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Theocratic Ministry School Review - April 2015

Study information for Theocratic Ministry School Review

The following questions will be considered at the Theocratic Ministry School during the week beginning April 27, 2015. The date when each point is scheduled for discussion is included so that research can be done when preparing for the school each week.

1. What kind of love is loyal love, and in what areas of life is it especially needed? (Ruth 1:16, 17) [Mar. 2, w12 7/1 p. 26 par. 6]

(Ruth 1:16, 17) But Ruth said: “Do not plead with me to abandon you, to turn back from accompanying you; for where you go I will go, and where you spend the night, I will spend the night. Your people will be my people, and your God my God. 17 Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May Jehovah do so to me and add to it if anything but death should separate me from you.”

***w12 7/1 pp. 26-27 “Where You Go I Shall Go”***
There is no shortage of grief in this world. In our own times, which the Bible calls “critical times hard to deal with,” we face all manner of losses as well as grief. (2 Timothy 3:1) So the quality we find in Ruth has become more important than ever. Loyal love—the kind of love that holds on to its object and simply refuses to let go—is a powerful force for good in this darkening world. We need it in marriage, we need it in family relations, we need it in friendships, we need it in the Christian congregation. As we cultivate that kind of love, we are imitating the sterling example of Ruth.

2. How did Ruth acquire the reputation of being “an excellent woman”? (Ruth 3:11) [Mar. 2,w12 10/1 p. 23 par. 1]

(Ruth 3:11) And now, my daughter, have no fear. I will do for you everything that you say, for everyone in the city knows that you are an excellent woman.

***w12 10/1 p. 23 “An Excellent Woman”***
How satisfying it must have been for Ruth to contemplate what Boaz had said—that she was known among all the people as “an excellent woman”! No doubt her eagerness to get to know Jehovah and to serve him had much to do with that reputation. She had also shown great kindness and sensitivity toward Naomi and her people, willingly adapting to ways and customs that were surely unfamiliar to her. If we imitate Ruth’s faith, we will seek to treat others and their ways and customs with deep respect. If we do, we too may find that we develop a reputation for excellence.

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Highlights From the Book of 1 Samuel - Bible Reading

Highlights From the Book of 1 Samuel - Information for personal study

First Samuel Highlights Importance of Obedience

THE importance to Christians of obedience can hardly be overemphasized. In particular is this true as to God’s commands to them. Is not all the trouble in the world due to our first parents’ having disobeyed God’s command forbidding their eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and bad? Yes, those who desire God’s approval must obey him.—Gen. 2:16, 17; 3:1-19.
The book of First Samuel serves very well in stressing the importance of obedience. It not only contains precepts commanding obedience but illustrates the fruits of obedience and the results of disobedience.
Originally this book constituted with Second Samuel one volume (scroll). It covers upward of 100 years of Israel’s history, from shortly before the birth of Samuel, who proved to be the last of the line of judges, to the death of Saul, the first of Israel’s kings. The outstanding historical event it records is Israel’s change from rulership by judges to a monarchy. Three persons are made most prominent, the prophet Samuel, King Saul and David. The book covers in sequence: (1) Samuel and his judgeship; (2) Saul’s early kingship; (3) David’s exploits, Saul’s persecution of David and Saul’s suicide on the field of battle.
There has been much conjecture as to who wrote the book of First Samuel. However, for those with faith in the Bible’s inspiration, 1 Chronicles 29:29 is plain: “As for the affairs of David the king, the first ones and the last, there they are written among the words of Samuel the seer and among the words of Nathan the prophet and among the words of Gad the visionary.” That is, the prophet Samuel wrote all of Samuel until his death, as recorded at 1 Samuel 25:1, Nathan and Gad writing the rest. And that is the view held by ancient Jewish scholars as well as by most of the early Christian scholars.
As to the authenticity or the genuineness of the things recorded in the book: Many of its events are referred to in the book of Psalms and in the Christian Greek Scriptures; there is a straightforwardness and candor that stamps the book as truth. Archaeology also has testified to the accuracy of some of the things that the book records.
Further, the literary quality of the books of Samuel is such, in fact, that it might be said to add weight to its authenticity. Says a noted Hebrew authority: “Samuel contains some of the finest examples of Hebrew prose in the Bible. . . . Like all good Hebrew, it achieves the maximum effect with the greatest economy of words. Its narratives are masterpieces of historical writing.” This is something we would expect from Samuel, as he heard the Scriptures read at the sanctuary from the time he was weaned. The prophets Nathan and Gad may well have attempted to imitate his writing.

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Memorial Bible Reading: Sunday, March 29 - Monday, April 6

Memorial Bible Reading 2015 with biblical texts

SUNDAY, MARCH 29

I have made your name manifest to the men you gave me out of the world.—John 17:6.

