last of the Manzoni
21 October 1846
March 11, 1908

Who is Edmondo De Amicis?

Poet of the brotherhood, and goodness, Edmondo De Amicis was born on 21 October 1846 in Oneglia, Italy, another important Patriot and enlightenment, Giovan Pietro Vieusseux (1779-1863).

He first studies in Piedmont, Cuneo and Turin before then. Enter the Military Academy of Modena and comes out second lieutenant, in 1865. The following year fought in Custoza. While continuing in his military career, tries to follow his vocation to writing: in Florence Italy "military" and directs the public newspaper, meanwhile, "military life" (1868), the success of which allows the abandonment of herself--which, however, he loves-to devote himself to his passion of writing.

In 1870, as a correspondent of "La Nazione", join the of Rome coming to Porta Pia. Now free from military engagement begins a series of trips-including on behalf of "La Nazione"-of which leaves testimony by publishing lively relationships.

This is how "Spain", in 1873; "Holland" and "memories of London", in 1874; "Morocco", in 1876; Constantinople in 1878; "At the gates of Italy", in 1884, dedicated to the city of Pinerolo and its surroundings, until his trip to America whose diary, titled "Ocean", is dedicated to Italian immigrants.

Closed season, De Amicis falls into Italy and began to devote himself to educational literature that makes him, as well as a talented writer, also a pedagogue: it is precisely in this field that making, in 1886, his masterpiece, "Heart" that despite the ostracism of Catholics no religious content, collects a staggering success and is translated into many languages.

Again publishes, among others, "the novel of a teacher", in 1890; "Between school and home" in 1892; "La maestrina degli operai" in 1895; "The carriage of all", in 1899; "In the realm of the Matterhorn", in 1904; "The idiom" in 1905. He contributes to various publications of Socialist inspiration.

The last decade of his life is marked by the death of his mother, by the failure of his marriage to Teresa Boassi and by the suicide of his son Furio tied their family for conditions created furious and continuous invivibilità quarrels of parents.

Edmondo De Amicis died in Bordighera (Imperia) on March 11, 1908, at the age of 62 years.

Daddy it instils in his pedagogical works around the moral rigor that derives from his military education, and from being a fervent Patriot and enlightenment, but remains an author strongly linked in his time: the book "Heart", which represents a fundamental point of reference formative early ' 900, was later much criticized and downsized because of the changes of the times that made it obsolete. Even at the expense of its thickness of writing that deserves to be dusted off and reconsidered the whole work of De Amicis.

With "the idiom" is characterized as the ultimate upholder of the theses of Alessandro Manzoni which advocated a modern, effective and purified by Italian Classics and rhetoric.

Other works by Edmondo De Amicis: "sketches of military life" (1868); "Short stories" (1872); "Memories of 1870-71" (1872); Memories of Paris (1879); "The two friends" (1883); "Amore e ginnastica (1892); "Social question" (1894); "The three capitals: Turin-Florence-Rome" (1898); "The temptation of bicycle" (1906); "Cerebral Cinema" (1907); "Company" (1907); "Memories of a trip to Sicily" (1908); "New literary and artistic portraits" (1908).

5. Biography of Alphonse de Lamartine

Words of commitment
21 October 1790
28 February 1869

Who is Alphonse de Lamartine?

Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine was born on 21 October 1790 in Mâcon, in Burgundy France. He spent his youth in Milly, in their family's country house. From the earliest periods of study is interested in the disciplines of literature, being passionate for Roman poets like Chateaubriand.

In 1808 he finished his studies: according to tradition, should undertake a military career but his father Pierre de Lamartine, Cadet of a family of minor nobility--tied to the Bourbons, doesn't want Alphonse's for the Empire in any way: so in 1811 he was sent to kick back in Italy, where some cousins live between Livorno, Pisa and Naples. In Naples he had his first experience with a local girl, Antonella Jacomino, who will remember years later in his "Graziella". Even after he visited the Italy staying in Florence.

In March 1820 he was appointed Ambassador to Naples, but two months after renouncing the new assignment to marry (on June 5) to Chambery, English Protestant Mary Ann Elisa Birch: the couple takes residence in the castle that the father has given in dowry to Saint-Point, near Mâcon.

In February 1821 was born in Rome the first son Alphonse, who will live only until November 1823; in may 1822 he was born in Macon, a daughter, Julia, destined to die early in 1832.

Alphonse de Lamartine in 1820 the "Méditations poétiques", sentimental poems inspired by love for Julie Charles, which merged with the early 18th-century romantic tradition elegiac expression. The works that make it popular Alphonse de Lamartine are the "nouvelles meditations poétiques" (1823), "Le dernier chant du pèlerinage of Harold" (1825) and Harmonies poétiques et religieuses "above all" (1830).

Is also involved in politics as a diplomat, then after the July Revolution (or second French Revolution of 1830) became member of Parliament (1834) and Foreign Minister (1848) during the provisional Government. With the advent of Napoleon III, put politically aloof, Alphonse de Lamartine devoted all their energy to literary activity.

This is how in this period works characterized predominantly by autobiographical elements: "Nouvelles confidences" (1851), "Raphael: pages de la vingtième année" (1849), "Graziella" (1852), "Geneviève: histoire d'une servante" (1850) and "Le tailleur de pierres du Pont" (1851).

Date back to this period his historical works "Histoire de la Restauration" (1854), "Histoire de la Turquie (1854)," Histoire de la Russie "(1855) and" Cours familier de littérature "(1856, divided into 28 volumes).

The last years of French writer's life are sad: Mary Ann wife dies in 1863; in 1867 has suffered a stroke that deprives him of the use of the word. The Government acknowledges a grant of half a million francs; also the city of Paris provides him a villa in Passy, where Alphonse de Lamartine died on 28 February 1869.

6. Dizzy Gillespie biography

The beginnings of the modern jazz
October 21, 1917
January 6, 1993

Who is Dizzy Gillespie?

John Birks Gillespie, nicknamed Dizzy, was born in Cheraw (in the State of South Carolina, USA) the day October 21, 1917, last of nine brothers. His father, who used to beat up the children, dies when Gillespie has only ten. He started to play the trumpet by himself at the age of twelve, just for fun. Despite living in poverty, unable to get a scholarship at the Institute of Laurinburg, North Carolina, but not fully exploit.

He left school in 1935 without completing his studies and moved to Philadelphia looking for a job as a full-time musician. Initially joins Frankie Fairfax and performs his first recording Teddy Hill's band in which replaces Roy Eldridge.

At the end of the years ' 30 Gillespie brought to light in the orchestras of Teddy Hill, Lucky Millinder, Cab Calloway, Jimmy Dorsey and Lionel Hampton as one of the best followers of Roy Eldridge. In those years he meets several colleagues that inspire him guiding them towards a more modern style.

In the early ' 40 starts dating the Minton's Playhouse, a nightclub in New York where together began to take its first steps the new jazz. With bassist Oscar Pettiford and drummer Kenny Clarke founded a group which later became legendary and who would be considered the first bop in history. Nightly jam sessions of Minton's become a springboard for some of the biggest names in modern jazz, including Thelonius Monk, Bud Powell, Max Roach, but also Charlie Christian. It is here that you can tell is born the "bebop".

In 1943 joining the Earl Hines orchestra is a very important moment for the career of Dizzy Gillespie. Together with Charlie Parker and other young neo-boppers is directed by Billy Eckstine, singer and big star of the band, who was also the arrival of Sarah Vaughan. Doesn't last very long relationship with Fatha Hines: well, after a little Dizzy leaving Eckstine escape, Parker and others, including Vaughan. In 1944, all these names together with Gillespie are hired in the new orchestra of Eckstine: for Dizzy there is also Music Director. Thanks to this band and to three years around America, the be-bop became known.

Miles Davis, in his autobiography recalls: "Bird was the spirit of the bebop movement, but Dizzy was its head and hands, he was holding it all together."

Him the Italian journalist and writer Greta Calverley said: "it was he who gave birth to bebop with Charlie Parker and the great pianist Bud Powell. Unlike the saxophonist, who was pure instinct, Gillespie knew organize his brilliance and put on paper his revolutionary notes ".

Between Gillespie's compositions include "Groovin' High," "Woody 'n' You", "Anthropology", "Salt Peanuts" and the famous "A Night in Tunisia", revolutionary pieces for the time, when the most popular genre was still swing. The revolutionary character of the bebop is also reflected in lifestyle: in fact African Americans know a time when embrace a new way of being. Black musicians were reclaiming their "black" music, jazz, sweetened from swing ' white ' orchestras.

