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Highlights of the Bible: Book of Judges

Highlights From the Book of Judges - Information for personal study


A vigorous account of the deliverances that Jehovah repeatedly performed for Israel through the Judges when Israel abandoned idolatrous practices and earnestly sought his help
Likely written by Samuel, the book covers about 330 years between the conquest of Canaan and the beginning of the monarchy
Background for conditions prevailing during time of the Judges (1:1–3:6)
After Joshua’s death, the tribes of Israel fail to drive the remaining inhabitants of Canaan out of the land
Instead, they intermarry with these pagans and are ensnared by their false religion
Jehovah abandons them to their foes; but from time to time he raises up Judges to deliver them
Deliverances from oppression when Israel abandoned false worship and called out to Jehovah for help (3:7–16:31)
Through Othniel, Israel is delivered from an eight-year subjugation to the Mesopotamian king Cushan-rishathaim
The 18-year domination by Moabite King Eglon ends when he is killed by Ehud, who then assembles an Israelite army and subdues the Moabites
Shamgar single-handedly strikes down 600 Philistines, thus saving Israel
Barak, encouraged by the prophetess Deborah, defeats Jabin, thus ending his 20-year oppression of Israel; Jabin’s army chief, Sisera, is killed by Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite; Deborah and Barak commemorate this victory in song
Gideon is commissioned to deliver Israel from seven-year harassment by Midianites; Jehovah grants victory after he reduces Gideon’s army to just 300 men; Gideon subsequently refuses kingship
Tola judges Israel for 23 years, and Jair judges for 22 years
Israel suffers at the hands of the Ammonites; Jehovah provides deliverance through Jephthah, who subsequently carries out his vow to surrender his only child, a daughter, to Jehovah’s service
Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon judge Israel a combined total of about 25 years
Jehovah gives Samson enormous strength and uses him to release Israel from a 40-year domination by the Philistines; his betrothal to a Philistine woman from Timnah gives him occasions to act against them; his betrayal by Delilah eventually leads to a situation in which he kills more Philistines at his death than he had killed in his lifetime
Further undesirable situations that developed during the time of the Judges (17:1–21:25)
In Ephraim, Micah sets up an image in his home and employs a young Levite as a priest
Certain Danites come to Micah’s house and later steal his idolatrous objects; they also take the Levite to serve as their priest
Men of the Benjamite city of Gibeah are guilty of a mass sex crime against the concubine of a Levite; failure to hand over the guilty ones for punishment prompts the other tribes to undertake a punitive war against Benjamin; the tribe is almost annihilated

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Theocratic Ministry School Review - Week Starting February 23, 2015

Study information for Theocratic Ministry School Review

The following questions will be considered at the Theocratic Ministry School during the week beginning February 23, 2015.

1. How did the cities of refuge in ancient Israel differ from pagan sanctuaries for fugitive criminals? (Josh. 20:2, 3) [Jan. 5, w10 11/1 p. 15 pars. 4-6]

(Josh. 20:2, 3) “Tell the Israelites, ‘Select for yourselves the cities of refuge about which I spoke to you through Moses, 3 so that the manslayer who unintentionally or accidentally kills someone may flee there. And they will serve as a refuge for you from the avenger of blood.

***w10 11/1 p. 15 Did You Know?***
▪ In the ancient pagan world, many temples served as asylums for fugitives or criminals. In medieval Christendom, abbeys and churches served the same function. The rules governing ancient Israel’s cities of refuge, however, ensured that they did not become sanctuaries for criminals.
The Mosaic Law stated that cities of refuge protected only the unintentional manslayer. (Deuteronomy 19:4, 5) He could flee to the nearest city of refuge, out of reach of the victim’s nearest male relative, who could otherwise avenge the shed blood. After stating his case to the city’s older men, the fugitive was taken to stand trial in the city having jurisdiction over the location where the death occurred. There he had opportunity to prove his innocence. The elders reviewed the relationship between the fugitive and the victim, noting if prior hatred existed.—Numbers 35:20-24; Deuteronomy 19:6, 7; Joshua 20:4, 5.
If found innocent, the fugitive returned to the city of refuge and had to remain in its immediate vicinity. These cities were not prisons. The refugee worked and served as a useful member of society. Upon the death of the high priest, all refugees could leave the cities of refuge in safety.—Numbers 35:6, 25-28.