Long before Jesus came to earth, the religious leaders discouraged people from using God’s name. We can be sure that Jesus firmly rejected such an unscriptural tradition. He said to his opposers: “I have come in the name of my Father, but you do not receive me; if someone else arrived in his own name, you would receive that one.” (John 5:43) Then, a few days before his death, Jesus expressed his main concern in life by praying: “Father, glorify your name.” (John 12:28) So we should not be surprised that Jesus weaves this concern for his Father’s name throughout the prayer recorded in the 17th chapter of John. Jesus prayed: “Holy Father, watch over them on account of your own name which you have given me.”—John 17:11. w13 10/15 4:9, 10

Memorial Bible reading: (Events after sunset: Nisan 9) Matthew 26:6-13

MATTHEW 26:6-13
“While Jesus was in Bethʹa•ny in the house of Simon the leper, 7 a woman with an alabaster jar of costly perfumed oil approached him, and she began pouring it on his head as he was dining. 8 On seeing this, the disciples became indignant and said: “Why this waste? 9 For this could have been sold for a great deal of money and given to the poor.” 10 Aware of this, Jesus said to them: “Why do you try to make trouble for the woman? She did a fine deed toward me. 11 For you always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me. 12 When she put this perfumed oil on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 13 Truly I say to you, wherever this good news is preached in all the world, what this woman did will also be told in memory of her.””

MONDAY, MARCH 30

If anyone wants to come after me, let him disown himself.—Matt. 16:24.

When Jesus was on earth, he set a perfect example of self-sacrifice. He put aside his own desires and comforts in order to do God’s will. (John 5:30) By remaining faithful to death on the torture stake, he proved that his spirit of self-sacrifice had no limit. (Phil. 2:8) As followers of Jesus, we can display the spirit of self-sacrifice by being willing to give up our own interests in order to help others. In a sense, it is the opposite of selfishness. An unselfish spirit can help us to place our feelings and personal preferences after those of others. (Phil. 2:3, 4) In fact, Jesus taught that an unselfish spirit is at the heart of our worship. How so? Christian love, which is part of the motivation behind self-sacrifice, is the hallmark of true disciples of Jesus.—John 13:34, 35. w143/15 1:1, 2

Memorial Bible reading: (Daytime events: Nisan 9) Matthew 21:1-11, 14-17

MATTHEW 21:1-11
“When they got close to Jerusalem and arrived at Bethʹpha•ge on the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples, 2 saying to them: “Go into the village that is within sight, and you will at once find a donkey tied and a colt with her. Untie them and bring them to me. 3 If someone says anything to you, you must say, ‘The Lord needs them.’ At that he will immediately send them.” 4 This actually took place to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet, who said: 5 “Tell the daughter of Zion: ‘Look! Your king is coming to you, mild-tempered and mounted on a donkey, yes, on a colt, the offspring of a beast of burden.’” 6 So the disciples went and did just as Jesus had instructed them. 7 They brought the donkey and its colt, and they put their outer garments on them, and he sat on them. 8 Most of the crowd spread their outer garments on the road, while others were cutting down branches from the trees and spreading them on the road. 9 Moreover, the crowds going ahead of him and those following him kept shouting: “Save, we pray, the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in Jehovah’s name! Save him, we pray, in the heights above!” 10 And when he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in an uproar, saying: “Who is this?” 11 The crowds kept saying: “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazʹa•reth of Galʹi•lee!””
MATTHEW 21:14-17
“Also, blind and lame people came to him in the temple, and he cured them. 15 When the chief priests and the scribes saw the marvelous things he did and the boys who were shouting in the temple, “Save, we pray, the Son of David!” they became indignant 16 and said to him: “Do you hear what these are saying?” Jesus said to them: “Yes. Did you never read this, ‘Out of the mouth of children and infants, you have brought forth praise’?” 17 And leaving them behind, he went out of the city to Bethʹa•ny and spent the night there.”

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Who was: Saint Boniface | Its Origin and History

by Mark Beumer MA
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Saint Boniface (or in Dutch the Heilige Bonifatius) is one of the most famous saints in the Netherlands. His real name was Wynfreth and he lived from 672 until 754 CE. Pope Gregory II, who ruled from 715 to 731 CE, was at that time struggling with pagan Germanic tribes and, keen to convert them, Wynfreth offered Gregory the perfect opportunity to achieve this goal, the Christianization of Europe. After he received the name Boniface on the 5th of May 719 CE, which means ‘he who does good’, he served as a missionary in the first half of the 8th century and helped reorganize the church in Germany and the Frankish kingdom.

Early life

Boniface was born in southern England in the Essex region, probably near Exeter, and presumably Crediton. Descended from a noble family, from his earliest years he showed great ability and received a religious education. His parents intended him for secular pursuits, but, the young Wynfreth was inspired with higher ideals by missionary monks who visited his home. Consequently, he was, according to Celtic and Anglo-Saxon tradition, taken in at the monastery of Adescancastre. Such children as these were known as pueri oblate and in the monastery the children learned to read and write and became familiar with Roman civilisation. Even at this early age the young Wynfreth was both intelligent and eager to learn.

