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What is the amendment Miranda?


Ernesto Miranda (on the left) was in 1966 a young destitute of 23 years in the State of Arizona, United States. The police arrested him as a suspect in the abduction and rape of an 18-year-old girl. It was identified by it and then subjected to interrogation by the police.
Miranda confessed and signed a written text recognizing having committed the crime of which it is accused.
The case gained public notoriety and he was taken to the Supreme Court, which overturned the ruling of the original declaring inadmissible that will condemn a person on the basis of his sayings during the arrest and without that previously had been informed in a ruling that would make history of their constitutional rights: remain silent, that anything that State could be used against her and who had the right to request the assistance of a lawyer.
This agreed Court would establish since an inexcusable ritual that is the recitation that a policeman should make it known to the detainee, in front of witnesses and are known as "Miranda amendment ' or 'the Miranda warnings'."
Article translated for educational purposes from: Planeta Sedna 

Who was Mahoma?


(570-632): Arab Prophet and religious leader who inspired and founded islam. He was born in the Arabian city of Mecca. He was orphaned at the age of six and went to live with his grandfather and then his uncle. At 25 he began working as a commercial agent of Khadijah, a rich widow of 40 years, whom he married. For 25 years she was his partner and gave him several children, but only his daughter FATIMA would give descendants.
In 610, when Mahoma was 40 years old, he had a vision while meditating in a cave on the outskirts of Mecca. "A supernatural contact that later generations knew as ' the night of power or destiny". A voice ordered three times repeat what listened, as I felt such compression in your body which could hardly breathe.
Angel human-shaped urged him to become a Messenger of God and ordered:
' Recite: in the name of the Lord, which you created, created man from a clot of blood, and your Lord is the most prodigal, who taught by the pen, the man what he didn't know '.
Then again heard the words of the first of many revelations that would come to him in similar visions in the following two decades. Muhammad also was revealing to their fellow human beings. The revelations came from wing and the followers of Muhammad have always maintained that they were communicated to him by the Archangel GABRIEL (the same one that announced to Mary the birth of Jesus and to EZEKIEL the birth of John the Baptist). Those who submit to such sermons would be called Muslim and islam would be the name of their religion.

At the core of this new teaching was the doctrine that there is no God but Allah and that his followers were subjected it. The word ISLAM means submission.
Mohammed attracted many followers, but also many enemies. In 622 he should go to Medina. The Muslims took over this HEGIRA (running from Mecca to Medina) like the initiation of your calendar. Since then Mahoma organized rules for the correct worship of Allah and the Islamic society. He also led the war against enemies. Thus, conquered Mecca in the 630. Most of the scattered tribes allied themselves with Muhammad.
The ideal man, it is considered but never said to have supernatural powers and does not have it by divine. His tomb is in the Holy Mosque of the Prophet, in Medina.
Mahonia, ABRAHAM was a Muslim because he had subjected completely to God. Jesus is accepted as a prophet but not as the son of God, because he could not accept the idea that God could be father.
The figure of Muhammad is a prophet to whom Allah manifested itself and when there was compliment the elaboration of the QURAN anymore is would reveal their messages to humanity.
Article translated for educational purposes from: Planeta Sedna 

What is an Incunabulum?


From the latin, inucunabula, person in their early years or the band that is holding the children in their cribs. Became a figurative use of the concept the cradle of printing times books.
The expression was then used for all printed book before 1501.It is estimated they were 40,000 editions in some 1,000 Printers, among which appeared the Caxton, Jenson, Manutius and Johann Gutenberg (1397-1468), the first European who used movable types and who has been awarded the invention of the printing press in 1463 in Strasbourg, although the work developed it in Mainz. Incunabula are the development of the typeface in its gestation period.
Gutenberg had requested money from Johann Fust, who then it was all his possessions for lack of payment, thus continuing his original work. Fust preserved machines, but Gutenberg entered history. Color Peter Schöffer was the first impression in 1457.