Let Charlie Parker--who calls playing Miles Davis-in 1947 Gillespie forms a quintet with pianist John Lewis and with Milt Jackson, Kenny Clarke and Ray Brown, in practice the future formation of "Modern Jazz Quartet".

Gillespie also plays in small lineups, but prefers those many, where it can bring out the character of leaders, where highlights such as solo and at the same time as an entertainer on stage. His hilarious and cheerful attitude becomes a defining feature of his live performances. During his career are different formations that play under the hat of "Dizzy Gillespie Big Band, who perform frequently even in Europe but that they melt because they were too difficult to sustain financially.

Towards the end of the years ' 40 Dizzy Gillespie begins taking an interest in Caribbean and South American music. The inclusion of afro-Cuban rhythms in the context of a jazz band is one of the first successful attempts of fusion between genres. Important compositions of these years are "Manteca" and "Tin Tin Deo".

In the years ' 50 starts to use his characteristic trumpet with the Bell folded upwards, becoming a recognizable icon for extending the bulge of her cheeks while blowing powerful riffs in his mouthpiece.

In the years ' 60 aims provocatively as candidate for President of the United States, promising to rename the "White House", "home of the Blues", to nominate Ray Charles at the head of the national library, Malcolm X head of legality and Miles Davis, head of the CIA.

In 1979 he published his autobiography, "To be or not to bop". In the years ' 80 leads the United Nations Orchestra. In his later years slows its activity, devoting himself mostly to teaching. A frequent guest in Italy, the city of Bassano del Grappa confers honorary citizenship; Here he founded the school of popular music, now named after him.

Dizzy Gillespie died of pancreatic cancer on 6 January 1993, at the age of 75 years.

7. Biography of Ursula K. Le Guin

The fantasy is female
October 21, 1929

Who is Ursula K. Le Guin?

Anarchist, feminist, rare and profound thinker, is definitely the greatest living science fiction writer, having been able to renew gender literature with a stylistic imprint and contained very personal and always superbly Poetics. Le Guin novels are undoubtedly destined to remain in the history of American literature, and more.

Ursula Kroeber was born in Berkeley, California on October 21, 1929, by Alfred l. Kroeber, authority in the field of anthropological studies, and Theodora k. Froeber. It is set in the golden years of science fiction as one of the most talented creative minds of fantasy worlds.

In ten years, full of fate, the future master of Science Fiction americana sends his first science fiction story to "Amazing Stories", which is rejected. Blame age and definitely immature writing of small budding visionary? We give credit to leaders of Amazing, and their experience, it was so.

Ursula Meanwhile, still far from full time work as a writer, continues his regular studies and graduated in French literature, then moved to Paris where he met Charles A. Le Guin, who later became her husband. To sign his novels will keep their last name but that of k. beloved companion.

In 1962 Ursula K. Le Guin published his first short story "April in Paris", which appears on "Fantastic Stories"; Another tale of Sf, "The Dowry of Angyat" appeared in 1964 finally on the legendary "Amazing Stories".

Those who have the good fortune to run into some of his writings do not forget anymore. Become an established name and even his novels are multiplying.

Among his major works are: "Rocannon's world", "the left hand of darkness", "the scythe of heaven", "the world of the forest", "the outcast of the other planet", "threshold", "always", "the twelve points of the compass" (short stories), "La rosa dei venti", all published between 1966 and 1982.

The importance of Ursula K. Le Guin is indisputable for the landscape of fantasy and science fiction: Philip Dick loved unconditionally the works of writer, so much so that he came to regard it as almost a twin sister.

Which soon became a mainstay of the genre fiction, his style is always top notch, the topics always up to date and never dull. It is perhaps the only sincere teacher of SF: his fiction a bit anarchic, profoundly human, investigates without shadows of hypocrisy today's society to translate it into the future or into a fantasy world.

In his novels never fail even explicit political, social and religious, which make it a decidedly engaged. After so many years of career and success-got many awards, including in 2003 the title of Grand Master, a title previously awarded to authors such as Arthur c. Clarke, Ray Bradbury, Isaac Asimov and Clifford Simak-Le Guin now lives in Portrad, Oregon with her husband, who teaches French history at the State College.

8. Kim Kardashian biography

October 21, 1980

Who is Kim Kardashian?

Kimberly Noel "Kim" Kardashian was born on October 21, 1980.

The father is Armenian, the mother is Scottish and Dutch.

Father Robert Kardashian is known for being o. j. Simpson's lawyer during his trial for murder of 2003.

In 2006 he took part in two episodes of the television series "Beyond the Break", and in December 2007 poses nude in Playboy, but it is only through the reality show "keeping up with the Kardashians" (Keeping Up with the Kardashians) that Kim Kardashian became famous to the general public.

The reality show airs on "E!"; the plot revolves around the life of the Kardashian family, and airs for three editions until 2009.

In 2008 he starred with Carmen Electra in the film "Disaster Movie". Later Kim was also featured in the series "E alla fine arriva mamma!" and participates in the reality series "Dancing with the Stars".

In 2000 she married music producer Damon Thomas, from whom she divorced in 2004. Since 2007 is romantically linked to NFL player Reggie Bush. In the same year, an amateur video porn that Kardashian had achieved with her ex-boyfriend, the singer Ray J, was put up for sale by Vivid Entertainments, against the will of the two protagonists, and against which Kardashian suing, reaching an agreement for $ 5 million.

On August 20, 2011 rejoins in marriage: the new lucky husband is the NBA basketball player Kris Humphries. At the same time Kim Kardashian released her debut single "Jam (Turn It Up)", whose proceeds will go to charity. After two months of marriage wedding ends.

9. Biography of Benjamin Netanyahu

"Bibi," President of iron
October 21, 1949

Who is Benjamin Netanyahu?

Benjamin Netanyahu was born in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 21 October 1949. Israeli politician of great importance, elected Prime Minister of Israel from June 1996 until 31 March 1999, of 17 May 2009 was again elected Prime Minister of Israel. Made history for being the first elected President to be born after the Constitution of the State of Israel.

Nicknamed "Bibi" Netanyahu lived most of his childhood and early youth in the city of Jerusalem. His father, historian Benzion Netanyahu, an internationally famous sees in him great communicative potential and think you enter it, for years of high school, to an Institute in the United States. The young Benjamin then, around 1962, he moved to the Usa to continue his studies, where her father is constantly engaged in research activities in the field of historiography.

In 1967, "Bibi" falls within Israel, enlisting into the IDF, serving in an elite commando unit called Sayeret Matkal, the only one with powers of recognition within the military system of the Israeli Defense. Here, the younger Netanyahu accomplishes the first operations in the service of his country, forging its own character in the name of activism not only political but also military and economic. Its strong conservatism begins to form, in all probability, precisely in these years of training.

The operations which Benjamin Netanyahu takes part are varied. In 1972, for example, is part of the elite team that rescues hostages in an aeroplane of Sabena, following an interception at high altitudes. That same year, 1972, is discharged from the IDF, not before receiving an honorable mention by the major general Motta Gur and the recognition of the rank of Captain, also thanks to the participation in the Yom Kippur war.

In 1976, strong of its degrees in architecture and in business management in the meantime achieved, began working in the private sector, first with the Boston Consulting Group, an international business consulting firm and subsequently promoted to senior management, at the RIM Industries Ltd. In its formation also boasts some degree courses achieved at Harvard, USA, within the framework of political science.

In this same year, 1976, the future Israeli Prime Minister loses his brother Yoni, also at the service of the national army, who died during operation Entebbe. It is an important time to Benjamin Netanyahu, who begins to direct their energies in the service of the State and, above all, against all forms of terrorism. In 1979, in fact, takes part in the first major international conference in which is stressed the need to fight terrorist organizations and schemes that provide their support.

In 1982 he was appointed Deputy Chief of mission at the Israeli Embassy in Washington, USA. Two years later, in 1984, he was appointed Israel's Ambassador to the United Nations, a position of strategic importance that covers for four years and that allows him to take part, although with different powers and as Ambassador of Israel, at the second International Conference on terrorism. During this time Bibi carves out a role primarily as a defender of the cause of Israel in the international arena, pledging also to shed light on the crimes committed by Nazi Germany against the Jewish people.