(Deut. 19:4, 5) “Now this is what should take place regarding the manslayer who may flee there in order to live: When he strikes his fellow man unintentionally and he did not previously hate him; 5 as when he goes with his fellow man into the forest to gather wood and he raises his hand to cut the tree with the ax, but the axhead flies off the handle and hits his fellow man and he dies, the manslayer should flee to one of these cities to live.
(Num. 35:20-24) If death resulted because he pushed him out of hatred or threw something at him with malicious intent, 21 or out of hatred he struck him with his hand, and he died, the one who struck him will be put to death without fail. He is a murderer. The avenger of blood will put the murderer to death when he encounters him. 22 “‘But if it was unexpectedly and not out of hatred that he pushed him or threw any article at him without malicious intent, 23 or if he did not see him and caused a stone to fall on him and he was not an enemy or seeking his injury, and the person died, 24 the assembly should then judge between the one who struck him and the avenger of blood, in harmony with these judgments.
(Deut. 19:6, 7) Otherwise, in the heat of anger, the avenger of blood may chase after the manslayer, overtake him, and kill him, because the distance to the city was too far. However, he did not deserve to die, since he did not previously hate his fellow man. 7 That is why I am commanding you: ‘Set three cities apart.’
(Josh. 20:4, 5) He must flee to one of these cities and stand at the entrance of the city gate and present his case in the hearing of the elders of that city. Then they must receive him into the city and give him a place and he will live with them. 5 If the avenger of blood chases after him, they should not surrender the manslayer into his hand, for he killed his fellow man accidentally and he did not previously hate him.
(Num. 35:6) “The cities that you will give to the Levites will be 6 cities of refuge, which you will give for the manslayer to flee to, as well as 42 other cities.
(Num. 35:25-28) The assembly should then save the manslayer from the hand of the avenger of blood and return him to his city of refuge to which he had fled, and he must dwell in it until the death of the high priest who was anointed with the holy oil. 26 “‘But if the manslayer goes out of the boundary of his city of refuge to which he fled 27 and the avenger of blood finds him outside the boundary of his city of refuge and slays the manslayer, he has no bloodguilt. 28 For he must dwell in his city of refuge until the high priest’s death. But after the high priest’s death, the manslayer may return to the land that he owns.

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Meaning and Definition of Science Fiction | Concept and What is.

What is Science Fiction?

Science fiction is a literary genre in which the author conceives a world future or artificial, taking into consideration hypothetical assumptions that can be physical, biological, technological, philosophical or cultural order in order to study aspects of human life, nature and the universe, under these assumptions.

One of the pioneers of science fiction is the Roman author Luciano who, in the year 160 A.D., wrote a book called "Vera story", which tells that a strong wind transported a boat that was sailing beyond "the pillars of Hercules" (Strait of Gibraltar) to the Moon, where travelers are that its King is going to meet with the Emperor of the Sunbecause of the rights of the conquest of Venus. However, the history of science fiction (itself) did not begin until the 19th century, with the novels of Julio Verne and H.G. Wells. Among the works of Verne that is noteworthy, should take into account "Twenty thousand leagues under the sea of travel submarine", "Journey to the center of Earth", and "From the Earth to the Moon", among others. These novels are based more on adventures that happen to characters of the era and its interrelation with technologies never before views. On the other hand, the novels of H.G. Wells, that should be mentioned are: "The time machine", and the "war of the worlds". These, unlike written by Verne, have rather an order to show a social critique. After these two authors, the genus had a special boom in United States from the year 1926 when Hugo Gernsback, considered the father of science fiction and who first used the term, founded the magazine "Amazing stories", dedicated only to the stories of this literary genre. Later the English author Aldous Huxley transcends the literary culture with his novel "A happy world", which aims to transport us to a future world "ironically happy" which is a fully mechanized society and without values. A similar social criticism takes place with the novels "1984" and "Revolt in la Granja", of the same nationality as the previous writer George Orwell. Thereafter developed a boom of the genre where, among the more notable authors should be noted by Isaac Asimov and Frank Herbert.

Something that is important to note, is that science fiction authors do not purport to guess or predict the future, but rather intended to use the future freely to develop their ideas. Moreover, notable authors as Ray Bradbury have pointed out that rather than predict the future, they want to avoid it.

To conclude this article, it should be noted that due to the large technological advances developed currently, science fiction has gained increasing importance not only in literature, but also on television, in the comics, and on radio. So much so, that in the film industry today can be found from the classics of Julio Verne, to notable novels of the 20th century in Isaac Asimov.
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Meaning and Definition of Encyclopedia | Concept and What is.

What is an Encyclopedia?

An encyclopedia is a record of the knowledge of mankind in the form of writings compiled with information from the various branches of knowledge. By the number of issues that an encyclopedia can deal with, may be presented in one or more volumes, being able to get to an important collection of books. Volumes contain the information divided into articles of each issue that the encyclopedia is intended to cover, and are usually ordered alphabetically.

The term encyclopedia derives from Greek enkyklios paideia, meaning "rounded education", meaning "general knowledge". It is known that since thousands of years man has summarized his knowledge, but in 1541, the term was used in a book by Joachimus Fortius Ringelbergius called Lucubrationes vel dimittere absolutissima kyklopaideia. Later, in 1559, the Croatian Pavao Skalić used the word in his book Encyclopaedia seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam prophanarum epistemon. Currently, in Spanish the word encyclopedia, is used while in English, normally the word encyclopedia, is used especially in America. In the United Kingdom, also used the word encyclopaedia.