Beliefs & Teachings

In 705 CE Wynfreth was sent to the bishop Berthwalt of Canterbury. Here, leading an austere and studious life under Abbot Winbert, he rapidly advanced in sanctity and knowledge, excelling especially in a profound understanding of scriptures, of which he gives evidence in his letters. He also gained a reputation as a diplomat, teacher and preacher. His students, particularly nuns, were very pleased with his teachings. Wynfreth was, although still at a young age, well aware of the importance of a large network of acquaintances. His career at this time is well evidenced by his letters, and is plausibly, if partially, described in hagiographies by his disciples. A rather different account, however, is also provided by other texts almost equally early in date, some of which come somewhat closer to presenting Boniface as the missionary of the popular imagination.
St. Boniface has been attributed the evangelisation of the land to the east of the Rhine: Hesse, Thuringia, and parts of Bavaria.

Role in the Christianization of the Frisians

Much later in life, when Boniface was already 82 years old, he, nevertheless, undertook the journey to the Frisians in 716 CE to convert them to Christianity. Indeed, to him has been attributed the evangelisation of much of the land to the east of the Rhine: Hesse, Thuringia, and even parts of Bavaria. This is precisely what he wished to achieve. Yet the image is deceptive, for he was, in fact, less a missionary to the pagans than he himself had expected. Certainly, he went to the continent in 716 CE to become a missionary, and at the start and end of his continental career he did work among the pagans in Frisia. He also wished to evangelise the Saxons, because they were related to the English – a point which has already been made by Willibrord’s biographer Ecgbert. For a brief moment in 737 CE it looked as if the victories of Charles Martel would open up Saxony as a mission field, and Boniface lobbied his Anglo-Saxon contacts for support in the expected enterprise. However, this would not go without a fight. In 721 CE, Boniface remembered his papal obilgations and moved back to Germania and worked in Hesse.
In 722 CE Boniface returned to Rome, and was there consecrated bishop, and was given letters of introduction to the leaders of the territories east of the Rhine, and especially to Charles Martel. On his return home he worked first in Hesse and then, further to the east in Thuringia. Within the areas, he was, for the most part, organising a somewhat unstructured and sometimes heretical group of Christian churches, rather than preaching to the pagans, even though it was the pagans who were his avowed objective. He is, however, recorded as having one spectacular showdown with a backwoods pagan community, at Geismar, where he cut down a great oak tree associated with ‘Jupiter’ or Donar. Miraculously, the tree came down easily, dividing into four pieces as it fell.
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The Murder of Boniface

Fulda & the Murder of Boniface

Following the death of Charles Martel in 741 CE and the establishment of his sons, Pippin III and Carloman, in his place, Boniface turned his mind to reform the Frankish Church – notably in a series of synods held between 742 and 744 CE. In the course of the reform a number of established clerics came under scrutiny, among them Bishop Gewilib of Mainz, who was removed from office in 745 CE. A year later, Boniface himself was appointed in his place: although he had held the position of missionary bishop since 722 CE, he had not hitherto been the incumbent of a fixed diocese. Meanwhile, in 744 CE he founded the monastery of Fulda, almost on the border of Thuringia and Hesse, appointing the Bavarian Sturm as abbot, and subsequently putting it under papal jurisdiction. Fulda would be his most significant monastic foundation, not least because it became the burial place of Boniface himself. It was also to be a missionary centre and a number of manuscripts associated with his mission have been attributed to its scriptorium. More important, in the long run, would be its intellectual achievements in the 9th century CE.
Ultimately, having installed Lull as his successor at Mainz in 753 CE, Boniface returned to Frisia accompanied by 40 servants (pueri) and many Christian books and articles, Boniface converted thousands of Frisians, until they were overtaken by the Frisians on the 5th of June 754 CE and tortured to death. The servants were not allowed to defend themselves at Boniface’s command, so they would be the first martyrs. This speaks against the claim that Boniface was the first martyr. He was perhaps the first bishop who was killed for faith, but Boniface would have defended himself. However, the previous assertion seems unlikely since his biographer Willibald describes nothing about the murder of Boniface and the servants were actually trained Frankish soldiers. They were well armed but were unlikely to outweigh the Frisian invasion force. It is also unclear whether the killers were pagan reactionaries or merely thieves. His body was buried in the monastery of Fulda.
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Boniface cuts down holy oak of 'Jupiter' or Donar