In 1988, Benjamin Netanyahu is in Israel and is first elected to the Knesset, the Parliament of Israel, for the conservative Likud party. In the same year, he was appointed Deputy Foreign Minister. During the Gulf war then, he served as Chief Representative of Israel in the international arena, arguing the issues of the State in which he was elected. In addition, in 1991, is a member of the Israeli delegation that took part in the Madrid Peace Conference, actively participating in the first programme of strategic cooperation between Israel and United States.

Two years later, in 1993, now in full political ascent, Netanyahu becomes Likud Party Chairman, leader of the opposition until the electoral mandate. Therefore, in 1996, he was elected Israel's Prime Minister, for the first time with a program based primarily on the need to fight terrorism and to carry forward the peace process in the Middle East. Also thanks to Measured with the Palestinians, manages to keep the peace during his tenure, seeing dramatically decrease the terrorist attacks in the land of Israel. In addition, the economic policy proves successful, promoting foreign investment and high technology industry.

Terminated the mandate, Netanyahu prefers to leave momentarily by politics that matters, devoting his work in consulting services for large domestic enterprises. The break though, doesn't last very long. And in 2002 must return to the field, first as Foreign Minister and then, in the course of 2003, as Finance Minister. The latter appointment though, runs until April 9, 2005, when resigning to protest against the withdrawal from Gaza put in place by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.

On 20 December 2005 therefore, Bibi Netanyahu gets back the leadership of Likud and the 4 May 2006 is the official spokesperson for the opposition, pending new elections. On March 31 of 2009, despite not having won directly and alone with his party the election, Benjamin Netanyahu returns to Office as head of Government, in agreement with the leader of the far right nationalist Avigdor Lieberman.

Married to Sara, a psychologist, and a father of three, Netanyahu lives with his family in Jerusalem. And is also the author of numerous publications translated in many countries around the world, mostly focused on the war on terrorism and on international relations for peace.

Elections in 2015, against all odds predicted by polls, is elected again at the helm of the country.

10. Biography of Alfred Nobel

The wealth and nobility of the soul
21 October 1833
10 December 1896

Who was Alfred Nobel?

Everyone knows what the Nobel Prize but few, perhaps, associate this high honour to the name of a Swedish chemist, inventor of a substance which has become famous for its great use but also for his terrible destructive power: the dynamite.

This explosive has undoubtedly contributed greatly to the progress of mankind (think to its application in the construction of tunnels, railways and roads), but like all scientific discoveries brings the heavy risk of being badly used.

A problem that the same scientist felt so urgent in his consciousness, much to throw it into an existential crisis of no small magnitude.

Born in Stockholm on 21 October 1833, Alfred Nobel after University he devoted himself to the research. Was for years an obscure chemical engineer until, after the discovery of nitroglycerin by Salazar, powerful explosives difficult to control, he devoted himself to the study of a way to use it more effectively. The mixture of Sobrero had the peculiarity to explode at the slightest bump or swing, making it extremely dangerous. The technicians were able to use it for digging tunnels or mines but was certain that its use included enormous difficulties and dangers.

Alfred Nobel in 1866, he developed a mixture of nitroglycerin and clay which took on different characteristics and more manipulable, which he called "dynamite". Its discovery less dangerous to handle but equally effective, achieved an immediate success. The Swedish engineer, in order not to miss the opportunity to exploit his newfound, founded around the world some companies to manufacture and test the explosive, amassing a considerable fortune.

Unfortunately, as has been said, it is served in addition to the construction of numerous works extremely useful also to perfect war ordnance of various types, which threw into turmoil Nobel blacker.

Alfred Nobel died in san Remo on 10 December 1896: when his will was opened it was discovered that the engineer had established that the income of his immense fortune were donated to fund five prizes, which soon became the most important in the world, thanks to the Academy that distributes them (to Stockholm).

Three of these awards are designed to reward each year the greatest discoveries in physics, chemistry and medicine.

Another is for a writer and fifth to a character or to an organization that has operated in a particular way for world peace and for the fraternity of peoples.

11. Biography of Giuseppe Pinelli

October 21, 1928
December 15, 1969

Who is Giuseppe Pinelli?

Giuseppe Pinelli was born on 21 October 1928 in Milan, in the Porta Ticinese. Starts working immediately after finishing elementary school, as a busboy before and storekeeper; Meanwhile, teaching himself reads many books. In the final period of World War II he took part in the anti-fascist Resistance, used as a relay of the brigades Buzzi and Malatesta; then, after the war, he participates actively to the growth of the anarchist movement in his city.

In 1954 becomes manipulator for railways, after winning a competition, while the following year he married Licia Rognini, girl met in an esperanto course (a daughter of a Carpenter anarchist) which will give him two daughters. After joining the libertarian youth, a group of young anarchists, and have planted in the San Siro district a public bulletin board in piazza Selinunte, engages in dissemination of libertarian thought exposing every week the Umanità Nova. In 1965 he founded the circle "Sacco and Vanzetti", in a basement of viale Murillo, where it is organized the first meeting devoted to the subject of citizen antimilitarism together with two conscientious objectors, a Catholic and an anarchist, that expose publicly and claim the reasons that push them to refuse to wear the military uniform.

The following year, by now militant anarchist, Giuseppe Pinelli supports Gunilla Hunger, Umberto Tiboni and Gennaro De Miranda in printing and disseminating early copies of "World Beat" magazine that can count on the support of "Sacco and Vanzetti". This is a street newspaper that aims to show the public the importance of non-violence and the necessity of pacifism: the magazine is scheduled at the home of Joseph, who is in charge of their publications, the first number.

Pinelli, indeed, is perfectly at ease with new contestants of the second half of the 1960s (years marked by the global protest against the war in Viet Nam), those reductively described as hippies.

Together with libertarian youth organizes, during Christmas of 1966, a European Youth Conference attended by Italian anarchist groups in Europe, including the Dutch Provos. Promoter of a camping internazionale, in July 1967, Colico, in Lombardy, try out an anarchist magazine referred to as "the enemy of the State", but the experience lasts only a short time, and the newspaper is published only a mimeographed sheets.

The circle "Sacco and Vanzetti", meanwhile, quits in 1968 due to an eviction, but reopened a short time later near the Ponte della Ghisolfa, in piazzale Lugano: it hosts meetings and Conference of CUB, basic unit committees, you notice the spread of a foreign official organisations direct action unionism. Also in 1968, Pinelli (became Chief sorting to Garibaldi) receives from Commissioner Luigi Calabresi (who knows him to have frequently seen in parades and sometimes summoned to the police station) a Christmas gift: the book "thousand million men", by Enrico Emanuelli.

Joseph is so proud of that gift and its origin from everyone to: will reciprocate the gesture giving Calabresi a copy of his favorite book, "Spoon River anthology". Promoter of reconstruction of the Unione Sindacale Italiana, libertarian and revolutionary trade unionist-inspired reality, after the arrests of anarchists for bombs in April of 1969 to Milan Central station, Pinelli undertakes to find food, books and clothes to send to friends in prison: builds a network ecology within the anarchist black cross.

On 12 December of that year the burst of a bomb in the premises of Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in piazza Fontana translates into one of the most atrocious massacres of the era: the next night Pinelli was stopped by police along with 83 other suspects. On 15 December, the anarchist is in the building of the police headquarters (illegally: a police custody may take at least two days) together with Commissioner Luigi Calabresi and Antonino Allegra (head of the political Bureau of the police), who is being interrogated in front of a police officer, a police officer and three noncommissioned officers of the political office, when precipitates from the window (located on the fourth floor of the building) falling into a flowerbed.

Taken to the hospital Fatebenefratelli, Giuseppe Pinelli does not survive.

Shortly after his death, the Quaestor Marcellus guide talks about suicide, arguing that Papadopoulos has kicked off shortly after that his alibi had been unmasked: the version will be retracted when you discover that the alibi of the anarchist was credible. After an initial inquiry concluded with a check-in, a new investigation opened following a complaint Daniel Pinelli in 1971 was appointed the judge Gerardo D'Ambrosio: a judgment delivered in 1975 stipulates that Pinelli didn't die for murder or suicide, but for an illness that he would fall unintentionally from the window; the ruling stipulates, moreover, that at the time of the tragedy on Commissioner Calabresi was not present in the room.

