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Theocratic Ministry School Review - June 2015

Study information for Theocratic Ministry School Review

The following questions will be considered at the Theocratic Ministry School during the week beginning June 29, 2015. The date when each point is scheduled for discussion is included so that research can be done when preparing for the school each week.

1. What was wrong with the way that Michal spoke to David, and what lesson should married couples take to heart from this account? (2 Sam. 6:20-23) [May 11, w11 8/1 p. 12 par. 1]

(2 Sam. 6:20-23) When David returned to bless his own household, Saul’s daughter Miʹchal came out to meet him. She said: “How glorious the king of Israel made himself when he uncovered himself today before the eyes of the slave girls of his servants, just as an empty-headed man openly uncovers himself!” 21 At this David said to Miʹchal: “My celebration was before Jehovah, who chose me rather than your father and all his household and who appointed me as leader over Jehovah’s people, Israel. Therefore, I will celebrate before Jehovah, 22 and I will humble myself even more than this and become low even in my own eyes. But by the slave girls whom you mentioned, I will be glorified.” 23 So Saul’s daughter Miʹchal had no children down to the day of her death.

***w11 8/1 p. 12 Treating Your Mate With Respect***
Even when you are alone with your mate, resist the urge to use sarcasm and name-calling. In ancient Israel, Michal got angry with her husband, King David. She spoke sarcastically and said that he acted “just as one of the empty-headed men.” Her words offended David, but they also displeased God. (2 Samuel 6:20-23) The lesson? When you speak with your mate, choose your words carefully. (Colossians 4:6; footnote) Phil, married for eight years, admits that he and his wife still have disagreements. He has noticed that, at times, what he says makes the situation worse. “I have come to realize that ‘winning’ an argument is actually a loss. I find that it is much more satisfying and beneficial to build up our relationship.”

2. How did the prophet Nathan react when Jehovah corrected him for telling David to go ahead and build a temple for Jehovah? (2 Sam. 7:2, 3) [May 11, w12 2/15 p. 24 pars. 6-7]

(2 Sam. 7:2, 3) the king said to Nathan the prophet: “Here I am living in a house of cedars while the Ark of the true God sits in the midst of tent cloths.” 3 Nathan replied to the king: “Go and do whatever is in your heart, for Jehovah is with you.”

***w12 2/15 pp. 24-25 Nathan—Loyal Advocate of Pure Worship***
As a faithful worshipper of Jehovah, Nathan enthusiastically endorsed David’s plan to construct the first permanent center of pure worship on earth. On that occasion, however, Nathan apparently expressed his own feelings instead of speaking in Jehovah’s name. That night, God instructed his prophet to take a different message to the king: David would not build Jehovah’s temple. The person to do so would be one of David’s sons. But Nathan announced that God was making a covenant with David to the effect that his throne would become “firmly established to time indefinite.”—2 Sam. 7:4-16.
God’s will did not harmonize with Nathan’s judgment with respect to temple construction. Without murmuring, however, this humble prophet acquiesced to Jehovah’s purpose and cooperated with it. What a fine example to follow if God should correct us in some way! Nathan’s subsequent acts as a prophet show that he did not lose God’s favor. In fact, it appears that Jehovah inspired Nathan, together with Gad the visionary, to direct David in organizing 4,000 musicians in temple service.—1 Chron. 23:1-5; 2 Chron. 29:25.

3. Why did Nathan relate the parable recorded at 2 Samuel 12:1-7 instead of just telling David directly that he was guilty of serious sin? How can this account help us to be better teachers? [May 18, w12 2/15 p. 24 pars. 2-3]

(2 Sam. 12:1-7) So Jehovah sent Nathan to David. He came in to him and said: “There were two men in one city, the one rich and the other poor. 2 The rich man had very many sheep and cattle;3 but the poor man had nothing but one small female lamb, which he had bought. He cared for it, and it grew up together with him and his sons. It would eat from the little food he had and drink from his cup and sleep in his arms. It became as a daughter to him. 4 Later a visitor came to the rich man, but he would not take any of his own sheep and cattle to prepare a meal for the traveler who had come to him. Instead, he took the poor man’s lamb and prepared it for the man who had come to him.” 5 At this David grew very angry against the man, and he said to Nathan: “As surely as Jehovah is living, the man who did this deserves to die! 6 And he should pay for the lamb four times over, because he did this and showed no compassion.” 7 Then Nathan said to David: “You are the man! This is what Jehovah the God of Israel says: ‘I myself anointed you as king over Israel, and I rescued you from the hand of Saul.

***w12 2/15 p. 24 Nathan—Loyal Advocate of Pure Worship***
Consider why Nathan addressed the problem as he did. It is not easy for a person who has become emotionally entangled with someone to view his situation objectively. All of us tend to make excuses in an attempt to justify ourselves if our actions are questionable. But Nathan’s illustration moved David unwittingly to condemn his own actions. The king saw clearly that the conduct Nathan described was deplorable. Only after David himself had condemned it, however, did Nathan reveal that the illustration applied to the king. Then David could see the magnitude of his sin. This put him in the right frame of mind to accept reproof. He acknowledged that he had indeed “despised” Jehovah by his conduct in connection with Bath-sheba, and he accepted the deserved reproof.—2 Sam. 12:9-14; Ps. 51, superscription.
What can we learn from this? A Bible teacher’s objective is to help his listeners arrive at the right conclusion. Nathan respected David and therefore approached him tactfully. Nathan knew that at heart David loved righteousness and justice. With his illustration, the prophet appealed to these godly qualities. We too can help sincere individuals to understand Jehovah’s point of view. How? By appealing to their sense of what is right, doing so without assuming any air of moral or spiritual superiority. The Bible, not our personal opinion, is our authority regarding what is right and what is wrong.

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Highlights From the Book of Second Samuel - Bible Reading: 2 Samuel

Highlights From Bible Reading: 2 Samuel > Information for personal study

Jehovah’s Word Is Alive

Highlights From the Book of Second Samuel

DOES recognizing Jehovah’s sovereignty require our perfect obedience? Does a man of integrity always do what is right in God’s eyes? What kind of individual does the true God find “agreeable to his heart”? (1 Samuel 13:14) The Bible book of Second Samuel gives satisfying answers to these questions.
Second Samuel was written by Gad and Nathan, two prophets who were close to King David of ancient Israel. Completed in about 1040 B.C.E., toward the end of David’s 40-year kingship, the book is primarily about David and his relationship with Jehovah. This thrilling narrative relates how a strife-torn nation becomes a prosperous united kingdom under a valiant king. The gripping drama is packed with human emotions expressed with deep intensity.

DAVID BECOMES “GREATER AND GREATER”

(2 Samuel 1:1–10:19)
David’s response to the news of the death of Saul and Jonathan reveals his feelings for them and for Jehovah. In Hebron, David is appointed king over the tribe of Judah. Saul’s son Ish-bosheth is made king over the rest of Israel. David goes on “getting greater and greater,” and some seven and a half years later, he is made king over all Israel.—2 Samuel 5:10.
David captures Jerusalem from the Jebusites and makes it the capital of his kingdom. His first attempt to transfer the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem results in disaster. However, the second attempt succeeds, and David dances for joy. Jehovah makes a covenant with David for a kingdom. David subdues his enemies as God continues to be with him.