St. Boniface's Legacy & Influence in the Netherlands

After his death, Boniface received his own cult no different from the gods of ancient Greece and Rome. Like the Greek goddess of health Hygieia, Boniface even had his own spring and sacred relics. Through the centuries, many pilgrimages were taken to Dokkum to worship those relics. The most precious is a small piece of Boniface's skull. In the  16th century CE Boniface's relics included, according to the Dokkumer author Cornelius Kempius, the skull fragment, an ivory crook, a gold chalice, a chasuble, a cope and a gospel book personally written by Boniface himself, probably the Victor Codex from 546 CE Bishop Victor of Capua. Cornelius Kempius saw this codex and the other relics with his own eyes. They are, he describes, every seven years presented to the people.
After the rise of Protestantism and the plundering of the Dokkumer abbey in 1572 CE and its abolition in 1582 CE, the relics were scattered. Where they went is not clear. There is a tradition that says that the abbot of Fulda travelled to Dokkum in 1580 CE to retrieve the rod, the gospel book and take the church treasures to the Cathedral of Fulda. At the end of the 16th century CE, some relics emerge again and the chasuble, the cope and the skull fragment returned to Dokkum once again. They are carefully stored and preserved in a reliquary in the new parish church. In 1833 CE - at the request of the German Bishop Johann Leonard Pfaff - the tomb of Boniface was opened in order to provide primary relics for the newly-built Boniface Church at Fulda.
The Spring of Boniface in Dokkum is attributed by believers to Boniface himself. When he sat with his staff on the ground - like Moses did on the rock – the spring started bubbling and water appeared. In Cornelius Kempius' time the well was contained within the walls of an abbey complex of two churches: a large monastery for Witherendreef and a smaller parish church for the Dokkumse bourgeoisie. Kempius follows the Vita altera in his description of the spring and its discovery and puts the fons (fountain) in the convent on the west side of the tumba (apparent grave) of Boniface. He says that the spring neither dries up nor overflows. The especially clear water has since many pilgrims and is thought by some to cure all kinds of diseases and ailments. The Reformation brought an end to the Boniface Worship. The parish church was taken over by Dutch Reformed Church and the abbey was demolished.

Conclusion

It is clear that the mission of Boniface fits the image of the determined process of Christianization that took place in the Early Middle Ages in Europe. Many missionaries went to pagan nations providing Bibles and armed escorts to convert the local people to Christianity. When the leaders of such areas were finally convinced of the new ideas, missionaries gradually penetrated to the rest of the population. Often these missionaries were slain because they were considered a threat to the status quo but, nevertheless, thousands of people were converted by men such as Boniface who, to spread the message of their convictions, were willing to risk their lives.
Extracted from the website: Ancient History Encyclopedia under Creative Commons License.

Neolithic | Its Origin and History

by Cristian Violatti
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After the term “Stone Age” was coined in the late 19th century CE, scholars proposed to divide the Stone Age into different periods: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic. The term Neolithic refers to the last stage of the Stone Age. The period is significant for its megalithic architecture, spread of agricultural practices, and use of polished stone tools.

Chronology

The term Neolithic or New Stone Age is most frequently used in connection with agriculture, which is the time when cereal cultivation and animal domestication was introduced. Because agriculture developed at different times in different regions of the world, there is no single date for the beginning of the Neolithic. In the Near East, agriculture was developed around 9,000 BCE, in Southeast Europe around 7,000 BCE, and later in other regions. Even within a specific region, agriculture developed during different times. For example, agriculture first developed in Southeast Europe about 7,000 BCE, in Central Europe about 5,500 BCE, and Northern Europe about 4,000 BCE. In East Asia, the Neolithic goes from 6000 to 2000 BCE.
Pottery is another element that makes the dating of the Neolithic problematic. In some regions, the appearance of pottery is considered a symbol of the Neolithic, but this notion makes the term Neolithic even more ambiguous, since the use of pottery does not always occur after agriculture: in Japan, pottery appears before agriculture, while in the Near East agriculture pre-dates pottery production.
All these factors make the starting point of the Neolithic somewhat fuzzy. It should be remembered that the origin of the term lies in a late 19th century CE classification system (detailed above) and we must keep in mind its limitations.
Agricultural economies developed while hunting and gathering activities were reduced.

A Revolution?

In order to reflect the deep impact that agriculture had over the human population, an Australian archaeologist named Gordon Childe popularized the term “Neolithic Revolution” in the 1940s CE. However, today, it is believed that the impact of agricultural innovation was exaggerated in the past: the development of Neolithic culture appears to have been a gradual rather than a sudden change. Moreover, before agriculture was established, archaeological evidence has shown that there is usually a period of semi-nomadic life, where pre-agricultural societies might have a network of campsites and live in different locations according to how the resources respond to seasonal variations. Sometimes, one of these campsites might be adopted as a basecamp; the group might spend the majority of time there during the year exploiting local resources, including wild plants: this is a step closer to agriculture. Agriculture and foraging are not totally incompatible ways of life. This means that a group could perform hunter-gatherer activities for part of the year and some farming during the rest, perhaps on a small scale. Rather than a revolution, the archaeological record suggests that the adoption of agriculture is the result of small and gradual changes.
Agriculture was developed independently in several regions. Since its origin, the dominant pattern in these separate regions is the spread of agricultural economies and the reduction of hunting and gathering activities, to the point that today hunting economies only persist in marginal areas where farming is not possible, such as frozen arctic regions, densely forested areas, or arid deserts.
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Kermario Dolmen, Carnac
Major changes were introduced by agriculture, affecting the way human society was organized and how it used the earth, including forest clearance, root crops, and cereal cultivation that can be stored for long periods of time, along with the development of new technologies for farming and herding such as plows, irrigation systems, etc. More intensive agriculture implies more food available for more people, more villages, and a movement towards a more complex social and political organization. As the population density of the villages increase, they gradually evolve into towns and finally into cities.