The official version, however, will always be held to be inconsistent and contradictory in several places: Papadopoulos would fall almost vertically (without moving outwards that we probably would have been in if his leap had been volunteer), and hands did not have signs that bear witness to its attempt to protect themselves from falling. Over the years, agents also provide conflicting versions about what happened; to cast doubt on the official version, then, the arrangement of the chairs and furniture and the size of the room, which could have made it almost impossible to jump from a window in front of so many people without being stopped before.

Also in 1975, the body of Papadopoulos will be resurrected, based on polemic by the news--spread by constant struggle-that the corpse of the anarchist had bulbar lesions compatible with a karate chop: the second autopsy, however, will confirm the result of the first, indicating simply an area roughly ovolare due to contact of the body with the marble of the morgue. Closing the case, then, will that death of Giuseppe Pinelli was caused by an illness active: alter the center of balance, due to too many cigarettes smoked on an empty stomach, interrogation and cold stress caused by the open window, would have caused the fall.

12. Biography of Marina Ripa di Meana

Environment, nonconformity and temperament
October 21, 1941

About Marina Ripa di Meana?

Marina Punturieri Elis was born in Rome on October 21, 1941. She grew up in a middle class family and after his studies he began working as a fashion designer by opening an atelier of Haute Couture in Spain's Square in Rome. In 1961 bride Alessandro Lante della Rovere, in the Church of San Giovanni Battista dei Cavalieri di Rodi in 1961; with Alexander, man of the ancient Ducal family, has a daughter, Lucrezia Lante della Rovere, which will become a stage actress, film and television.

In the years ' 70 Marina is the protagonist of a troubled love affair with the painter Franco Angeli. The experience will write a book, "Cocaine" (2005), telling of being coming to prostitute themselves in order to be able to buy drugs to her lover.

Divorces by Alessandro Lante della Rovere, but continues to maintain and use the last name is signing autobiographical works, both for licensing related to the fashion industry in which it operates. Stops using the surname when the Court to prohibit, on the application of the same Lante della Rovere.

He began a series of romantic relationships, not least with the journalist Lino Jannuzzi, which gives an account in the best seller "my first forty years". In 1982 he married civilly with Carlo Ripa di Meana, Marquis family; contracts then religious marriage twenty years later, in 2002.

Since the late ' 70 begins increasingly to appear on tv as a commentator in broadcast where emphasizes the exuberant character and his nature nonconformist; Marina Ripa di Meana frequently appears as a character over the top: debates about politics, on the themes of nature, the countryside, the exaltation of beautiful and especially on the defense of animals.

Friend of intellectuals and writers such as Alberto Moravia and Goffredo Parise, over the years has become increasingly libertarian up to be regarded by many as a symbol of bad tv. Thanks to a nice physical appearance, Marina does not hesitate to be photographed completely nude for campaigns against the use of furs and as testimonial to raise funds for cancer research, bad that twice tackles firsthand overcoming him.

There are many professional activities: he has written several books, mystery novels, but also many autobiographical and sentimental, he directed the film "bad girls" (1992). About his life came two films: "my first forty years" by Carlo Vanzina (1987), highly successful cult films, and "the fairest" by Cesare Ferrario (1989).

In 1990 Marina Ripa di Meana launches and runs for two years, the monthly "Elite" published by Newton Compton & Publisher. In 1995 he became Ambassador in Italy of IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare-USA).

In the years ' 90 the soul in Italy as well as in other countries, campaigns against the extermination of the seal Cubs, against the use for fashion and vanity of skins and furs, against bullfighting, against French nuclear testing in the Mururoa Atoll, against gutting the Pincio (2008), against the closure of the historic St James's Hospital in the heart of Rome (2008) , and for the early prevention of tumors.

It has four dogs carlini: Risotto, Apple, Mango and mocha. The Navy has launched under its own brand glasses, porcelain and faux fur.

In 2009 he participates in the reality show "the farm", conducted by Paola Perego on Italy 1.
Translation authorized by the website: under Creative Commons License.

Biographies of famous people born on October 20 | Biographies on-line

Biographies of historical figures and personalities
Note: This article contains translated information that has not yet been reviewed. It may contain errors and inaccuracies.

Biographies of famous people in history and celebrity born on October 20


1. Pauline Bonaparte
2. Danny Boyle
3. John Dewey
4. Luigi Lo Cascio
5. Bela Lugosi
6. Viggo Mortensen
7. Arthur Rimbaud
8. Candice Swanepoel
9. Paul Valéry
10. Mara Venier
11. Christopher Wren

1. Biography of Pauline Bonaparte

Live the duties
20 October 1780
9 June 1825

Who is  Pauline Bonaparte?

Pauline Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio (France) on 20 October 1780. The family makes it the favorite daughter because of her beauty and grace, evident since he is just a kid. Pauline, whose real name is actually Maria Paola, grows so spoiled and capricious, although Napoleon, in pointing out these flaws, we note at the same time the tenacity and strength in difficult times.

Pauline was born in a turbulent period for the island, clandestine heckled by the struggles between autonomists and realists. In 1793 a few Patriots courses setting fire to the residence of Bonaparte who are forced to take refuge in Marseilles, where the family comes thanks to the support of Napoleon.

The relationship between the two is very narrow to the point that Paolina agrees that brother to stop her relationship with Congressman of the Convention Stanilas Fréron, of which you declare hopelessly in love with, even after discovering that the man is already married and with three children. Napoleon organizes them so the marriage with his General: Charles Leclerc.

She follows her husband in all movements lavoratovi: from Milan to Paris, to Santo Domingo, where he died of cholera in 1802. Pauline returned to Paris together with his son had in 1797 by her husband, the little Dermis. It is sincerely sorry for the death of her husband, but at the same time it begins to hatch a deep restlessness and impatience for the limitations imposed by widowhood.

Thanks to a political plot, warp, among others, by his brother Joseph, married Prince Camillo Borghese. The wedding takes place with a secret Rite that infuriates Napoleon, as happened before the end of the normal period of widowhood. He, however, approves of the marriage and recommends that the sister being mature and judicious.

Pauline, we in 1803, follows her husband to Rome. But life in the capital doesn't make her happy. Turns out that behind the apparent glitz of the Roman nobility hides a strong respectability and a lifestyle punctuated by numerous religious works. Repeatedly attempts to return to France, asking permission to his brother, who always deny him. While creating these internecine family fights, Pauline tries to do his duty and during the Imperial Coronation holds up well his part as a member of the Bonaparte family.

After the coronation follows her husband appointed Governor of transalpine departments and moved to Turin in 1808. The city, however, she doesn't like, Pauline finds excessively bigoted. At the same time becoming increasingly intolerant of the marriage bond to the point of leaving permanently from Italy. From now will live between his home in Neuilly near Paris and Nice.

Despite political titles as that received in 1806 by Duchess of Guastalla, they're less interested in the political life of his time. Unlike her two sisters that enter fully into the political life of the time, Pauline remains hidden. If ever there was a desire to impose itself, involved only women issues and affairs.

Thanks to the statue carved by Canova, which portrays her as a Venus victrix, increasingly consolidated his reputation as a gallant woman. Contrary to the practice of the time, posing nude for the great sculptor and who asks her, maybe with mocking intent, as has been the experience, she says, "Okay, the setting was well heated."

Her boldness causes the list of men who were beside you stretch more and more. Among these are the count of Fourbin, the musician Blangini, the officer Jules de Canouville and the great French actor Talma.

Despite its reputation for frivolity, Pauline wield an enormous strength and stubbornness in siding beside his brother in times of trouble: shares, in fact, with her beloved Napoleon into exile on Elba, tries to even reach it on Saint Helena and it will help both from a moral point of view that material.

Unfortunately her situation worsens, also because of a health increasingly frail. Pauline tries so that initially the rapprochement with her husband refuses, but then thanks to the mediation of Cardinal Albani and Chamberlain, allows her to live in Villa Sciarra, renamed villa Paulina.

Interjects his Roman stay with periods of care in Tuscany, bagni di Lucca and Pisa, where he accompanies the last of her lovers: the composer Giovanni Pacini. In 1824 the husband to grant it again begs for his help, and Camillo, despite being won by a proceeding for annulment at the sacred Rota, opens the doors of his Florentine Palace.

Pauline Bonaparte died a few months later to Villa Fabbricotti (Firenza) on 9 June 1825, at the age of 44 years.

2. Danny Boyle's Biography

October 20, 1956

Who is Danny Boyle?