Scriptural Questions Answered:

2:18—Why were Joab and his two brothers identified as the three sons of Zeruiah, their mother? In the Hebrew Scriptures, genealogies were usually reckoned through the father. Zeruiah’s husband may have died prematurely, or he could have been considered unsuitable for inclusion in the Sacred Record. It is possible that Zeruiah was listed because she was David’s sister or half sister. (1 Chronicles 2:15, 16) The only reference to the father of the three brothers is in connection with his burial place at Bethlehem.—2 Samuel 2:32.
3:29—What is meant by “a man taking hold of the twirling spindle”? Women customarily did the weaving of cloth. Therefore, this expression may refer to men who were unfit for such activities as warfare and who were thus obliged to do the work usually done by a woman.
5:1, 2—How long after Ish-bosheth’s assassination was David made king over all Israel? It seems reasonable to conclude that Ish-bosheth began his two-year-long kingship shortly after Saul’s death, about the same time David began his in Hebron. David ruled over Judah from Hebron for seven and a half years. Soon after being made king over all Israel, he shifted his capital to Jerusalem. Hence, about five years elapsed after Ish-bosheth’s death before David became king over all Israel.—2 Samuel 2:3, 4, 8-11; 5:4, 5.
8:2—How many Moabites were executed after Israel’s conflict with them? The number may have been determined by measuring rather than by counting. It seems that David had the Moabites lie down side by side on the ground in a row. Next, he had the row measured with the length of a line, or a cord. Apparently, two line measures, or two thirds of the Moabites, were put to death, and one line measure, or one third of them, were spared.

Lessons for Us:

2:1; 5:19, 23. David inquired of Jehovah before taking up residence in Hebron and prior to going up against his enemies. We too should seek Jehovah’s guidance before making decisions that affect our spirituality.
3:26-30. Revenge reaps sad consequences.—Romans 12:17-19.
3:31-34; 4:9-12. David’s lack of vindictiveness and ill will is exemplary.
5:12. We should never forget that Jehovah has educated us in his ways and made a good relationship with him possible.
6:1-7. Though David was well-meaning, his attempt to move the Ark in a wagon was in violation of God’s command and resulted in failure. (Exodus 25:13, 14; Numbers 4:15, 19; 7:7-9) Uzzah’s grabbing hold of the Ark also shows that good intentions do not change what God requires.
6:8, 9. In a trialsome situation, David first became angry, then afraid—perhaps even blaming Jehovah for the tragedy. We must guard against blaming Jehovah for problems that result from ignoring his commands.
7:18, 22, 23, 26. David’s humility, exclusive devotion to Jehovah, and interest in exalting God’s name are qualities for us to imitate.
8:2. A prophecy uttered some 400 years earlier is fulfilled. (Numbers 24:17) Jehovah’s word always comes true.
9:1, 6, 7. David kept his promise. We too must endeavor to keep our word.

JEHOVAH RAISES UP CALAMITY AGAINST HIS ANOINTED

(2 Samuel 11:1–20:26)
“Here I am raising up against you calamity out of your own house,” Jehovah says to David, “and I will take your wives under your own eyes and give them to your fellowman, and he will certainly lie down with your wives under the eyes of this sun.” (2 Samuel 12:11) What is the reason for this pronouncement? It is David’s sin with Bath-sheba. Though repentant David is forgiven, he is not spared the consequences of his sin.
First the child that Bath-sheba gives birth to dies. Then David’s virgin daughter Tamar is raped by her half brother Amnon. Her full brother Absalom murders Amnon in revenge. Absalom conspires against his own father and proclaims himself king in Hebron. David is forced to flee Jerusalem. Absalom has relations with ten of his father’s concubines left behind to take care of the house. David returns to his kingship only after Absalom is killed. A revolt by the Benjaminite Sheba ends in Sheba’s death.

Scriptural Questions Answered:

14:7—What is symbolized by “the glow of my charcoals”? The glow of slow-burning charcoal is used to denote a living offspring.
19:29—Why did David respond the way he did to Mephibosheth’s explanation? Upon hearing Mephibosheth, David must have realized that he erred when he took Ziba’s words at face value. (2 Samuel 16:1-4; 19:24-28) Very likely, this irritated David, and he did not want to hear anything further about the matter.

Lessons for Us:

11:2-15. The candid account of David’s shortcomings testifies to the fact that the Bible is the inspired Word of God.
11:16-27. When we commit a serious sin, we should not try to cover it over as David did. Rather, we should confess our sin to Jehovah and seek help from the elders in the congregation.—Proverbs 28:13; James 5:13-16.
12:1-14. Nathan set a fine example for appointed elders in the congregation. They are to help those who fall into sin to correct their course. The elders must discharge this responsibility skillfully.
12:15-23. Having the correct view of what befell him helped David to respond properly to adversity.
15:12; 16:15, 21, 23. When it appeared that Absalom would ascend to the throne, pride and ambition led the brilliant counselor Ahithophel to become a traitor. Having intelligence without humility and loyalty can be a snare.
19:24, 30. Mephibosheth was truly appreciative of David’s loving-kindness. He willingly submitted to the king’s decision about Ziba. Appreciation for Jehovah and his organization should move us to be submissive.
20:21, 22. The wisdom of one person can avert a disaster for many.—Ecclesiastes 9:14, 15.

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Brahma > Its origin and history

Brahma: Definition and origin

by Mark Cartwright
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Brahma is the Hindu Creator god. He is also known as the Grandfather and as a later equivalent of Prajapati, the primeval first god. In early Hindu sources such as the Mahabharata, Brahma is supreme in the triad of great Hindu gods which includes Shiva and Vishnu.
Brahma, due to his elevated status, is less involved in picturesque myths where gods take on human form and character, but is rather a generally abstract or metaphysical ideal of a great god. In later Puranas (Hindu epics) Brahma is no longer worshipped and other gods are assigned his myths, even if he always maintains his status as the Creator god. Brahma's epithet is ekahamsa, the One Swan. His vahanam ('vehicle') is a peacock, swan or goose. He is still honoured today with an annual ceremony at the pilgrimage site of Pushkar in Rajasthan, India and he remains a popular figure in South-east Asia, especially in Thailand and Bali.

Brahma the Creator

In the beginning, Brahma sprang from the cosmic golden egg and he then created good & evil and light & dark from his own person. He also created the four types: gods, demons, ancestors, and men (the first being Manu). Brahma then made all living creatures upon the earth (although in some myths Brahma's son Daksa is responsible for this). In the process of creating, perhaps in a moment of distraction, the demons were born from Brahma's thigh and so he abandoned his own body which then became Night. After Brahma created good gods he abandoned his body once again, which then became Day, hence demons gain the ascendancy at night and gods, the forces of goodness, rule the day. Brahma then created ancestors and men, each time again abandoning his body so that they became Dusk and Dawn respectively. This process of creation repeats itself in every aeon. Brahma then appointed Shiva to rule over humanity although in later myths Brahma becomes a servant of Shiva.

Brahma created the four types: gods, demons, ancestors, and men.

Brahma had several wives, the most important being his daughter Sarasvati who, after the Creation, bore Brahma the four Vedas (Holy books of Hinduism), all branches of knowledge, the 36 Raginis and 6 Ragas of music, ideas such as Memory and Victory, yogas, religious acts, speech, Sanskrit, and the various units of measurement and time. Besides Daksa, Brahma had other notable sons including the Seven Sages (of whom Daksa was one), and the four famous Prajapatis (deities): Kardama, Pancasikha, Vodhu, and Narada, the latter being the messenger between gods and men.