Changes During the Neolithic

By adopting a sedentary way of life, the Neolithic groups increased their awareness of territoriality. During the 9600-6900 BCE period in the Near East, there were also innovations in arrowheads, yet no important changes in the animals hunted was detected. However, human skeletons were found with arrowheads embedded in them and also some settlements such as Jericho were surrounded with a massive wall and ditch around this time. It seems that the evidence of this period is a testimony of inter-communal conflicts, not far from organized warfare. There were also additional innovations in stone tool production that became widespread and adopted by many groups in distant locations, which is evidence for the existence of important networks of exchange and cultural interaction.
Living in permanent settlements brought new ways of social organization. As the subsistence strategies of Neolithic communities became more efficient, the population of the different settlements increased. We know from anthropological works that the larger the group, the less egalitarian and more hierarchical a society becomes. Those in the community who were involved in the management and allocation of food resources increased their social importance. Archaeological evidence has shown that during the early Neolithic, houses did not have individual storage facilities: storage and those activities linked to food preparation for storage were managed at village level. At the site of Jarf el Ahmar, in north Syria, there is a large subterranean structure which was used as a communal storage facility. This construction is in a central location among the households and there is also evidence that several rituals were performed in it.
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Neolithic Axe Heads
Another site in northern Syria named Tell Abu Hureyra, displays evidence for the transition from foraging to farming: it was a gradual process, which took several centuries. The first inhabitants of the site hunted gazelles, wild asses and wild cattle. Then, we see evidence of change: gazelle consumption dropped and the amount of sheep consumption rose (wild in the beginning and domesticated in the end). Sheep herding turned into the main source of meat and gazelle hunting became a minor activity. Human remains show an increase of tooth wear of all adults, which reflects the importance of ground cereal in the diet. It is interesting that once pottery was introduced, tooth wear rates decreased, but the frequency of bad teeth increased, which suggests that baked food made from stone-ground flour was largely replaced by dishes such as porridge and gruel, which were boiled in pots.

The End of the Neolithic

Towards the end of the Neolithic era, copper metallurgy is introduced, which marks a transition period to the Bronze Age, sometimes referred to as the Chalcolithic or Eneolithic Era. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin, which has greater hardness than copper, better casting properties, and a lower melting point. Bronze could be used for making weapons, something that was not possible with copper, which is not hard enough to endure combat conditions. In time, bronze became the primary material for tools and weapons, and a good part of the stone technology became obsolete, signalling the end of the Neolithic and thus, of the Stone Age.
Extracted from the website: Ancient History Encyclopedia under Creative Commons License.

Concept and What is: Dysthymia

Dysthymia is characterized by a milder depressive state, associated with a mood disorder. She usually is diagnosed after persist for two years, without interruption, in the adult psyche, or for one year in the childlike mind. Their difference with respect to conventional depression is the intensity of clinical signs. Normally this disorder does not cause radical transformations in the routine of the patient, because he continues to exercise his everyday activities, but can't feel good at what he does, is unable to live fully, with joy.

Its duration is greater than the observed in the more serious cases of depression, causing the stricken people long-term internships discouragement, lack of hunger or appetite too; lack or excess of sleep; sadness persevering; dismay, extreme tiredness, loss of energy; trouble to concentrate and take action; loss of hope.

Many patients do not give much attention to these signals, because some have this painting since childhood, thus believe that this is a natural condition, his way. This leads them to seek medical aid belatedly, because although find, where more radical, difficulties in social interaction, finding solace to yourselves of all, still retain the ability to workeven not producing as much as would be desirable, if their minds present the same performance and the same speed of thought of other people.

To be sure of the occurrence of dysthymia, it is necessary to eliminate the possibility of exacerbation of humor, like the stories of mania or hypomania, as well as deeper depressions, caused by internal or external problems. The presence of a constant irritation, impatience persevering, antisocial behavior, sensation of inconvenience, in addition to the symptoms described above, mark the incidence of dysthymia, after exclusion of other psychological disorders.

Usually these patients show worryingly low self-esteem, constant suicide ideas, aggressive attitudes, loss of interest in the tasks before you caused intense joy and pleasure, lack of sexual urges and attraction partners, urge consumption of drugs, alcohol and tobacco, if had the habit of enjoying these vices, tendency to dream about the issues that cause the depressive state in which he finds himself, among others.

Dysthymia can occur at any stage of life, even as a child, when the child has a certain awareness that something is wrong with her, because she feels different from the others. This disorder can be precocious, when occurs before the 21 years, or late to manifest itself after this age group. As for treatment, the patient can achieve positive results with the use of certain antidepressants such as fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and mirtazapine. Psychotherapy is also very suitable in these cases.
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Culture and Science

Concept and What is: Body Dysmorphism

The Body Dysmorphism, also known as Dismorfobia, body dysmorphic disorder or syndrome of image distortion, is often confused with the preoccupation with appearance, which can make it difficult to diagnose these days. Dysmorphism is a term used to differentiate what the person believes to be and what actually is, i.e. the body dysmorphism is a psychological disorder where the person believed to have physical defects that lacks or has a minimum level, but believed to be accentuated. Are thoughts that come to be delusional, in which the individual has obsessive rituals like looking in a mirror searching for defects.