The celebrated Director Danny Boyle was born on October 20, 1956 in Radcliffe, Lancashire, the son of Irish parents. Raised in a Catholic education, is an altar boy for eight years, partly because his mother wants it to become a priest; at fourteen, however, is persuaded by a priest not to move from school to the seminar. After studying at Salesian College, Bolton to Thornleigh attended Bangor University, where he took English lessons and recitation: during this period, he attended the actress Frances Barber. After leaving school, he began his career as an actor and Director at the Joint Stock Theatre Company, then moved to the Royal Court Theatre in 1982 to direct "The genius", by Howard Brenton, and "Saved", by Edward Bond. Meanwhile also has the opportunity to work in television for BBC Northern Ireland's producer of several tv movies, including the controversial "Elephant", by Alan Clarke; so is Director of shows like "Arise and go now," "For the greater good", "Not even God is wise enough" and "Scout", as well as two episodes of "Inspector Morse".

Become responsible for the series "Mr. Wroe's Virgins", broadcast on BBC2, he then also at the cinema: in 1995 his first film is "Shallow grave" (known in Italy as "little murders among friends"), one of the biggest commercial successes of that year in the uk. Realized together with producer Andrew Macdonald and the writer John Hodge (author of the novel from which the film is based), "Shallow grave", which includes the cast Christopher Eccleston, Ewan McGregor and Kerry Fox, allows Boyle to win the prize of "Best newcomer" awarded in 1996 by the London Film Critics Circle. Thanks to the positive results obtained from that film, he has the ability to create "Trainspotting", based on a story by Irvine Welsh. The film tackles the issue of drugs with a look ironic, bordering on the grotesque, and between the actors still sees the presence of McGregor: within a short time becomes a real cult.

After moving to Hollywood, Danny Boyle rejects a proposal to direct the fourth installment of the saga of "Alien", "Alien Resurrection" (participates only in the realization of certain scenes), devoting himself instead, in 1997, in "A life less ordinary" (released in Italy under the title "a life less ordinary"), also starring Ewan McGregor, Cameron Diaz: box office results, however, are not very encouraging. Later realizes the movie "The beach": shot in Thailand, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, imposed by the production instead of McGregor, who had been the one who had made the novel by Alex Garland (from which the film is based) to Boyle. Since then, aided by a situation of tension fueled by the media and the press, the British Director and his actor will not work together anymore. The film gets a poor match, both by the public and by the critics: over the years, however, will be reevaluated, particularly by travellers Backpackers.

Returned to television with "don't tell Mùm" and "The bad Sheppard", two music documentaries, Boyle collaborates again with Alex Garland for the post apocalyptic film "28 days later" (in Italy, "28 days later"); then he directed Kenneth Branagh in the short film "Alien love triangle". In 2004 the British Director back behind the camera for "Millions", written by Frank Cottrell Boyce, before joining Alex Garland for the fictional "Sunshine", in theaters in 2007. Full of references to "2001: a space Odyssey," but also to "Alien" and "Solaris", the film tells the story of a team of eight astronauts on a giant spaceship, engaged in a mission on the Sun: their purpose is to feed the star using a nuclear device as large as the island of Manhattan, a stellar bomb aimed to regenerate the thermonuclear reactions in the Sun.

The following year the British Director heads to Bollywood "Slumdog millionaire" (title in Italy: "slumdog Millionaire"), the story of a poor child (played by Dey Patel) participating in the Indian edition of "who wants to be a millionaire?"; the female protagonist is Freida Pinto. The film turns out to be a critical success, Boyle also the Oscar for Best Director (but a total of eight conquered the statuettes to the Academy Awards). After the triumph of "slumdog," Danny Boyle directs in the 2010 movie "127 hours," starring Kate Mara, Amber Tamblyn and James Franco, based on the autobiography of Aron Ralston "Between a rock and a hard place". Released 5 November 2010, the film gets six Oscar nominations, including best actor for Franco and best adapted screenplay for the same Boyle.

In 2011, Danny Boyle is dedicated to Theatre staged in London Benedict Cumberbatch and Jonny Lee Miller in the play "Frankenstein", loosely based on the novel by Mary Shelley. In the summer of 2012, the English artist has the opportunity to direct the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games in London, at which also runs a short film starring Queen Elizabeth II and the interpreter of James Bond Daniel Craig.

3. Biography of John Dewey

American education
20 October 1859
June 1, 1952

Who is John Dewey?

John Dewey was born on day 20 October 1859 in Burlington (Vermont State). Here grows by receiving an education typical of the bourgeoisie of the time. He studied philosophy at Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore City), where the training follows the principles of neo-Hegelian, graduating in 1884 with a dissertation on Psychology in Immanuel Kant. The formation of Dewey will be strongly influenced by American pragmatism and the evolution of Darwin.

While the United States went through a period of tremendous economic growth, John Dewey after teaching in Detroit at Michigan University in 1894 became a professor at the University of Chicago; here after a couple of years he founded an adjoining workshop school grade.

Because of his positions in 1904 contrasts generated by anticonservatrici is forced to move to Columbia University in New York. Here Dewey creates a new experimental school financed by parents of pupils.

Abandoned teaching in 1930 for reasons of age. In addition to continuing in its philosophical and pedagogical research, he founded a political party (radical Democrats) that operates during the crisis that began in 1929. This field acts on social and ethical issues, such as women's suffrage, or how the delicate issue of the unjust conviction of the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti.

John Dewey died in New York on June 1, 1952 day at the ripe old age of 93 years. His legacy was to have a profound influence on the culture, the American politician and costume on education systems.

Main works of John Dewey:

* Experimental Logic. Naturalistic theory of knowledge and thought, edited by r. Fernandes, Quodlibet 2008

* Logic, theory of investigation (Logic, the Theory of Inquiry), 1938 (Italian Edition, 1949)

* Experience and education, 1938

* 1935 liberalism and social action

* Art as experience, 1934

* The search for certainty, 1930

* Experience and nature, 1925

* Democracy and education, 1916

* School and company, 1899

* My pedagogic creed, 1897

4. Biography of Luigi Lo Cascio

Promise kept
October 20, 1967

Who is Luigi Lo Cascio?

In just over three years has become one of the leading Italian cinema actors due to its intense expressiveness, capable of transmitting not only a wide range of emotions but also a profound humanity. Born on October 20, 1967 in Palermo grew up together with his parents, grandmother and four siblings, all people who cultivated the artistic hobbies, from poetry to music at the recitation.

This languid gaze boy's film career has literally exploded with Giuseppe Impastato's interpretation in the film by Marco Tullio Giordana "I cento passi", where he quickly proved a talent and an innate ability to characterization: receives the David di Donatello for best actor, the Grolla d'Oro, the Sacher d'Oro and numerous other accolades.

Luigi Lo Cascio is also a cultured and extraordinarily prepared, quality is not easy to find in asphyxial Italian cinema. The actor from the mysterious charm that transmits fragility and strength at the same time, he first attempted to address medical studies (specialization in Psychiatry) and then listen to the voice of the heart and follow the theatrical vocation.

Enrolled at the Silvio D'Amico National Academy of dramatic art, graduating in 1992 with an essay on Hamlet by William Shakespeare, directed by Orazio Costa.

His talent is apparent even from him all his creativity that allowed him to write several screenplays and collaborate on various theatrical performances.

After the Jordanian film, Lo Cascio became in demand, churning out a series of films within a very short time and never at the expense of quality.

In 2002 we saw in "light of my life" by Giuseppe Piccioni, with whom he won the Volpi Cup at the Venice Film Festival.

Then took part in the film-"the best of youth", also by Giordana (proof of plaintiff who collected other enthusiastic acclaim by critics and audiences) and turned "Vito, death and miracles" by Alessandro Piva.

In the film "my brother-in-law" appears in the guise of co-protagonsita with Sergio Rubini (the latter also Director).

Just before she turned a masterpiece of Italian cinema, an example of civic consciousness applied to movies such as "Buongiorno, notte" by the great Marco Bellocchio.