Brahma Creates WomEn & Death

In the myths told in the Mahabharata, Brahma created women, the source of evil amongst men:
A wanton woman is a blazing fire...she is the sharp edge of the razor; she is poison, a serpent, and death all in one.
The gods feared that men could become so powerful that they might challenge their reign, therefore, they asked Brahma how best to prevent this. His response was to create wanton women who 'lusting for sensual pleasures, began to stir men up. Then the lord of gods, the lord, created anger as the assistant of desire, and all creatures, falling into the power of desire and anger, began to be attached to women.' (Mahabharata in Hindu Myths, 36).
In another myth Brahma's first female is also Death, the evil force which brings balance to the universe and which ensures there is no over-crowding of it. The figure of Death is picturesquely described in the Mahabharata as 'a dark woman, wearing red garments, with red eyes and red palms and soles, adorned with divine ear-rings and ornaments' and she is given the job of 'destroying all creatures, imbeciles and scholars' without exception (Mahabharata in Hindu Myths, 40). Death wept and begged Brahma to be released from this terrible task but Brahma remained unmoved and sent her on her way to perform her duty. At first Death continued her protests by performing various extraordinary acts of asceticism such as standing in water in complete silence for 8,000 years and standing on one toe on the top of the Himalaya mountains for 8,000 million years but Brahma would not be swayed. So Death, still sobbing, performed her duties bringing endless night to all things when their time came and her tears fell to the earth and became diseases. Thus, through Death's work, the distinction between mortals and gods was preserved forever.
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Brahma in Art
Brahma is often represented in red with four heads, symbolic of his creation of the four Vedas. Thus he is often called Caturanana/Caturmukha or 'four-faced' and Astakarna or 'eight-eared'. Originally Brahma had five heads but when he lusted after his daughter Sandhya an outraged Shiva cut off the head which had ogled the goddess (or burned it with his central eye). Brahma is also represented with four arms. One right hand holds the brahma-tandram, an oval disk with a beaded rim which is perhaps a sacrificial ladle and used to mark men's foreheads with their destiny. The other right hand holds a rosary made from rudraksham seeds. One left hand holds a cleansing vase and he sometimes holds his bow Parivita or the Vedas. Brahma may also be depicted sitting on the sacred lotus flower which sprang from Vishnu's navel, a scene especially common in Cham art.
In Cambodian art, Brahma -known as Prah Prohm- is again represented with four heads and often riding a sacred goose, the hamsa (a popular form of depiction in Javanese art, too), and so the god may in this guise be referred to as Hansavahana. In Tibet, where Brahma is known as Tshangs-pa or White Brahma (Tshangs-pa dkar-po), he often rides a horse and carries a white bull and a sword.
Extracted from the website: Ancient History Encyclopedia under Creative Commons License.

Agni > Its origin and history.

Agni: Definition and origin


by Mark Cartwright
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Agni is the Hindu god of fire. He is regarded as the friend and protector of humanity, in particular, he safeguards the home. Various forms of fire are associated with Agni and include the sun, lightning, comets, sacrificial fire, domestic fires, the fire of the funeral-pyre, and the digestive fire which is within all humans. Agni was especially important in the Vedic period (1500 - 500 BCE) and the Vedas contains more hymns to him than to any other deity. He is still considered today omnipresent though not directly worshipped. Agni knows the thoughts of all people and is a witness to all important actions, hence the use of fire in many important Hindu ceremonies such as marriages. He is also referred to in sacred texts such as the Mahabharata as the 'Oblation-devourer' and the 'Purifier'. With flaming hair and riding a goat he is easily identified in Hindu art.
Agni's wife is the daughter of King Nila who impressed the fire-god by being the only woman in the kingdom who managed to kindle a flame in the royal palace. In some myths Karttikeya (Skanda), the Hindu god of war, is Agni's son and the result of Agni's conquest of the Pleiades, the wives of the Seven Sages.

Agni & Various Fires

Agni is the son of the Celestial Waters and that element is closely connected with fire which is thought to be carried down to earth within rain. From there fire is drawn up by vegetation and so when two sticks are rubbed together fire appears. Agni is also responsible for lightning which is born from the god's union with the cloud goddess. Another fire Agni is associated with is the funeral-pyre; in this role he leads the dead to their final judgement by Yama, ruler of the Underworld.
Agni is perhaps most closely associated with sacrificial fires where he is thought to carry the offerings of humans to the gods.
Agni is perhaps most closely associated with sacrificial fires where he is thought to carry the offerings of humans to the gods. According to various myths, Agni was at first afraid to take on this duty as his three brothers had been killed already whilst performing the task. Consequently, Agni hid in the subterranean waters but, unfortunately, fish revealed his hiding place to the gods. As a result Agni cursed them so that fish would become the easy prey of men. In another version it is frogs, then elephants, and then parrots which reveal Agni's attempts at hiding and the god punished them all by distorting their speech ever after. The final hiding place of Agni in this version was inside a sami tree and so it is considered the sacred abode of fire in Hindu rituals and its sticks are used to make fires. Reluctantly taking up his duty again Agni did negotiate by way of compensation to always receive a share of the sacrifice he carried to the gods and he was given the boon of ever-lasting life.
Agni appears in all forms of fire and even those things which burn well or have a certain lustre. In the Brhaddevata we are told that at one point Agni is dismembered and distributed among earthly things. The god's flesh and fat becomes guggulu resin, his bones the pine tree, his semen becomes gold and silver, his blood and bile are transformed into minerals, his nails are tortoises, entrails the avaka plant, his bone marrow sand and gravel, his sinews become tejana grass, his hair kusa grass, and his body hair becomes kasa grass which was used in sacrificial rituals.
Over time Agni's importance as a god diminishes, a fact explained in the Mahabharata as due to his over-indulgence in consuming one too many offerings. In the Visnu Purana he is described as the eldest son of Brahma and Svaha is his wife. Together they had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and Suchi who in turn had 45 sons which, including their fathers and grandmother, totals 49, the number of sacred fires in the Vayu Purana.
Agni, according to one Rigveda hymn attributed to the sage Vasistha, also has a darker side. Similar in nature to the 'flesh-eater' demons, the raksasa, he has two wickedly sharp iron tusks and he devours his victims without mercy. However, when called upon by the gods, Agni destroys the raksasa with his flaming spears. This episode, when Agni becomes a servant of the gods, is illustrative of his fall from the pinnacle of the pantheon.
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Agni in Hindu Art
In art, Agni is often depicted with black skin, two heads, four arms, and riding either a goat (the most commonly sacrificed animal) or a chariot drawn by red horses which has seven wheels, representing the seven winds. His two heads, which spout flames, are symbolic of his association with two types of fire: the domestic hearth and the sacrificial fire. He can have seven tongues which are used to lick up the ghee butter given as offerings.
Typically he carries a fan (which he uses to build up fires), a sacrificial ladle, an axe, and a flaming torch or javelin. Agni may also be represented as the Garuda bird which carries the seed of life, the fire-bird which carries ambrosia to the gods, and the goat-headed merchant who represents the sacrifice made to the gods. In later Hindu art, Agni is also represented as one of the Dikpalas who were the eight guardians of the directions of space. Agni protects the south-east quarter, Purajyotisa.
Extracted from the website: Ancient History Encyclopedia under Creative Commons License.

7 frequently asked gardening questions | Garden Care & Maintenance.