Occurs in both sexes and usually begins in the late teens and early adulthood, not being uncommon the late diagnosis. Body-related disorders are becoming epidemic, since all seek a perfect image. But this preoccupation with appearance sharply doesn't mean that the person is suffering from some disorder, but the possibilities that these and others appear is more significant.

For the diagnosis it is important to note some major points such as: excessive attention with distortions that do not exist or exist in small level; the way the person hides his part "defective"; and if the person seeks sharply aesthetic treatments and after never feel satisfied. In some people can still be observed a prejudice in social and affective relationships or even in professional and academic field.

As body dysmorphic disorder is related to the manner in which the person is noticed, it is common that some people develop muscle Dysmorphia disorder or Muscle dysmorphic disorder that are mostly men who practice bodybuilding of the 3 4:0 per day in search of a body bigger and bigger and more defined. Besides the Vigorexia, there are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia more common in women who do not eat enough, feel and see fat, even if it's not. Are often associated with depression, Social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, or high levels of dissatisfaction and distress that can often lead to suicide.

The cause is still unknown, but is related to social, cultural elements, but also with central nervous system imbalances. There is still the possibility of the involvement of the basic ganglia dysfunction with these disorders to study cases of meningitis or beginning of postencephalitic syndrome.

For treatment has been widely used, particularly behavioral psychotherapy and cognitive, but it is difficult that the patient get help since we don't accept to be the bearer of this diagnosis. In addition to psychotherapy treatment, often medication is also required to help the patient modify behaviors and obsessive thoughts, helping in the recovery of their self-esteem and their relationships.
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Culture and Science

Concept and What is: Group dynamics

The group dynamics are activities that enable the recruiter know a little of each candidate, so it has bigger and better features at the moment of selecting the most suitable profile for a given position. Various exercises are carried out, usually with people accommodated in a semicircle, for everyone to stay relaxed and stripped, ready to be evaluated.

Usually applicants for employment have to be able to face the obstacles and challenges are proposed to them, symbolizing them through the elaboration of corporate advertising, dramatic acts, public views, among other means. Applicants must be aware of everything, always trying to anticipate what you are expecting of them, looking not to commit any mistake. They should not be ashamed or embarrass with certain tasks to be performed, but with the ultimate goal, conquer the vacancy in question.

These dynamics are tools responsible for selecting features to capture the creative potential of each, as well as the knowledge necessary to face this crucial moment, we must demonstrate creativity, improvisational ability. It doesn't matter to evaluate only the recruiter know candidates ' intellectual, but also the emotional intelligence of them, what is your mentality, your feelings, how is the life of these pretenders, which their problems more incisors.

The dynamics also aim to bring candidates to reflect on the selection process, implement it, transmutá it and renew it, integrating it new dimensions. The techniques used in these group meetings allow people involved release the potential creator and transformer which often lies dormant in each one, thus enabling that learning, in all senses, to flow more freely between them, in this collective rationalization mechanism and, rightfully so, enriching. People change, right now, in subjects of knowledge.

To achieve this level of liberating education, the dynamics should be geared to quirky themes, not random, focused on concrete goals and nature of this selection process. It is therefore essential that is crystal clear to the recruiter the objective to be achieved.

All available means may be used in the practice of these dynamics, since they contribute to their realization – from TV, video, sound, role, to paints, maps, meditations, theatrical techniques, production of texts, among many others instruments. The environment chosen for the activities should fit perfectly to them, so that everyone can enter the climate. It is essential also stipulate a maximum period for the preparation of tasks.

Some experts give important tips for candidates facing better this time, such how to dress according to the costume of the undertaking in question; speak only in more propitious time, always with one goal in mind, looking like that know everything about where the Corporation intends to work; use the English language correctly, without cacoetes as ' right ', ' OK ', or clichés and without any use exclamations; interventions should be educated, energetic and brief.
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Culture and Science

Meaning and Definition of Immoral

Immoral is an adjective used to refer to it or the one who is opposed to morality. Morality, for its part, is formed by the set of the values, customs, beliefs and standards of a person or a community.

Examples: "several religious groups consider immoral advertising with two women and a man in an intimate situation", "the rock band gave an immoral performance that has scandalized the public," "be a millionaire in a poor country is immoral."

The immoral is therefore moving away from moral or actions that are considered correct. It is expected that people adhere to a sort of guide to living and acting which is governed by the moral: when they depart from their principles, they engage in immoral behavior.

Morality depends on each culture or social group. However, what is immoral for some may not be for others. Sexuality and religion are often objects of moral debate.

In some groups, a woman having sex with casual partners may be considered immoral. In other contexts, however, such behaviour does nothing abnormal or shocking because it is a decision that falls within the private sphere.