Before the 15th century, Europe books were printed with the laborious process of cutting each page a block of wood. The advantage of movable type developed by Gutenberg was that it allowed unite any combination of characters, and then separate them and reattach them to the next print.
Technique responded to the demand for a means to disseminate knowledge and ideas quickly. The types were placed and the process was operated manually, by what it was slow work: other 350 years have passed until the first mechanical printing press.
The first printed characters were based on the handwriting of the time, but in 1470, was designed, especially for printing, the Romanesque type character.
Learn how to write calligraphy with linked letters, which became popular at the end of the 15th century; He taught in texts as the Operina of Ludovico Arrighi, in 1539. The printer Aldo shag based on it developed the italic character.
Learn to read books printed spread culture, but survived the old methods. This master of 16th-century practice saying "the lyric with blood comes"; Meanwhile, his wife teaches a child to read. Other two students reviewed books.
Article translated for educational purposes from:  Planeta Sedna 

Sherlock Holmes really exist?

Who was Sherlock Holmes?

Fictional character created by English author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930). Prototype of the deductive detective, analyst and maker of theories commonly successful.
The author modelled the character based on his professor of medicine, Dr. Joseph Bell de Edimburgo, who took their mannerisms and methods. Thin, nervous, stubborn, Sherlock Holmes was only used for scientific reasoning to solve mysteries and performed the most amazing deductions based on trivial details and evidence that, of course, everyone ignored.
It smoked a pipe, used capote, played the violin and used to take drugs as the model chosen. She lived in the 221 Baker Street. Doctor John H. Watson was his partner. Although obtuse and distracted it who usually tells stories.
Professor Moriarty was the archenemy of Sherlock Holmes. His full name was Professor james Moriarty, a brilliant mathematician who put his genius at the service of the crime. The author of the fiction presents him as a character who could kill their hero detective. Finally, the two men are in a duel of Titans in the falls of Reinchenbach, Switzerland.
After the party arm struggle, both fall into the dangerous stream and die at the same time. Conan Doyle, however then resurrected Holmes and Moriarty dead left.
Modern novel detectives, with all its conventions, considered that he was born in 1841 with the crimes of the Morgue Street, Edgar Allan Poc (1 809-1849) and the Moonstone, by Wilkie Collins in 1868. But Sherlock Hol month has gone down in history as the most famous of all the detectives.
Character beloved cinema its most representative actor Basil Rathbone was. Then it was animated by Christopher Lee, Roger Moore, Peter Cushing, Nicholas Rowe, Michael Pennington and Anthony Higgins. In the history of cinema, is the character on which there have been more movies: 120
Article translated for educational purposes from: Planeta Sedna 

Who was Hanlet?


The name of the Prince of Denmark, central character of the tragedy written by William SHAKESPEARE (1514-1616).
According to some scholars, the figure of Hamlet corresponds to the of Amleth, whose story is told in Sax Grammaticus, the history of Denmark, written in the 12th century. It is possible that this legend had been brought from Iceland: the saga of the Amlooi of the other 10th century scholars have believed that it could have originated in a tale of the 10th century of Persian origin: Khuatay-namak, book of Kings.
The story of Hamlet was also told by Belleforest Franools in Histoz'res Tragzques.Also cited as precedent the part of Thomas Kyd Ur-Hamlet, of which only the name is known because it believes it lost.
None however describe the incomparable and harrowing question of Hamlet and his dramatic indecisiveness as Shakespeare, who installed the work in Helsingor's Kronborg, fortress of the Crown, in Denmark, built in 1574. It overlooks the Strait between Denmark and Sweden.
Hamlet is the profound painting of the soul of a dreamer and philosopher who succumbs to overwhelmed by the role that the circumstances require it and the movedora figure of his fiancée, Ophelia.
The story relates that the King of Denmark has been killed by his brother, Claudius, who then becomes King and marries the widow of the dead monarch, Gertrude, Hamlet's mother.
The ghost of the King visits his son, Prince Hamlet, and calls for revenge. The work concludes with the duel between Hamlet and the courtier Lacrtes and death by poison of the main characters. The personality of Hamlet became a symbol that describes people who intensely deliberate their actions, have many obstacles to take swift and decisive action. Hamlet is wrapped in a distressing melancholy.
It is the longest of the works of Shakespeare and contains several soliloquy, dramatic monologues of Hamlet, many of which have become the modern times as phrases made or repeated in different circumstances:
-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends".
-"Fragility, your name is woman".
-"Something is rotten in Denmark or something stinks in Denmark".
-"Be or not to be: that is the dilemma".
-"Providence is present even in the fall of a Sparrow".
Shakespeare took the words of Jesus when he says:
-"A Sparrow will fall to the ground without your father's presence".
Article translated for educational purposes from: Planeta Sedna 


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