  1. Plants in the dorm: steal us the oxygen?
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  1. It is a legend that the plants in the bedroom are harmful because they take the O2 and emit CO2. This is false because a plant consumption is minimal, much more oxygen consumes the couple who can sleep at the side, or a pet... Even the imaginary problems should disappear with sleep with the door or open window.
  2. In hospitals the plants and flowers smell bothers the patient, they also carry pathogens that can affect the patient. It is enough to bring a few flowers, three roses or daisies.
  3. Water from air conditioning: does to water the plants?
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  1. Water dripping from air conditioning is good for watering plants.
  2. To be distilled is more pure, more or less like the rain, without salts, lime or chlorine and with a slightly acidic pH.
  3. For carnivorous is optimal, since they do not hold the tap water by lime. Very good for acidophiles (hydrangeas, gardenia, azalea, Heather, fuchsia, Camellia, etc.) and in general is better than the tap.
  4. Vinegar: it serves to acidify the hard water?
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  1. A few drops of vinegar into the shower is good for the acidophil plants, acidifies water, but is cheaper to use citric acid and a virtually pure substance as this is very well controlled dose to not acidify the water excess or understatement.
  2. He is recommended to use citric acid plant in container and sulphate of iron for plants in the ground. Citric acid is applied in each irrigation and sulphate of iron in a monthly watering.
  3. Irrigation in absence: how to keep plants 1 month alone?
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  1. A watering can be mounted drip using a drum of 25 or 50 litres, an aquarium pump, a valve after the pump (so when you stop eject water does not siphon effect) and a digital programmer of irrigation that make 2 or 3 times a day is open so it is dripping drippers 1 or 2 minutes to each pot.
  2. They also sell irrigation kits drip already yet assembled.
  3. Pellets or kind of eggs in the land of the pots: what?
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  1. These balls are not eggs, are slow release fertilizer, often used in nurseries since they miss it only once or twice a year and saving labor in several subscribers. Which are viscous on the inside, loose dust or are empty depends on the State of the subscription.
  2. It could also be balls of polystyrene (styrofoam) or perlite (a substrate).
  3. Snail or slug eggs are grouped to form packages of up to 50 eggs viscous and are little ones.
  4. Rust or white crust on the surface of the Earth of the pot: is it bad?
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  1. It might rust by excess of irrigation or moisture, or an accumulation of salts from the water with lime (e.g. tap water) and fertilizers.
  2. Improve the lack of ventilation, remove the Earth's surface from time to time aerating the substrate and water less. Irrigation "down" with the plate method (put the pot over a container with water so that it will absorb it through the holes below).
  3. Garden without weeds: without using herbicides?
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  1. In the plot of fruit make a selection of natural cover: at the beginning by removing with hoe pinchosas herbs and root chard (just leaving out) and leaving only those grasses and similar more aesthetic. Finally some grasses spontaneous to cut or cleared may be installed will not produce seeds and looks like grass.
  2. At the foot of the plants is put padding (plants that you boot, small or shredded remains of pruning or pine bark), in this way the herbs may not germinate.
  3. Another option is to place a mesh should and on gravel or pine bark.
  4. Use plants cubresuelo: dimorphotecas, carpobrotus, lamprantus, etc., in addition to be very green and bloom, need little water and not let out weeds.
  5. With hard as bindweed or grass, try boot root with the wet ground, much padding and patience, increasingly will be less, will weaken to pluck it out.
Published for educational purposes

Gardening machinery | Garden Care & Maintenance.

These are the most common machines used in gardening. Some are more specific and professional than others, but at the level of amateur, all are useful and recommended.
  1. Lawn mower
  2. Scarifier
  3. Chainsaw
  4. Hedge trimmer
  5. Lawn trimmers
  6. Brush cutter
  7. Sopladora-aspiradora
  8. Tiller
  9. Shredder
  10. Backpack of treatments
Worth investing and go by slowly with a good work of garden machinery. They save a lot of time and effort. Although, that Yes, think before you actually need them. For example, buy a chainsaw or a hedge trimmer to then use it 2 times a year, surely does not deserve the penalty and they can be replaced with a serrote or a hedgecutter respectively. Calculate your needs before you buy.
Always select brands of quality and good after-sales service. As they say: the cheap is expensive. Almost always worth spending a little more than money.

• LAWN MOWER OR LAWN-MOWERS

1 manual

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They do not wear any engine, for use in areas of 500 m2 maximum. If you want to exercise chooses one of these machines, if not, buy one of the following.

2. of gasoline

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There you have to push them and others that do not.

3. electric air mattress

It has no wheels, powered by electricity and is suitable for small gardens. "Fleet" and push them is small.
clip_image146"Floating"

4 mower self-supporting or "tractorcito"

You're sitting. It is used for large gardens. From 3.000 m2 are highly recommended. You can attach a small and handy trailer.
clip_image147"Tractorcito"

5 trimmer

It has a very large cutting width. For mowing large meadows with a more rough cut.
clip_image148Electric trimmer

• SCARIFIER

This machine is less well known. What it does is to scratch the lawn with a series of vertical blades that has.
Virtually all lawns should be ripping at least once a year in spring (ideal is again in the fall). It is a very good operation because it regenerates it and breaks the felt that is formed on the surface of the soil.
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As with the mower, the hoeing plough any manuals (you have to push them) and gasoline. The latter are much better.
Gardening companies it is customary that they have some but level gardener it is more common to rent it for 1 day when needed (1 or 2 times a year) as well, if you want to buy cheap models from €120 (the professionals cost €1,500).

• CHAIN SAW

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• HEDGE TRIMMER

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Garden machines

• TRIMMERS

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Brush cutter with an attachment trimmers
They are used for trimming the edges of the lawn, flower beds and borders and leave it perfectly shaped. This work can also be with the brushcutter of nylon thread protecting eyes and tilting the machine. Or a palin, also called blade gardener. But these machines are designed exclusively for this. If you have time and desire to or not have much to sharpen, with gardener shovel massifs and included in lawn perfectly well pits are made.
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Professional machine. A family Garden not worth buying

• BRUSH CUTTER

It is a machine very used in gardening to cut the lawn edges (profiling). Also to eliminate weeds.
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• SOPLADORA-ASPIRADORA

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Having the garden an electric or petrol blower is very practical. You can stack the waste and remove flooring dust, leaves, etc.. I recommend that you buy one.

• TILLER

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If you have a garden of 200 sq.m, you'll need it. Styling by hand is laborious.

• SHREDDER

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It serves for spraying the garden or kitchen waste and use them for composting. The decomposition of the shredded material will be faster.

• BACKPACK OF PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS

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Apart from the classic backpack to apply pesticides with manual override lever, there are gasoline. They are more professional machines. Suitable for large gardens or to treat the tree-tops (e.g., a pest as the pine processionary moth).
Published for educational purposes

Sperm (semen analysis) | Diseases and conditions: Medical tests.

What is the semen analysis

The sperm count or semen analysis consists of the male semen analysis to check the State of spermatozoa and its operation. It's a simple test to perform, at any time it is necessary to use needles or other invasive methods, to obtain sample is sufficient with the male ejaculates on a boat after masturbating. It is tremendously useful evidence to complete study of sterility to couples who cannot have children.
Another end of the semen analysis is to check the absence of sperm after a vasectomy.
This type of test is used since the beginning of the 20th century, when the study of cells under a microscope advanced enough to allow a detailed analysis of the sperm (its structure, motion, number, etc). During the last decade, the sperm has gained more importance, is increasingly more frequent that the sterility of a couple is due to malfunction of the sperm of the male, and not so much to female problems.
Dozens of semen analysis are carried out on a daily basis in health centers and clinics around the world. Why submit to this type of examination is commonplace and must not embarrass men who should do so. The results may take several days and should be interpreted by a physician to avoid confusion. It must be borne in mind that the sperm count or semen analysis rarely provides definitive results in isolation, you need to be complement to other tests to arrive at a final diagnosis.

When a sperm is made

The sperm count or semen analysis is a test that is very frequently used in infertility consultations because it does not inconvenience to do so, is very cheap and provides lots of helpful information. In fact, all couples struggling to have children is a full study to woman and man, which includes a sperm count.
Also calls for a sperm count when it is suspected that the testes have been damaged for some reason. For example, after an infection (Orchitis or events) or a heart attack (by a testicular torsion which leaves no blood flow to the testicle). We must remember that even if a testicle is damaged the other may be sufficient to maintain a good sperm count.
Other situations in which the semen analysis is useful is to check that a vasectomy was successful and effective. In these cases it should be noted no sperm in the semen.

Preparation for a sperm count

If they are going to do an sperm count or semen analysis these are the issues you should keep in mind to go well prepared to test:
Duration: the time is variable. You can make the collection of the semen sample in your House or a room in the hospital. Then you will only have to deliver it to the nurse.
Admission: admission is never needed the semen analysis. It is a test that can be done on an outpatient basis.
Is it necessary to be accompanied?:, collection of the semen sample is not possible without help.
Drugs: don't need to take any prior medication. I must say your doctor all medications that you are taking at the time, it is not common, but it may be necessary to suspend some prior to sample collection.
Food: you can eat while you eat every day. Not been shown that semen be amended by food.
Clothes: you don't need to wear a particular garment or to collect the sample or to deliver it.
Documents: it is recommended to bring your health insurance card and the wheel of proof when you go to deliver the sample.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: is not a test that is performed on women.
Contraindications: there are no contraindications for the sperm.