There are also accused of immoral man or woman who has two partners simultaneously, or who does not attend the religious service indicated by the ecclesiastical authorities. It is clear that the immoral, therefore, depends on many factors, as well cultural as generational.
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Meanings, definitions, concepts of daily use

Meaning and Definition of Igloo

Igloo is a term that belongs to the Inuit language, spoken by the Eskimos (people of Mongolian race inhabiting the Arctic). This is a house built with blocks of ice, which is often characterized by its hemispherical shape.

An igloo is therefore an ice house inhabited by Eskimos and other peoples with similar characteristics, during the winter. These shelters are often temporary and are widely used by hunters.

Build an igloo is simple and cheap, which makes this type of housing a common alternative for the Eskimos. On the other hand, built other structures in the icy and isolated regions proves to be very expensive.

There are generally three classes of igloo. The smallest is the build hunters and those seeking shelter in the night while they seek food in icy areas. Other igloos are larger and are used as a family in the winter House. (Larger) major igloos, however, are permanent and have several parts.

The igloo is built with compact snow and blocks of ice. Typically, the igloo is built in the same place where the snow for the structure is removed. The eskimos do not appeal to a temporary support structure, they support a block of ice on another to fill the gap.

Contrary to what one may think, the inside of the igloo is comfortable because the snow has good insulating properties. In any case, some Eskimo peoples lining the Interior of the House with animal skins to raise the internal temperature.
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Meanings, definitions, concepts of daily use

Meaning and Definition of Mathematics

From the latin mathematĭca, although more distant origin in a Greek word which can be translated as 'knowledge', mathematics are deductive science devoted to the study of the properties of abstract entities and their relationships. This means that the mathematics work with numbers, symbols, geometric shapes, etc.

On the basis of axioms and following logical reasoning, mathematics analyse structures, sizes and links to the abstract entities. This allows, once detected some models, assumptions and definitions which it does by implication.

Mathematics work with quantities (of numbers), but also with non-quantitatives abstract constructions. Their purpose is convenient because the abstractions and logical reasoning can be applied to models to make calculations, accounts and physical correlation estimates/measures.

We can say that almost all human activities have a link with mathematics. These links can be obvious, as in the case of engineering, or be less visible, as in medicine, or music.

Mathematics can be divided into different areas or fields of study. In this sense, one can speak of arithmetic (the study of the numbers), Algebra (the study of structures), geometry (the study of the segments and figures) and statistics (analysis of data), among others.

It should be noted that, in everyday life, we often use mathematics almost unconsciously. When going to the grocery store to buy a kilo of tomatoes, the seller told us the price and we immediately perform a basic calculation to know with what ticket we will pay and receive money.
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Meanings, definitions, concepts of daily use

Who was: Semiramis | Its Origin and History.

Semiramis | Its Origin and History

by Joshua J. Mark
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Sammu-Ramat, more famously known as Semiramis, was the queen regent of the Assyrian Empire (reigned 811-806 BCE) who held the throne for her young son Adad Nirari III until he reached maturity. She is also known as Shammuramat or Sammuramat. She was the wife of Shamshi-Adad V (reigned 823-811 BCE) and, when he died, she assumed rule until Adad Nirari III came of age, at which time she passed the throne to him. According to historian Gwendolyn Leick, “This woman achieved remarkable fame and power in her lifetime and beyond. According to contemporary records, she had considerable influence at the Assyrian court” (155). This would explain how she was able to maintain the throne after her husband’s death. Women were not admitted to positions of authority in the Assyrian Empire, and to have a woman ruler would have been unthinkable unless that particular woman had enough power to take and hold it.
Women were not admitted to positions of authority in the Assyrian Empire; Semiramis must have had enough power to take and hold it.
This, however, is precisely the problem with Sammu-Ramat’s reign: there is very little information about what she did and how she went about doing it and some scholars refer to her simply as “an obscure Assyrian lady of the eighth century B.C. of whom we know nothing for certain except that she is named on an inscription as lady of the palace” (rbedrosian.com, 2). It would seem, however, that she was much more than that and, however little may be left to record her reign, there is enough to suggest that she was the equal of her predecessors and secured the kingdom after the death of her husband.

Semiramis' Ancestry

Shamshi-Adad V was the son of King Shalmaneser III and grandson of Ashurnasirpal II. Their successful reigns and military campaigns would have provided Shamshi-Adad V with the stability and resources to begin his own successful reign had it not been for the rebellion of his older brother. Shalmaneser III’s elder son, Ashur-danin-pal, apparently grew tired of waiting for the throne and launched a revolt against Shalmaneser III in 826 BCE. Shamshi-Adad V took his father’s side and crushed the rebellion, but this took him six years to accomplish. By the time Ashur-danin-pal was defeated, much of the resources which Shamshi-Adad V would have had at his disposal were gone, and the Assyrian Empire was weakened and unstable.