2000-I cento passi by Marco Tullio Giordana

2001-Luce dei miei occhi, directed by Giuseppe Piccioni

2002-the best day of my life, directed by Cristina Comencini

2003-La meglio gioventù by Marco Tullio Giordana

2003-Buongiorno, notte, directed by Marco Bellocchio

2003-my brother-in-law, directed by Alessandro Piva

2004-Crystal eyes, directed by Eros Puglielli

2004-La vita che vorrei directed by Giuseppe Piccioni

2005-La bestia nel cuore, by Cristina Comencini

2006-Black Sea, directed by Roberta Torre

2007-Il dolce e l'amaro, directed by Andrea Porporati

5. Biography of Bela Lugosi

Vampires are born and you become
20 October 1882
August 16, 1956

Who is Bela Lugosi?

Ladies and gentlemen, I give you Dracula. Here's the actor that more and better than others has been able to interpret the dark Count vampire birth by the imagination of Bram Stoker. We're talking about that crazy actor by the name of Bela Lugosi: his real name was Bela Blasko and everything expected from life except becoming an actor, known to history. Born on 20 October 1882 at Lugos, Hungarian country not far-ironically-from Transylvania, this extraordinary character, in some ways unique in the history of cinema, before entering the Academy of Theatrical Arts of Budapest worked as a miner and later as an apprentice worker in a factory.

His acting career began on the sly. For a few years settle for supporting roles and appearing on posters using various pseudonyms: Geza Lugosi, Bela Lugossy, Deszo Lugosi.

Only later becomes Bela Lugosi (that is native to the town of Lugos), stage name he held until his death. Starting from 1915 interprets the first film roles, all of which are middle-class, Aristocrat, architect ... generalizing: a romantic character.

Has a strong national feeling and a passion not indifferent in 1918 civil claims the revolutionary Government and, with the counterrevolution of Admiral Miklos Horthy von Nagybanya, is forced to flee the country. In 1919 fled to Germany where he appears in a series of films. In 1921 emigrated to United States and specializes in character roles in both theatre and cinema.

The first major theatrical role of Bela Lugosi's Dracula in a play that Broadway meets an extraordinary success. When he faces again the role in the film version of Tod Browning (1931), begins with the phrase "I-am-Dracu-": the voice well set up, emphasis Aristocrat, the inimitable pronunciation make it obvious to everyone that the American cinema has finally found a bad mefistofelica's greatness.

In the years ' 30 and early ' 40 Bela Lugosi gathers together with Boris Karloff, another great, the legacy of the great Lon Chaney on horror. Both come with a great personality and are no doubt actors of excellent quality, perhaps higher than Lugosi, but ours has nothing to envy to two masters as a force of suggestion. Unfortunately, Lugosi is not particularly skillful in choosing roles and ends early for surrendering to the Universal horror themed routines (his only comic role in the famous "Ninotchka" to Lubitsch) reserving his talent as an interpreter at the theatre. On-screen Lugosi Count Dracula's character becomes attached to or, Alternatively, that the mad scientist, running out in some sort of manner that does honour to her talent.

In truth, the reality is more surprising. His attachment to that role becomes more and more morbid, until it flows into a kind of worrisome sucked. Gives interviews while lying in a coffin, looks at Hollywood previews accompanied by a gorilla and in recent years plays roles autoparodistici. For more money problems and drug addiction.

In 1955 announces his comeback and his fourth marriage, but died shortly thereafter, on August 16, 1956 of a heart attack on the set of "Plan 9 from outer space".

He has remained alive especially the legend. There are those who say that it was even placed on the coffin dressed, by his will, with the costume of Dracula.

6. Biography of Viggo Mortensen

A passion for Visual art
October 20, 1958

Who is Viggo Mortensen?

Viggo Peter Mortensen was born on 20 October 1958 in New York, in Manhattan's Lower East Side, the son of Viggo Mortensen senior, Danish, and Grace Gamble, an American, whom she met her future husband on vacation in Norway, in Oslo. After spending his childhood in different parts of the world, between Venezuela, Argentina and Denmark, because of her father's job, at the age of eleven he moved with him (after his parents ' separation) prior to Copenhagen and then in the United States. Here Mortensen gets graduating from Watertown High School, and became passionate about photography.

He studied Spanish literature and political science at St. Lawrence University, he worked for the Swedish ice hockey team as a translator during the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. After a short stop in Denmark, back in the Usa and embarked on an acting career: studied at Warren Robertson's Theatre Workshop, and after several theatrical experiences you move to Los Angeles, where he earns the first television appearances. The first cinema role comes only in 1985, in "Witness", directed by Peter Weir. Actually in 1984 Viggo had already debuted in front of the camera, "Swing shift-swing time": but his scene was cut during editing. The same, however, will happen in Woody Allen's film "the Purple Rose of Cairo".

Discarded "Platoon" tryouts for the role of Sergeant Elias who then will end to Willem Dafoe, Mortensen is dedicated to television, participating in "Miami Vice" and "search for tomorrow", trashy soap opera. After the blockbusters "not April that door 3", however, her big break at the movies arrive in Sean Penn's debut behind the camera in "Lone Wolf": the cast of actors, including Dennis Hopper and Valeria Golino. Two years later, it was the turn of "Carlito's Way", starring opposite Al Pacino: follow "red alert", directed by Tony Scott, and Sinister "obsessions", directed by Philip Ridley.

In 1995 he has the role of Lucifer in "the prophecy", while the 1996 proposes "G.i. Jane," along with Demi Moore, "Daylight-trap in the tunnel", starring Sylvester Stallone, and "albino alligator," Kevin Spacey's directorial debut. In short, Mortensen now forms part of the Hollywood elite: in 1998 he took part in "Psycho," Gus Van Sant remake of the Hitchcock films, and "the thin red line" by Terrence Malick. Even in this case, however, the Director cut his scene in post-production.

World consecration and extraordinary economic gains come through "the Lord of the rings" trilogy directed by Peter Jackson in which the actor plays the role of Aragorn, heir to the throne of Gondor. Mortensen, actually, at the beginning proved hesitant and does not seem convinced of the role, also due to the fact that the shooting of the film will take place in New Zealand; then decides to accept the part only at the insistence of his son Henry, fond of the Tolkien novels.

The international success, therefore, opens the door to other films: for example "Hidalgo", or "A history of violence", by David Cronenberg (Director with whom, moreover, will return to work for "Eastern promises"). In "Appaloosa" Viggo participates in 2008, western directed by Ed Harris, and to "Good-indifference of good", in which she plays a literature teacher who remains intrigued by the Nazi thinking. After "The road," published in 2009, Mortensen found Cronenberg in 2011 in "A dangerous method," in which plays the role of the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, while in 2012 says it produces "Everybody has a plan", by Ana Piterbarg.

In addition to film work, the actor of Danish origin also performs as a musician, painter, poet and photographer. In 1993, for example, dates back "Ten last night", his first collection of poetry. His experience as a photographer, instead, is enhanced by Dennis Hopper, which has the ability to expose their shots, run in the 1970s, Robert Mann Gallery in New York, as part of the staff called "Errant Vine". But this is not the only experience: in 2006, for example, in Santa Monica serves "Recent forgeries".

His passion for art, however, is revealed in the round: in 2002, for example, Mortensen, taking advantage of the gains arising from the "Lord of the rings," fonda Perceval Press, a publishing house that aims to showcase the work of young artists in search of visibility; in the same year he published a catalog of poems, pictures and paintings by him. In 2004, however, dates back "The horse is good", photo book dedicated to horses, with shots taken in many parts of the world including New Zealand, Iceland, Argentina, Brazil and Denmark. Must not be forgotten, finally, the painting of Mortensen, whose paintings have been exhibited around the world: paintings that are seen in "perfect crime" are all composed of him.

In Italy, Viggo Mortensen has been voiced especially by black ice, who has lent her voice to, inter alia, in three films the Lord of the rings ", in" Appaloosa, "" Hidalgo ", in" The road "and" A history of violence ". Francesco Pannofino was also voiced in the movie "Lone Wolf", by Luke Ward in "perfect crime", by Simon Mori in "Chainsaw Massacre 3", by Massimo Rossi in "Psycho" and by Mino Dicaprio in "Carlito's Way".

Posted in 2002 on the list of the fifty most beautiful people in the world according to the magazine "People", Viggo Mortensen is the father of Henry Blake, had by Exene Cervenka, punk singer whom he married in 1987 and divorced in 1998. Supporter of Christiania, expressed criticism of the administration of George w. Bush and has questioned against Denmark's entry into the war in Iraq. A curiosity: in addition to English and Danish, speaks Spanish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and Italian.

7. Biography of Arthur Rimbaud

Ambiguous Seer
20 October 1854
10 November 1891

Who is Arthur Rimbaud?