How a sperm count

When you get to the inquiry to submit yourself to the spermiogram or semen analysis, the doctor will make you some general questions about your state of health: important diseases, risk factors, workplace, sex life and urinary symptoms. After perform you a general physical examination, and assess the realization of a semen analysis. Will give you a flyer which asks the test you need to deliver the day you pick up the sample.
You will have to stay at least three to five days without ejaculating, but you can not exceed seven days without ejaculating, this sample will be optimal. To collect such a sample will need a sterile pot that will give you at the doctor or have to buy at the pharmacy. To obtain the sperm have to masturbate, but in hygienic conditions. This will require before washing your hands and intimate parts with SOAP and water to avoid contamination.
When you cum you will have to do it inside the jar directly, it is very important to gather all the semen from the beginning until the end of the ejaculation, if not the sample will not be enough and will have to wait another 3-5 days to take another sample. It should take into account found 75% of the sperm in the semen which ejaculates to the beginning.
The boat with the semen must close, kept at a temperature between 20 ° and 37 °, and due at the clinic an hour later as maximum. Sometimes the test is performed in a room of the hospital or clinic to deliver the sample immediately.
Another method of specimen collection is to use a sterilized condom during masturbation, so all the semen is collected in it and it can be delivered in its entirety. Commercial pharmacy condoms cannot be used, they have to be specific to the study.
Semen analysis will take several days, then it will give you an appointment where explain the results of the study.

Complications of the semen analysis

There are no complications of the semen analysis.

The semen analysis results

The results of the sperm or semen analysis are complex and difficult to interpret. They discussed multiple parameters that have a different meaning depending on the type of patient and the rest of tests performed. Is normal appearing one or several parameters altered in healthy people, so you should not worry if upon receipt of the documentation with the results of the semen analysis any data comes out altered. You must always wait for the doctor, where will explain the results, its importance and the therapeutic possibilities that are available today.
The most important data studied in the semen analysis are:
Volume: semen in ejaculation quantity must be greater than or equal to 2 mL. When the ejaculate is less spoken of hypospermia, and when it does not ejaculate nothing called aspermia. The maximum volume is around 6 mL, although occasionally it can be higher, especially if there is any infection of Genitourinary tract.
Viscosity: semen is usually a slightly viscous liquid. To study its viscosity plunges a thin stick and you remove it, it is normal to form a less than or equal to 2 cm smeared. If the trickle is greater the viscosity it will be augmented and semen will be very sticky.
Liquefaction: the freshly ejaculated semen is quite consistent and viscous. But a few minutes starts to liquify it and within half an hour has a consistency similar to water. Lumps may appear in pathological situations or even to solidify the entire sample.
Colour and odour: at a glance, you can study the color of semen, which should be white mother of Pearl. It can be yellow or green during infections, red if you have remains of blood or transparent if there are few sperm. The usual smell of semen can be altered when there is presence of bacteria, leaving a smell of rot.
pH: with this parameter you can meet the degree of acidity or alkalinity having semen, the usual is to be 7 ' 2 and 8. When the pH is lower, i.e., more acid, may be due to failure of the seminal glands. When the pH is higher, i.e., more basic, Genitourinary infections is must be ruled out.
Concentration: analysis by microscope of the sample collected is used to to study the number of sperm that are in each milliliter. So are the sperm that there is in a particular field one by one, and then a fairly accurate estimate. Only include the complete spermatozoa, or with head and tail. It is normal that sperm concentration is greater than or equal to 20 million per mL. When is minor called oligozoospermia.
Number of sperm per ejaculation: once determined the volume of semen that you ejaculate and sperm concentration, you can calculate easily the total number of sperm that would be in an ejaculate. The number of sperm is usually greater than or equal to 40 million in each ejaculation.
Mobility: different patterns of movement of spermatozoa have been studied and classified into three types: progressive (that going forward), non-progressive (that move but does not go forward) and stationary. Typically, that at least 50% of the sperm to move and more than half of them have a progressive pattern. When these conditions are not met refers to asthenozoospermia. It is the most common cause of male sterility.
Morphology: on the contrary that in motion, the different semen studies carried out so far have not got a good classification of the shape of the sperm. It is considered that there must be more than 15% normal sperm in an ejaculation. When are less referred to as teratospermia.
Vitality: the study of the vitality of the sperm is to detect how many sperm are actually dead at the time of ejaculation. For that are commonly used stains that paint the dead sperm cells, although there are other methods of study for this. It is normal that 75% or more of the sperm not wrinkles, i.e. that are alive. If the percentage is lower is called necrozoospermia.
Agglutination: detects antibodies against the sperm. In normal situations more than half the sperm not must join the balls that are used to perform this analysis. It is a cause of sterility detected recently and today is being investigated much in this field.
Published for educational purposes
This web site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment
Diseases and conditions

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) | Diseases and conditions: Medical tests.

What is an MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic test that results in images of the inside of the body. It is based on the processing of radio waves that pass through the patient, which is subjected to a strong magnetic field. Unlike the TAC or Plain radiographs do not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).
Magnetic resonance imaging allows to obtain very detailed images of the body, in two and three dimensions, and from any perspective. It can provide information on diseases that are not with other imaging such as ultrasound or CT techniques. It is also used when other imaging tests, are contraindicated to as for example in case of allergy to iodinated contrast used in CT.
To carry out the patient must get into a machine, that patients describe as a big washing machine, and must remain still in its interior for 30-60 minutes. RMNM devices exist to Open that can be used in people with claustrophobia. These devices are not available in many centers and images that are obtained have poorer quality than those obtained with the standard closed devices.

Why is a nuclear magnetic resonance

MRI is usually done on a specific part of the body in which suspected illness. The most common reasons why the realization of an MRI can be requested are:
In the head you can see tumors, abscesses, aneurysms, bleeding, heart attacks or nerve damage. It can also serve to study pathologies in the eyes and ear or brain degenerative diseases.
In the chest is widely used to study cardiac Anatomy or pathology of the coronary arteries. It is also used in the study of breast cancer or tumors of the lung.
Abdomen and pelvis allows you to study with great detail organs such as the pancreas, the kidneys or liver, the uterus and the ovaries in women, or the prostate in males. There you can find tumors, infections, malformations, etc.
The blood vessels are very well with the NMR. View thrombus, strokes, aneurysms, malformations, or bleeding.
MRI can diagnose many problems in bones and joints such as arthritis, fractures, ligaments, tendons and cartilage problems. In addition, as in other organs, tumors or infections can be. Used much to study problems of spine as the Herniated discs, as it allows to see in great detail the intervertebral discs, spinal cord and nerves that come out of the bone marrow. Also used frequently in the knee problems, to study their different ligaments or meniscus.
On many occasions, to perform this technique, it is necessary to manage a liquid called contrast that highlights the organs studied, and facilitates the interpretation of the images. The most widely used contrast is called gadolinium and unlike the contrast used to make a TAC, it is not composed of iodine, so it is unlikely that cause side effects or allergic. This contrast dye is administered intravenously.