Semiramis' Reign

It is at this time that Sammu-Ramat appears in the historical record. It is not known what year she married the king, but when her husband died and she took the throne, she was able to provide the nation with the stability it needed. Historians have speculated that, since the times seemed so uncertain to the people of Assyria, the successful reign of a woman would have engendered a kind of awe greater than that of a king because so unprecedented. She was powerful enough to have her own obelisk inscribed and placed in prominence in the city of Ashur. It read:
Stele of Sammuramat, queen of Shamshi-Adad, King of the Universe, King of Assyria, Mother of Adad Nirari, King of the Universe, King of Assyria, Daughter-in-Law of Shalmaneser, King of the Four Regions of the World.
What exactly Sammu-Ramat did during her reign is unknown, but it seems she initiated a number of building projects and may have personally led military campaigns. According to the historian Stephen Bertman, prior to Shamshi-Adad’s death, Sammu-Ramat “took the extraordinary step of accompanying her husband on at least one military campaign, and she is prominently mentioned in royal inscriptions” (102). After his death, she seems to have continued to lead such campaigns herself, although this, like much else in her reign, has been questioned.  Whatever she did, it stabilized the empire after the civil war and provided her son with a sizeable and secure nation when he came to the throne. It is known that she defeated the Medes and annexed their territory, may have conquered the Armenians and, according to Herodotus, may have built the embankments at Babylon on the Euphrates River which were still famous in his time. What else she did, however, merged with myth in the years after her reign. The historian Susan Wise Bauer comments on this, writing:
The Babylonian princess Sammu-Ramat stepped into the place of power. A woman on the Assyrian throne: it had never been done before, and Sammu-Ramat knew it. The stele she built for herself is at some pains to link her to every available Assyrian king. She is called not only queen of Shamshi-Adad and mother of Adad-Nirari, but also “daughter-in-law of Shalmaneser, king of the four regions.” Sammu-Ramat’s hold on power was so striking that it echoed into the distant historical memory of a people just arriving on the scene. The Greeks remembered her, giving her the Greek name Semiramis. The Greek historian Ctesias says that she was the daughter of a fish-goddess, raised by doves, who married the king of Assyria and gave birth to a son called Ninyas. When her husband died, Semiramis treacherously claimed his throne. The ancient story preserves an echo of Adad-Nirari’s name in Ninyas, the son of the legendary queen; and it is not the only story to hint that Sammu-Ramat seized power in a manner not exactly aboveboard. Another Greek historian, Diodorus, tells us Semiramis convinced her husband to give her power just for five days, to see how well she could manage it. When he agreed, she had him executed and seized the crown for good (349).
These legends concerning Semiramis and her marriage to Ninyas (also known as Ninus) inspired still more tales of the queen's reign. According to the Gesta Treverorum (12th century CE), an account of the Germanic Treveri tribe, Semiramis even exerted influence over ancient Germania. According to the story, Ninyas had a son by an earlier marriage named Trebeta. Semiramis hated her stepson and saw him as a threat. After Ninus' death, she either exiled him or he, fearing for his life, left Assyria with a band of followers and eventually founded the city of Trier, which would become one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire. Other ancient accounts, such as those by Diodorus Siculus, also seem to have combined earlier accounts of Sammu-Ramat’s reign with myths and legends relating to the goddess Astarte and Ishtar/Inanna so that, in time, the historical queen became the mythical, semi-divine, Semiramis. This theory is contested, however, and there are those historians who claim Sammu-Ramat had nothing to do with the later figure of Semiramis and even those who claim that Sammu-Ramat never ruled as regent. The historian Wolfram von Soden, to cite only one example, writes, “That Sammu-Ramat, the Semiramis of Greek literature, was temporarily regent after 810 BCE cannot, however, be proven” (67). Von Soden is not alone in this opinion but other historians, such as Bauer, are just as adamant in their claims that Sammu-Ramat not only reigned over the Assyrian Empire but was the inspiration for the myths and legends surrounding Semiramis.
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Queen Semiramis with Servants

Semiramis in Literature

She remains, therefore, one of the more controversial figures from ancient history and has become more so since the 19th century CE when the Christian minister Alexander Hislop published his book The Two Babylons (1858 CE), linking Semiramis with the whore of Babylon from the biblical Book of Revelation, Chapter 17. Even though The Two Babylons is clearly anti-Catholic propaganda and has no claim to biblical or historical accuracy, it is still cited by certain protestant Christian works as an authority on the subject, and the book therefore contributes to the controversy surrounding Semiramis. The book claims, to cite only two examples of biblical inaccuracy, that Semiramis was Nimrod’s wife, whereas Chapter 10 of Genesis says no such thing, and famously insists that Semiramis is the whore of Babylon when her name is nowhere mentioned in the Bible. The historical inaccuracies in the work are too numerous to mention. Even so, the book continues to exert a powerful influence over certain readers and their understanding of ancient history in general and Semiramis specifically. Whether Sammu-Ramat was the model for Semiramis continues to be argued by modern historians, who often cite the same ancient inscriptions for their conflicting arguments, and it does not seem to be a debate that will be settled anytime soon. Based simply on the evidence of Sammu-Ramat being able to erect her own stele at the prestigious city of Ashur, however, it would appear she was a very impressive and very powerful Assyrian queen who was known to later generations as Semiramis.
Extracted from the website: Ancient History Encyclopedia under Creative Commons License.

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