If it comes to compendia, one of the oldest preserved encyclopedic records is the history Naturalis of Pliny the elder, a Roman who lived in the first century after Christ. In his work of 37 chapters, it included topics as varied as natural history, medicine, geography, geology, art and architecture, and many others. Another old record was the work of San Isidoro de Sevilla, etymologies, who wrote shortly before his death between 627 and 630 a.d.. 20 books with topics such as grammar, metrics, rhetoric, dialectic, mathematics, religion, medicine, agriculture, and many others, he was one of the books used in the education of the middle ages.

In the 18th century, developed the concept of encyclopedia which is currently handled with a general purpose and mass production. It highlights the name of Denis Diderot, among several important encyclopaedists. They were writers and scientists of that time who made the famous Encyclopédie, compiled all the scientific knowledge to try to see the world from a different perspective to the customary religion and metaphysics. In the 20th century, the concept of encyclopedia became more popular and, in addition, with the new knowledge, numerous works were carried out. Ending this century, new encyclopedias on CD-ROM, were developed to be used in computers. It highlights the modern Encarta from Microsoft. Today they also highlight free encyclopedias, allowing such as Wikipedia, that information is published by users around the world through the Internet, thus giving an impressive amount of topics, more than previously seen.

Fundamental characteristics of an encyclopedia may include the following: is a text summary in comparison with other works. Since it must contain many themes, the information is presented in a synthetic way. Articles that contain, are rather objective, so there are no opinions. They are limited to expose the corresponding facts. The exposed information is the work of several authors; in fact, there are articles that are made for the work of hundreds of different people. The amount of information for each item is limited according to the total size of the work.

In terms of content, it is necessary to be of universal interest, i.e., that you might be interested to anyone and not to a group in particular. They must also maintain interest over time; passing information should not be used. In addition, the organization system is generally to the concrete, the limit of space and for the work to be self-sufficient, without having to search in other texts.

Currently, most important encyclopedias are the encyclopedia Espasa (Spanish), British (English origin), Larousse (of French origin), Brockhaus (German), the great Soviet encyclopedia (Russian), La Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze (Italian), large encyclopedia Portuguesa e Brasileira (Portuguese), among others.
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What is the history of the books?

The books consist of a set of sheets of paper, organized and bound that make up a work or volume. This work can be literary, scientific or technical and philosophical, among many other topics.

Books, as they are understood classically, is that volume, written on sheets of paper. The one which, subsequently to be finalized, goes on sale through bookstores. The books may discuss more issues, of the life of the human being. There are kitchen, car, dog, fiction, drama, thriller, scary and magical worlds of fantasy.

Now, with regard to what is the history of books, this begins with sheets of clay. Iron, which was written by an awl, which was developing, mainly drawings expressing the overall idea, who drew. It is so precarious, the beginning of the history of books. History which, was forged in a way quite leisurely and slow.

Subsequently, the history of books, takes a radical shift, from the hand of the papyri. Paper roll, which was used by the Romans, the Egyptians and the Greeks. This type of paper, which was extracted from the reeds that existed on the banks of the River Nile, were rolled up through a paper bar. Most of the Papyri, books of antiquity, were quite long. But in the majority of cases, its size was reduced them and they wrote through several of these, which were kept in the form of real volumes.

To get a copy of the Papyri, since history had not yet delivered to mankind, the printing press, they had to pay a very high price. Already copy of these, it was performed by the hand of different scribes. Which is delayed, rather, on the copy of the majority of the papyri. Therefore, by being so tiring work, is that they were charging so expensive.

Way back, in the history of books, parchment, appears in the 2nd century b.c. It has its manufacturing base, in the leather of the animals of the time. The grace of the scrolls, is that they could last quite a few years more, than the papyri. Which is desasían quite quickly, to preserve its contents, unless copies of them, on an ongoing basis are separated.

Subsequently, in the history of books, are codices, in the 4th century AD. Or books, in latin. Which were different sheets, in the form of a booklet, which were made of wood and covered with wax. Therefore, with something sharp, I could write about them, and if it was required, it could erase. Similarly, in these books, sometimes leaves of parchment, is alternated in that fashion, it was even easier to write. With the passage of time, sheets of wood, were changing by the leather.

In the middle ages, the books were mainly written by various monks monastery, which existed in Europe. They still wrote them by hand. Many of them were copies of classics of Greece and Rome. Most of these books, possessed valuable inlays, gold and other fine materials. Therefore, in this part of the story, which takes place in the age of faith union with the reason, the books were very expensive. Therefore, only some monarchs, could be given the luxury of buying them.

That Yes, to the European Renaissance, in 1456, the German Johann Gutenberg, creates the first Western printing based on the movable metal type. The first impression was the "Gutenberg Bible".

One of the contributing factors to this historical fact, which marks a before and an afterwards, in the history of books, is that paper there is. The one which was learned by Europeans, Muslims.

After this fact, in the history of the book, practically, nothing changed. The only thing that has been achieved, is further mechanize the process, make it more quickly, from the Industrial Revolution. The same thing has happened, with most of the world production of final goods. Also today there are electronic books or ebooks, which we will explore in another article.
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