Preparation for magnetic resonance imaging

These are the issues that you must consider when you undergo a magnetic resonance imaging:
Duration: the test is performed in about 30-60 minutes, although sometimes it can last more.
Entry: the test can be done on an outpatient basis.
Is necessary to be accompanied?: don't have to be accompanied by, although it might help if it makes you feel more relaxed. Where the test produce much anxiety, or if the patient cannot be still inside the appliance, are often a relaxing medication. In such a case, it will need to be accompanied by someone who can drive you home.
Drugs: is not necessary to take any prior medication.
Food: depends on the organ being studied. In some tests that include the abdomen or pelvis may be necessary to do not eat food or water for several hours before the test.
Clothing: you can wear any clothes you want, but it should be easy to remove. You don't want to carry metal objects (earrings, bracelets, etc.), because they will be asked to remove them during the test.
Documents: should be informed consent, which is a role where they explain you what is the test and its potential risks. You should read it carefully and take it signed. You must take the wheel of the test request.
Contraindications: You should not do a colonoscopy in the following cases:
  • If you are allergic to such as gadolinium MRI contrast media. In this case the test without contrast may be performed.
  • The presence of metallic material in the body, such as plates, screws, heart valves, pacemakers, shrapnel, etc. This is because all materials are attracted to the magnetic field which is created within the resonance apparatus and may be dangerous. However, many materials that are deployed today allow the realization of an MRI. This feature is reflected in the specifications of the product.
  • The use of intrauterine devices (IUDS), then the IUD may have metallic substances such as copper.
  • Patients with claustrophobia that not tolerated to be inside the device during the test. In these cases, you can perform a sedation of the patient or use open NMR devices.
  • Patients who can not remain still during the test. You can also solve this problem with sedation.
  • Very obese patients who do not climb on the appliance. In this case also open NMR devices can be used.
  • Patients with severe renal or hepatic insufficiency, or some diseases such as sickle cell anemia, in which the contrast can worsen the picture. In these cases, non-contrast test can be performed.
  • In some cases of recent surgery on a blood vessel.
  • Patients clinically "unstable", i.e., that are very serious and they may require some medication, or even urgent cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers, then inside the machine not can be properly monitored and his attention can be complicated.
Pregnancy and lactation: risks that can have the test on the fetus are not known. Therefore, in general is not recommended testing during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. The contrast used, gadolinium, crosses the placenta and the effect that may have on the fetus is unknown. However, if the benefits of the test outweigh the possible risks can be the MRI provided that the mother is sufficiently informed.
Regarding breastfeeding, medium contrast manufacturers indicate that it is you should not breast-feed the baby for 24-48 hours after administration. However, American and European Radiology societies consider that the amount of gadolinium which is excreted into milk probably does not have toxic effects on the baby. Therefore, based on available data, they suggest that there is no risk in continue breastfeeding. Anyway, those mothers who are concerned about the risk that your child may have this slight exposure to contrast, can avoid breastfeeding during the 24 hours following the completion of the procedure. During these 24 hours the mother can remove the milk through a pump and discard. In anticipation of this period that won't be breastfeeding, the mother can also remove milk before testing, and store enough to cover the child's needs 24 hours.

Other considerations

Not do exercise immediately before the test and be as relaxed as possible, because any movement can alter the result should.
In addition to all metal objects, should remove any patch that may have on the skin, as if they carry something metal content may result in Burns.

How magnetic resonance imaging

The unit in which the test is cubic-shaped and inside moves a stretcher that is where lies down the patient, usually face up. The stretcher is moved inside the hub and there remains throughout the test. In general, it is necessary to change the clothes by a hospital gown. They will make you take off all metal objects, since they interfere with the x-ray images and can move with the magnetic field. If it is necessary the administration of contrast you will pick up a venous pathway in the arm and introduced the contrast there moments before the test. They can also give you a medication to be more relaxed. Inside the device can hold you arms, head and chest with straps to prevent movement. Also put a device in the chest that detects the respiration and heart rate.
Inside the unit, you will hear the noise of a fan and you will feel air moving. You will also hear a noise rattling while the images are taken. Sometimes a headset with which you can listen to music provided him. This can help reduce noise and can help relax you.
During the procedure, a technician will be watching you from an adjoining room and will instruct you to not move. You can sometimes tell you that you do not breathe for a few seconds. You can contact the technician if he deems it necessary.
MRI is a very safe test. The magnetic field which applies does not have any detrimental effect on the body. Sometimes you can feel something hot or cold with the introduction of the contrast. Fortunately, the allergic reaction to the contrast used for MRI are very rare. Somewhat annoying can be remain still long on the couch and you can feel some claustrophobia. People who have fillings may feel a little tingling in the mouth. It is normal to feel some heat in the area that is being explored. You can contact the technician who is doing the test in case of any major discomfort.
The greatest risk of NMR is derived from a possible movement of any metallic object that has in the body due to the strong magnetic field. For this reason, it is very important to remove all metal objects or notify the technician about any materials you may have implanted. You must also remove any patch that may lead to the skin, because if you hold something metal may lead to Burns.
People with tattoos might experience some irritation on the skin.

Results of the magnetic resonance imaging

The images obtained by NMR can be seen immediately. However, their interpretation requires much expertise and is carried out by medical radiologists. This specialist will make a written report that will give you a few days of the test along with the images obtained.
The result report will include data on the technique used, if it was necessary the use of contrast, and the findings found. The type of discovery can vary greatly depending on the pathology and studied organ. Often benign or malignant, tumors, signs that indicate various infections such as abscesses, inflammation or pathology found in bones, such as fractures or malformations. In the spine can see Herniated discs and affectations of the spinal cord or nerve roots coming out of the bone marrow. In the knee, they will tell you if there is any ligament or the meniscus involvement. In relation to the vessels that irrigate the various organs, you can find thrombus, vascular infarcts (due to the blockage of an artery) or bleeding. In the liver, you can very well see the bile and detect if there are obstructions or tumors at that level.
It is sometimes necessary to repeat the test to see how evolve different injuries, either spontaneously or after any treatment. The doctor has asked the test will give you the results and will indicate the need to do any therapy or other complementary explorations.
Published for educational purposes
This web site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment
Diseases and conditions