Rimbaud, considered the incarnation of the cursed poet, born in Charleville-Mézières (France), on 20 October 1854 in a typical bourgeois family (where he had neither the affection of the father, who soon left the family, nor his mother, inflexible Puritan imbued with religiosity). The abandonment of the family by her father, when little Arthur was only six years old, was certainly his whole life, though in a more subtle than you might imagine. The choice of the father not only his family condemned to poverty, but left the responsibility of educating their children only to the mother, which was certainly not an example of liberality.

Educated in the family and at school according to more traditional schemes, he signaled for the extraordinary intellectual precocity composing verses at the age of ten years, encouraged by a local artist in his attempts to write.

At sixteen, following his inclination visionary and wild, threw up the quiet life that had been prepared, fleeing first repeatedly then undertaking a wandering loner who carried him far away from his family environment. One of the first escapes to Paris coincides with the writing of his first poem (the date is that of 1860). However, arrested for failing to carry the train ticket, he was forced to return home

On this long wandering lived between experiences of all kinds, including alcohol, drugs and prison. Escaped indeed once in Paris, in those days the city of Paris, is enthused by the convulsive traveled on foot, without money, through France at war, and made life as a road. It was then that he began to read and to know poets considered "immoral", as Baudelaire and Verlaine. With the latter he had then a long, passionate love story, so difficult and divisive that in the summer of 1873, during a stay in Belgium, Verlaine, in a State of drunken frenzy, wounded his friend to a wrist and was jailed. But the most lasting influence on him was undoubtedly that of Baudelaire.

Influenced also by books of Alchemy and the occult which was reading, he began to see himself as a prophet, a Saint of poetry and, in two letters, known as "letters of the Seer," elaborated the conception according to which the artist must achieve the "confusion of the senses".

Rimbaud returned to his home, where he wrote one of his masterpieces, "a season in hell". In 1875, at the age of twenty-one years, Arthur stopped writing, but always traveller and lover of languages, set off to the East, sailing up in Java, worked as Chief mine in Cyprus, settling finally in East Africa, where he spent his last years as a dealer and smuggler of weapons. In 1891 a tumor in his leg forced him to return to France to receive adequate medical care. It was there that, in a hospital of Marseille, died on November 10 of that year. The sister, who stayed with him until the end, he stated that, on his deathbed, he had returned the same Catholic faith which had characterized his childhood.

"Rimbaud? so-traveled like a meteor. all the way from Baudelaire to symbolism, grasped in his decadent phase and moribund, and impressions of surrealism. Theorized, conscientiously more lucid than any other decadent, the thesis of the "poet Seer", capable of achieving, by way of a "rules of disorderly business" from all directions, in a vision of the unknown that is both vision of the absolute. Where the art of Rimbaud coincides with his life is in "denial", in "disgust": the rejection included himself, his own formation and extraction, indeed from there start. Consistently, the life of Rimbaud was a frantic search of their annulment, pursued by all means, including the non-publication of their works (left out manuscripts and then collected by Verlaine), and perhaps the removal immediately after the print run, the only work he printed, "a season in hell".

Finally, we can say that "Rimbaud is the largest and most poetic interpreter of the crisis nichilistica integral; and, like many authors of the times of crisis, is characterized by a powerful ambiguity, which will make it possible interpretations of his poetry: suffice it to say that Paul Claudel was able to read in "Season in hell" a sort of unconscious route to a God unknown but necessary, while many others have noticed the negative moment of a whole culture, culminating in the awareness of the futility of tradition and in its radical repudiation. Among the most important and most prolific evidence of ambiguity of the poetry of Rimbaud (and, at worst, of each poem), is precisely the fact that this work of destruction has translated into an amazing creative work; that his instance of freedom "against" each institution (including literature) has taken place in a grandiose proposal of Liberation through literature "[literature encyclopedia Garzanti].

8. Biography of Candice Swanepoel

October 20, 1988

Who is Candice Swanepoel?

Candice Swanepoel was born the day October 20, 1988 in Mooi River, KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

The girl was discovered when only fifteen, at a flea market Durban City: his talent scout is Kevin Ellis.

Candice, which hitherto practiced dance and if she had a little dream was to become a dancer, preparing a her photo book with which occurs in a modeling agency of South Africa: his photos arrive at the Agency Select Model Management "which asks her to fly to London for a service.

After various selections taking place between London and New York, Candice Swanepoel is launched on the catwalks of the world: literally catapulted into a new world, at the age of sixteen can already boast the conquest of covers of "Fornarina", "Top Shop" and of the Italian Edition of "Vogue".

Between 2005 and 2006 pose and parades through Philosophy, Moschino, Max Mara and Tommy Hilfiger.

From 2007 provides 175 cm tall by participating each year in the Victoria's Secret fashion shows and in 2010 she was chosen by this major u.s. brand as the face of their line of swimwear.

She's engaged to Joshua David Jones, American soldier who fought in Iraq.

9. Biography of Paul Valéry

The control of the intellect
20 October 1871
July 20, 1945

Who is Paul Valery?

His full name is Ambrose Paul Toussaint Jules Valéry. Paul Valéry was born on 30 October 1871 in Sète, France, Genoese mother and father going on. After attending the Lycée in Montpellier he enrolled, in 1889, at the Faculty of law. During his college years he met some important literary figures including Pierre Louys, Stéphane Mallarmé and André Gide, and approaches to poetry. In this period was the publication of some of his poems on the pages of a Symbolist magazine. He studied the poetry of Mallarmé and Edgar Allan Poe's work, and both become for him the important masters.

In 1892 the literary vocation of Valery undergoes a harsh backlash: he falls in love with a young Spanish and simultaneously is shaken by a personal crisis that led him to repudiate the writing as a form of vain personal self-affirmation. The malaise grasps on the night of 4 and 5 October 1892 while located in Genoa. And, as he himself says in an essay on Poe, are the doubts and uncertainties of his twenties to have determined what bluntly calls "the crisis of the spirit." Then decides to write down daily all his thoughts in a diary with the aim to achieve the highest degree of knowledge and control of his intellect.

The diaries are full of important anthropological and philosophical reflections, aesthetic, religious, will be published only after his death. This is a monumental work that consists of ben 261 notebooks manuscripts totaling 26600 pages.

Between 1895 and 1896 writes "the introduction to the method of Leonardo da Vinci" and "an evening with Mr. heads", works in which attempts to focus his philosophical method and reveals his inclination towards the Cartesian philosophy.

Despite the decision taken at the famous night genovese, Updike does not abandon altogether the poetry, but she keeps at arm's length. In 1894 he moved to Paris and finds a job as an editor at the Ministry of war. His dedication to the job allows him to become personal Secretary to Edouard Lebey innovation, ceo of the first news agency.

In 1900, her private life is enlivened by marriage with Jeannine Giobillard, with whom he has three children. His poetic career, instead, takes up altitude thanks to the intercession of André Gide allowing him to publish at the publishing house Gallimard collection "Le jeune parque". The collection is very successful, and is leading the way with two other publications: "La cimitière marin" (1920) full of melancholy and marine and visions "Charmes" (1922). His compositions are collecting support and endorsements from a growing number of readers, and Valéry finds himself in a short time in the post of official poet.

Her new position won him a series of professional and social recognition, including the election in 1925 at the Académie français, the highest recognition for a French man of letters. Meanwhile continues to publish a series of works such as the Analects "l'anima e la danza" (1923), "Eupalinos or the architect" (1923), the essays collected in five volumes "gazes on the present world" (1931), the opera "Dialogue of the tree" (1943) and the comedy published posthumously "My Faust" (1945).

By this time his appointments to increasingly prestigious charges accumulate in a whirlwind. Gets the role of the President of the Commission responsible for organising synthesis of the universal exhibition of 1936; at the College of France establish a Chair of poetry especially for him.

During the Nazi occupation, he worked as an administrator at the University of Nice, but the flat refusal to cooperate with the regime causes her removal from Office. Continue to maintain relations and exchanges with key members of the cultural world of the period, including the philosopher Henri Bergson. The intellectual relationship established with the latter testifies to the independence of Paul Veléry, as Bergson is Jewish.

The silence that condemn the Nazis ends at the end of the second world war, when the French poet takes again the word in public on the occasion of the anniversary of the birth of Voltaire. Unfortunately Paul Valéry died in Paris a few weeks after the end of the war, on 20 July 1945, at the age of 73 years. Is buried in the small cemetery of his hometown, starring in one of his most famous poems.