“Watchtower” Study ‒ Week Starting May 25

Loyally Supporting Christ’s Brothers: information for personal study

ONLY BIBLICAL TEXTS

(Matthew 25:31-46) “When the Son of man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit down on his glorious throne. 32 All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another, just as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 33 And he will put the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on his left. 34 “Then the King will say to those on his right: ‘Come, you who have been blessed by my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the founding of the world. 35 For I became hungry and you gave me something to eat; I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink. I was a stranger and you received me hospitably; 36 naked and you clothed me. I fell sick and you looked after me. I was in prison and you visited me.’ 37 Then the righteous ones will answer him with the words: ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you something to drink? 38 When did we see you a stranger and receive you hospitably, or naked and clothe you? 39 When did we see you sick or in prison and visit you?’ 40 In reply the King will say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.’ 41 “Then he will say to those on his left: ‘Go away from me, you who have been cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his angels. 42 For I became hungry, but you gave me nothing to eat; and I was thirsty, but you gave me nothing to drink. 43 I was a stranger, but you did not receive me hospitably; naked, but you did not clothe me; sick and in prison, but you did not look after me.’ 44 Then they too will answer with the words: ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison and did not minister to you?’ 45 Then he will answer them, saying: ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did not do it to one of these least ones, you did not do it to me.’ 46 These will depart into everlasting cutting-off, but the righteous ones into everlasting life.”
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(Matthew 24:29-31) “Immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30 Then the sign of the Son of man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will beat themselves in grief, and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31 And he will send out his angels with a great trumpet sound, and they will gather his chosen ones together from the four winds, from one extremity of the heavens to their other extremity.
(Matthew 25:31, 32) “When the Son of man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit down on his glorious throne. 32 All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another, just as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.
(Matthew 24:29, 30) “Immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30 Then the sign of the Son of man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will beat themselves in grief, and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
- 7 -
(Romans 8:16, 17) The spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are God’s children. 17 If, then, we are children, we are also heirs—heirs indeed of God, but joint heirs with Christ—provided we suffer together so that we may also be glorified together.
(Matthew 24:1-51) 24 Now as Jesus was departing from the temple, his disciples approached to show him the buildings of the temple. In response he said to them: “Do you not see all these things? Truly I say to you, by no means will a stone be left here upon a stone and not be thrown down.” 3 While he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples approached him privately, saying: “Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your presence and of the conclusion of the system of things?” 4 In answer Jesus said to them: “Look out that nobody misleads you, 5 for many will come on the basis of my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and will mislead many. 6 You are going to hear of wars and reports of wars. See that you are not alarmed, for these things must take place, but the end is not yet. 7 “For nation will rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be food shortages and earthquakes in one place after another. 8 All these things are a beginning of pangs of distress. 9 “Then people will hand you over to tribulation and will kill you, and you will be hated by all the nations on account of my name. 10 Then, too, many will be stumbled and will betray one another and will hate one another. 11 Many false prophets will arise and mislead many; 12 and because of the increasing of lawlessness, the love of the greater number will grow cold. 13 But the one who has endured to the end will be saved. 14 And this good news of the Kingdom will be preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come. 15 “Therefore, when you catch sight of the disgusting thing that causes desolation, as spoken about by Daniel the prophet, standing in a holy place (let the reader use discernment), 16 then let those in Ju•de′a begin fleeing to the mountains. 17 Let the man on the housetop not come down to take the goods out of his house, 18 and let the man in the field not return to pick up his outer garment. 19 Woe to the pregnant women and those nursing a baby in those days! 20 Keep praying that your flight may not occur in wintertime nor on the Sabbath day; 21 for then there will be great tribulation such as has not occurred since the world’s beginning until now, no, nor will occur again. 22 In fact, unless those days were cut short, no flesh would be saved; but on account of the chosen ones those days will be cut short. 23 “Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look! Here is the Christ,’ or, ‘There!’ do not believe it. 24 For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will perform great signs and wonders so as to mislead, if possible, even the chosen ones. 25 Look! I have forewarned you. 26 Therefore, if people say to you, ‘Look! He is in the wilderness,’ do not go out; ‘Look! He is in the inner rooms,’ do not believe it. 27 For just as the lightning comes out of the east and shines over to the west, so the presence of the Son of man will be. 28 Wherever the carcass is, there the eagles will be gathered together. 29 “Immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30 Then the sign of the Son of man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will beat themselves in grief, and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31 And he will send out his angels with a great trumpet sound, and they will gather his chosen ones together from the four winds, from one extremity of the heavens to their other extremity. 32 “Now learn this illustration from the fig tree: Just as soon as its young branch grows tender and sprouts its leaves, you know that summer is near. 33 Likewise also you, when you see all these things, know that he is near at the doors. 34 Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things happen. 35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will by no means pass away. 36 “Concerning that day and hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but only the Father. 37 For just as the days of Noah were, so the presence of the Son of man will be. 38 For as they were in those days before the Flood, eating and drinking, men marrying and women being given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, 39 and they took no note until the Flood came and swept them all away, so the presence of the Son of man will be. 40 Then two men will be in the field; one will be taken along and the other abandoned. 41 Two women will be grinding at the hand mill; one will be taken along and the other abandoned. 42 Keep on the watch, therefore, because you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. 43 “But know one thing: If the householder had known in what watch the thief was coming, he would have kept awake and not allowed his house to be broken into. 44 On this account, you too prove yourselves ready, because the Son of man is coming at an hour that you do not think to be it. 45 “Who really is the faithful and discreet slave whom his master appointed over his domestics, to give them their food at the proper time? 46 Happy is that slave if his master on coming finds him doing so! 47 Truly I say to you, he will appoint him over all his belongings. 48 “But if ever that evil slave says in his heart, ‘My master is delaying,’ 49 and he starts to beat his fellow slaves and to eat and drink with the confirmed drunkards, 50 the master of that slave will come on a day that he does not expect and in an hour that he does not know, 51 and he will punish him with the greatest severity and will assign him his place with the hypocrites. There is where his weeping and the gnashing of his teeth will be.
(Matthew 25:1-46) 25 “Then the Kingdom of the heavens may be likened to ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish, and five were discreet. 3 For the foolish took their lamps but took no oil with them, 4 whereas the discreet took oil in their flasks along with their lamps. 5 While the bridegroom was delaying, they all became drowsy and fell asleep. 6 Right in the middle of the night there was a shout: ‘Here is the bridegroom! Go out to meet him.’ 7 Then all those virgins got up and put their lamps in order. 8 The foolish said to the discreet, ‘Give us some of your oil, because our lamps are about to go out.’ 9 The discreet answered, saying: ‘Perhaps there may not be enough for both us and you. Go instead to those who sell it, and buy some for yourselves.’ 10 While they were going off to buy it, the bridegroom came. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 11 Afterward, the rest of the virgins also came, saying, ‘Sir, Sir, open to us!’ 12 In answer he said, ‘I tell you the truth, I do not know you.’ 13 “Keep on the watch, therefore, because you know neither the day nor the hour. 14 “For it is just like a man about to travel abroad who summoned his slaves and entrusted his belongings to them. 15 He gave five talents to one, two to another, and one to still another, to each according to his own ability, and he went abroad. 16 Immediately the one who received the five talents went and did business with them and gained five more. 17 Likewise, the one who received the two gained two more. 18 But the slave who received just one went off and dug in the ground and hid his master’s money. 19 “After a long time, the master of those slaves came and settled accounts with them. 20 So the one who had received the five talents came forward and brought five additional talents, saying, ‘Master, you entrusted five talents to me; see, I gained five talents more.’ 21 His master said to him: ‘Well done, good and faithful slave! You were faithful over a few things. I will appoint you over many things. Enter into the joy of your master.’ 22 Next the one who had received the two talents came forward and said, ‘Master, you entrusted two talents to me; see, I gained two talents more.’ 23 His master said to him: ‘Well done, good and faithful slave! You were faithful over a few things. I will appoint you over many things. Enter into the joy of your master.’ 24 “Finally the slave who had received the one talent came forward and said: ‘Master, I knew you to be a demanding man, reaping where you did not sow and gathering where you did not winnow. 25 So I grew afraid and went and hid your talent in the ground. Here, you have what is yours.’ 26 In reply his master said to him: ‘Wicked and sluggish slave, you knew, did you, that I reaped where I did not sow and gathered where I did not winnow? 27 Well, then, you should have deposited my money with the bankers, and on my coming I would have received it back with interest. 28 “‘Therefore, take the talent away from him and give it to the one who has the ten talents. 29 For to everyone who has, more will be given, and he will have an abundance. But the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away from him. 30 And throw the good-for-nothing slave out into the darkness outside. There is where his weeping and the gnashing of his teeth will be.’ 31 “When the Son of man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit down on his glorious throne. 32 All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another, just as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 33 And he will put the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on his left. 34 “Then the King will say to those on his right: ‘Come, you who have been blessed by my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the founding of the world. 35 For I became hungry and you gave me something to eat; I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink. I was a stranger and you received me hospitably; 36 naked and you clothed me. I fell sick and you looked after me. I was in prison and you visited me.’ 37 Then the righteous ones will answer him with the words: ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you something to drink? 38 When did we see you a stranger and receive you hospitably, or naked and clothe you? 39 When did we see you sick or in prison and visit you?’ 40 In reply the King will say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.’ 41 “Then he will say to those on his left: ‘Go away from me, you who have been cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his angels. 42 For I became hungry, but you gave me nothing to eat; and I was thirsty, but you gave me nothing to drink. 43 I was a stranger, but you did not receive me hospitably; naked, but you did not clothe me; sick and in prison, but you did not look after me.’ 44 Then they too will answer with the words: ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison and did not minister to you?’ 45 Then he will answer them, saying: ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did not do it to one of these least ones, you did not do it to me.’ 46 These will depart into everlasting cutting-off, but the righteous ones into everlasting life.”
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(Matthew 10:40-42) “Whoever receives you receives me also, and whoever receives me receives also the One who sent me. 41 Whoever receives a prophet because he is a prophet will get a prophet’s reward, and whoever receives a righteous man because he is a righteous man will get a righteous man’s reward. 42 And whoever gives one of these little ones only a cup of cold water to drink because he is a disciple, I tell you truly, he will by no means lose his reward.”
(Matthew 25:40) In reply the King will say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.’
(Matthew 25:46) These will depart into everlasting cutting-off, but the righteous ones into everlasting life.”
(2 Timothy 3:1-5) 3 But know this, that in the last days critical times hard to deal with will be here. For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boastful, haughty, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, disloyal, 3 having no natural affection, not open to any agreement, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, without love of goodness, 4 betrayers, headstrong, puffed up with pride, lovers of pleasures rather than lovers of God, 5 having an appearance of godliness but proving false to its power; and from these turn away.

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Bible Highlights: 2 Samuel 13-14-15 > Theocratic Ministry School

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2 SAMUEL 13:15


“Then Amʹnon began hating her with a very intense hatred, so that his hatred for her became greater than the love he had felt for her. Amʹnon said to her: “Get up; go away!””

*** it-1 p. 96 Amnon ***
Amnon developed a passionate desire for lovely Tamar, Absalom’s sister, to the point of lovesickness. Following the advice of his cousin Jehonadab, Amnon feigned illness and induced King David to send Tamar to Amnon’s private quarters to prepare “bread of consolation” in his presence. He then used the opportunity to violate his half sister forcibly, despite her pleading and reasoning with him. His case illustrates how extremely selfish erotic love can be, for, having satisfied his desire, Amnon then had Tamar put out into the street as someone repugnant to him, someone whose very presence doubtless made him feel unclean.—2Sa 13:1-19.

2 SAMUEL 13:17


“With that he called his young attendant and said: “Get this person out of my presence, please, and lock the door behind her.””

*** it-1 p. 96 Amnon ***
Amnon developed a passionate desire for lovely Tamar, Absalom’s sister, to the point of lovesickness. Following the advice of his cousin Jehonadab, Amnon feigned illness and induced King David to send Tamar to Amnon’s private quarters to prepare “bread of consolation” in his presence. He then used the opportunity to violate his half sister forcibly, despite her pleading and reasoning with him. His case illustrates how extremely selfish erotic love can be, for, having satisfied his desire, Amnon then had Tamar put out into the street as someone repugnant to him, someone whose very presence doubtless made him feel unclean.—2Sa 13:1-19.

2 SAMUEL 13:19


“Then Taʹmar put ashes on her head, and she ripped apart the fine robe she was wearing; and she kept her hands on her head and walked off, crying out as she walked.”

*** it-1 p. 218 Attitudes and Gestures ***
laying one’s hands on his own head denoted grief or shame, even to the point of being stunned. (2Sa 13:19; Jer 2:37) Some believe that the latter gesture signified that the heavy hand of God’s affliction was resting on the mourner.

2 SAMUEL 13:20


“At this her brother Abʹsa•lom asked her: “Was it your brother Amʹnon who was with you? And now keep silent, my sister. He is your brother. Do not let your heart dwell on this matter.” Then Taʹmar lived in isolation at the house of her brother Abʹsa•lom.”

*** it-1 p. 32 Absalom ***
Murder of Amnon. The beauty of Absalom’s sister Tamar caused his older half brother Amnon to become infatuated with her. Feigning illness, Amnon contrived to have Tamar sent to his quarters to cook for him, and then he forcibly violated her. Amnon’s erotic love turned to contemptuous hate and he had Tamar put out into the street. Ripping apart her striped gown that had distinguished her as a virgin daughter of the king, and with ashes on her head, Tamar was met by Absalom. He quickly sized up the situation and voiced immediate suspicion of Amnon, indicating a prior alertness to his half brother’s passionate desire. Absalom instructed his sister to raise no accusation, however, and took her into his home to reside.—2Sa 13:1-20.
According to John Kitto, Absalom’s taking charge of Tamar, rather than her father’s doing so, was in harmony with the Eastern custom, whereby, in a polygamous family, children of the same mother are the more closely knit together and the daughters “come under the special care and protection of their brother, who, . . . in all that affects their safety and honor, is more looked to than the father himself.” (Daily Bible Illustrations, Samuel, Saul, and David, 1857, p. 384) Much earlier, it was Levi and Simeon, two of Dinah’s full brothers, who took it upon themselves to avenge their sister’s dishonor.—Ge 34:25.

2 SAMUEL 13:21


“When King David heard about all these things, he became very angry. But he would not hurt the feelings of Amʹnon his son, because he loved him, for he was his firstborn.”

*** it-1 pp. 32-33 Absalom ***
Hearing of his daughter’s humiliation, David reacted with great anger but, perhaps due to the fact that no direct or formal accusation was made with the support of evidence or witnesses, took no judicial action against the offender. (De 19:15) Absalom may have preferred not to have an issue made of Amnon’s violation of the Levitical law (Le 18:9; 20:17), to avoid unsavory publicity for his family and name, but he, nevertheless, nursed a murderous hatred for Amnon while outwardly controlling himself until the propitious moment for exacting vengeance in his own way. (Compare Pr 26:24-26; Le 19:17.) From this point forward his life is a study in perfidy, occupying the major part of six chapters of Second Samuel.—2Sa 13:21, 22.

2 SAMUEL 13:22


“And Abʹsa•lom said nothing to Amʹnon, either bad or good; for Abʹsa•lom hated Amʹnon because he had humiliated his sister Taʹmar.”

*** it-1 p. 33 Absalom ***
Absalom may have preferred not to have an issue made of Amnon’s violation of the Levitical law (Le 18:9; 20:17), to avoid unsavory publicity for his family and name, but he, nevertheless, nursed a murderous hatred for Amnon while outwardly controlling himself until the propitious moment for exacting vengeance in his own way. (Compare Pr 26:24-26; Le 19:17.) From this point forward his life is a study in perfidy, occupying the major part of six chapters of Second Samuel.—2Sa 13:21, 22.

2 SAMUEL 13:23


“After two full years, Abʹsa•lom’s sheepshearers were at Baʹal-haʹzor, near Eʹphra•im, and Abʹsa•lom invited all the sons of the king.”

*** it-1 pp. 754-755 Ephraim ***
3. A city generally considered to be the same as the Ephrain captured by Abijah the king of Judah from Jeroboam the king of Israel. (2Ch 13:19) In the first century C.E., when the religious leaders took counsel to kill him, Jesus Christ, with his disciples, went to Ephraim in the country near the wilderness. (Joh 11:53, 54) The site commonly suggested for this city is the village of et-Taiyiba, about 6 km (3.5 mi) ENE of Bethel and 3 km (2 mi) ESE of the suggested location of Baal-hazor. (2Sa 13:23)

2 SAMUEL 13:27


“But Abʹsa•lom urged him, so he sent Amʹnon and all the king’s sons with him.”

*** it-1 p. 33 Absalom ***
Two years passed. Sheepshearing time came, a festive occasion, and Absalom arranged a feast at Baal-hazor about 22 km (14 mi) NNE of Jerusalem, inviting the king’s sons and David himself. When his father begged off from attending, Absalom pressed him to agree to send Amnon, his firstborn, in his stead. (Pr 10:18) At the feast, when Amnon was in “a merry mood with wine,” Absalom ordered his servants to slay him. The other sons headed back to Jerusalem, and Absalom went into exile with his Syrian grandfather in the kingdom of Geshur to the E of the Sea of Galilee. (2Sa 13:23-38)

2 SAMUEL 13:28


“Then Abʹsa•lom ordered his attendants: “Watch, and when Amʹnon’s heart is in a cheerful mood from the wine, I will say to you, ‘Strike down Amʹnon!’ You must then put him to death. Do not be afraid. Is it not I who commands you? Be strong and courageous.””

*** it-1 p. 96 Amnon ***
Tamar’s full brother, Absalom, nursed a hatred of Amnon for this act, and two years later at a sheepshearing festival Absalom had his servants murder Amnon when he was “in a merry mood with wine.” (2Sa 13:20-29) Since Amnon, as David’s eldest son, was heir apparent to the throne, his death may also have been viewed as desirable by Absalom as a means to better his own possibilities of gaining the kingship. With this event the prophecy made by Nathan following David’s own misconduct with the wife of Uriah began to undergo fulfillment.—2Sa 12:10; see ABSALOM.

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