10. Mara Venier biography

October 20, 1950

Who is Mara Venier?

Mara Venier (whose real name is Mara Provoleri) was born on 20 October 1950 in Venice. After moving, still a child, in Mestre, he moved to Rome in 1971 to pursue a career as an actress. After debuting as the protagonist (complete with scene of nudity) in "diary of an Italian", taken from "Wanda" by Vasco Pratolini, also featured in the episode "the doll" of the television series "the dark," and the films "La badessa di Castro", "down with us all, viva", "bad thoughts" (written by and starring Ugo Tognazzi) and "emotion". In the 1980s, Mara takes part in numerous Italian comedy films: "Digger", Alfonso Brescia, of 1980, while "heads or tails", by Nanni Loy, is three years later. At the time, companion of Jerry Calà, reads with him in "sports bar", that also has Lino Banfi.

On the big screen also appears in the plays "Gum", "city animals" and "Kamikazen-ultima notte a Milano", in the film by Franco Ferrini "Candy from a stranger" (in which he plays alongside Athina Cenci and Antonella Ponziani, the role of a prostitute) and Sergio Corbucci "nightclub". The 1990s mark the transition of the Venier by movies (his last film dates back to "Pacco, doppio Pacco e contropaccotto" of 1993) on television, both as an actress and as presenter. He took part in the tv series "the voice of the heart" of 1995, followed by "The goal of the Kingfisher" and "Return to fly ', but above all as a conductor that Mara is revealed in great form: after participating in the past to some" Candid Camera "by Nanni Loy and have been at the helm of a" Cantagiro "(alongside a Fiorello at the time almost unknown) , "rotonda sul mare" and "rush hour" for the season 1993/94 is called by Carlo Fuscagni for "Domenica In" Sunday box of Raiuno which gives an extraordinary success.

At the helm of the program until 1997, it was renamed "Lady", obtaining a personal affirmation and high level professional and consecrating characters like Luke Juror (which episode the drops involuntarily and gives a leg fracture), Giucas Casella, Stefano Masciarelli and Giampiero Galeazzi "T-bone". During the year 1996/97, Mara salt to the headlines despite himself for having discovered a scam within the telephone transmission game show: the competitor that calls from home, in fact, gives the correct answer to a question originally scheduled but later replaced by the authors.

Meanwhile the Venier, upon being landlady of the "Dopofestival" of 1994, is also one of the presenters of "Luna Park", aired in early evening of Raiuno. Also at this time, end up in the eye of the storm, along with Rosanna Lambertucci and Pippo Baudo, accused by the Court of Milan have alleged personal compensation more to take part in some tv promotions: in 1998, after having granted compensation for damaged businesses, settling the penalty of one year and four months for extortion.

In 1997 the Venetian presenter leaves the Rai moved to Mediaset (where else had already conducted on Retequattro "Viva Napoli", alongside Mike Bongiorno in 1994, and the "Gran Premio Internazionale dello Spettacolo", alongside Corrado Mantoni in 1995 and in 1996). In Berlusconi's tv Mara starts with "Donna sotto le stelle", early evening dedicated to fashion; so, is entrusted with "Hello Mara", broadcast daily on the air in the Sundial which however is closed early because of the plays not excellent. Feedback equally lukewarm are those obtained by Force "Dad" and "a drop in the bucket" in 1998, and for "life is beautiful" in 1999: and so the Venier already in 2000 back from mamma Rai, introduced with Massimo Lopez "Fantastic".

Back in those days, the early evening presented with Katia Ricciarelli "Katia and Mara to the East", entered the history of Italian television as it stopped a few seconds after the start due to a violent thunderstorm: the same fate will cover in 2001 the show "Venezia, la luna e tu", conducted always in the company of the singer. After returning to "Domenica In" in 2001, together with Antonella Clerici and Carlo Conti, in 2002 Mara presents "a bridge to the stars-the Witch of children victims of war and terrorism" on Raiuno. The hostess again Sunday container first network Rai, was forced to abandon it in 2006 (the year she married Joshua Canales, Publisher and producer), following a brawl which took place within the program amongst Antonio Zequila and Adriano Pappalardo: his place will be taken by Lorena Bianchetti.

Back on the screens Rai with the "Christmas concert" presented on Raidue in 2007, in 2008 and in 2009, he moved again to Mediaset in 2009, when the calls in Brazil of the channel 5 reality show "the farm", presented by Paola Perego. In 2010, Mara is called to lead with Lamberto Sposini "live life", the program of the afternoon by Raiuno. Also confirmed for the subsequent seasons (but at his side there is Carol Langford, who took over from Lamberto Sposini-sick-), becomes the "Lady of the afternoon", defeating daily-in the war of plays-the rival Barbara D'Urso, while not renouncing to other tv events: again the "Christmas concert" (in 2010), but also "The Persuaders-the challenge" (which is part of the jury) , "L'anno che verrà" (saluting the transition from 2010 to 2011) and "La partita del cuore".

Back to the cinema, in 2008 (after a brief appearance in "Paparazzi" by Neri Parenti in 1998), "I get to live alone," by Jerry Calà, and in 2011, still with Neri Parenti, in "Christmas holidays in Cortina". Mother of two children, Elizabeth (daughter by actor Francis Ferracini, is in turn tv presenter) and Paul (son by actor Pier Paolo Capponi), the Venier in the past has been romantically linked, besides the already mentioned Calà, also to Renzo Arbore.

11. Biography of Christopher Wren

Re art
20 October 1632
25 February 1723

Who is Christopher Wren?

Historical note and fame of the architect Christopher Wren is due to the important role that he has held on the occasion of the reconstruction of London after the great fire of London in 1666.

Wren was born on 20 October 1632 in Wiltshire, the son of the Dean of Windsor, Royal appointment assignment during the Commonwealth (1649-1660 by Cromwell, the Puritan Government) will cause the family hardship and persecution.

Teenager, Christopher Wren knows Prince Charles, who would later ascend to the throne. Charles II then entrusted to the trusty Wren the architect.

He studied at Westminster School and then at Wadham College, Oxford; later he was accepted at All Souls College.

In 1657 he became Professor of astronomy at Gresham College. Four years later gets a professorship in Astronomy Savile Foundation at Oxford, a position he held until 1673, when he resigned.

Isaac Newton, a character known as stingy on praises to colleagues, will be able to recognize Christopher Wren as a brilliant scientist.

Wren is a founding member of the Royal Society, of which occupies the post of President in the years 1680 to 1682.

His first real test as an architect is the Sheldonian Theatre, still visible today at Oxford; designing a number of University buildings in Oxford to Cambridge, which is the most important British campuses: among his works are the chapels of Pembroke College and Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

After the great fire of London, Wren was chosen as architect for the new St Paul's Cathedral, which was to be built on the ashes of the medieval church; Wren is totally dedicated to the architecture of this what will be his most important work. St Paul's Cathedral is one of the few English cathedrals built after the middle ages, as well as the only Cathedral in Renaissance style in the country. Wren meets strong opposition, but nonetheless manages to build a building of artistic and architectural value; inspired by the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome, Wren creates the second largest church in the world.

The design and construction will require 35 years, from 1675 to 1710; at the same time as the construction of St. Paul's, along with colleagues Robert Hooke and Nicholas Hawksmoor, Wren designs many other buildings in London, including 51 churches that replace the 87 destroyed in the fire. Many of these churches are still present today: they include St Bride's, St Mary le Bow, St Clement Danes, St Benet Paul's Wharf, and St Stephen Walbrook.

Wren is also working on the project of the monument to the great fire of London, the Greenwich Royal Observatory, the Chelsea Hospital, Greenwich hospital, Marlborough House, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, the Wren Library at Trinity College, Cambridge, and several other buildings.

Is knighted in 1673 and became a member of Parliament in the years between 1685 and 1688, and between 1702 and 1705.

It seems that Wren entered Freemasonry in 1691, and it has long been assumed that he was the Grand Master prior to 1717, but in reality these facts are missing the tests.

Sir Christopher Wren died on 25 February 1723. Yet now is buried in St Paul's Cathedral.

The inscription dedicated to him reads: "Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice" (O you who read, if you want a monument, look around you).
Translation authorized by the website: under Creative Commons License.
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