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Relationship Marketing, Services Marketing, Social Media Marketing | Marketing Teacher

Online Marketing Courses For Learners, Teachers and Professionals of Marketing

Table of Contents

▼ Relationship Marketing (1)

  1. Maintaining Customer Relationships

▼ Services Marketing (2)

  1. Introduction to Services Marketing
  2. Services Marketing Mix

▼ Social Media Marketing (6)

  1. End of Facebook
  2. Facebook gets ready to go public.
  3. Groupon and online marketing.
  4. Social Media Advertising
  5. Social Networks
  6. Twitter launches brand pages.


Maintaining Customer Relationships

Building and maintaining customer relationships

This lesson will consider the internal and external customer, how marketing is used to build and nurture customer relationships, and will begin to build your knowledge on the customer loyalty.
So let’s begin by looking at external customers and internal customers. For the purposes of an introduction to marketing, the more generic terms for the different types and characteristics of people with which an organisation develops relationships would include: customers, users, connected stakeholders, and other stakeholders. We will now look at how we differentiate between the internal and external customer.

Internal Customers

Internal customers are those colleagues and departments within your own organisation. Again in the previous module we looked at internal functions and how marketing can be used internally for the flow of internal services and communication. Sometimes you are the customer and sometimes you are the service provider. We considered how marketing connected internally with how marketing interacts with research and development, production/operations/logistics, human resources, IT and customer service. There are of course many other internal parts of the business.

External Customers

External customers are more likely to be customers, users, and stakeholders. As we said in previous lessons in this module, customers are those that exchange money for goods and services and consumers are those that actually use the product (and as we said they may or may not be the same person). So a user is the same as a consumer. According to Blythe (2011), stakeholders are people who are impacted by corporate activities. An obvious stakeholder might be a shareholder since they have voting rights at annual general meetings. A less obvious stakeholder would be the person that owns the land next to your factory, or the family that is supported by the father that works in your warehouse. So stakeholders would include ‘publics’ such as shareholders, customers, staff and the local community. A connected stakeholder is one with the direct association with your business, and this would be a supplier or a shareholder. Obviously other stakeholders would not have the same strength of connection, for example in the case of the local community.

Example – Starbucks Coffee

We going to look at Starbucks coffee as an example of a company that has both internal and external customers, and we should be able to apply some of the terminology that we introduced above. The internal customers will be the people that work within the business of Starbucks. The internal customers will be everyone from the Board of Directors of the company, to the supervisors and team members that serve coffee at the customer interface. So information and communication will flow from the board of directors to the people on the ground, and data and feedback from customers can flow from the people in the coffee shops back to the internal customers in the marketing department. External customers and consumers will be the everyday public that come in to the coffee shop and buy coffee for themselves and their friends. Of course the user will be the consumer of the product, whether that is the purchaser or not. The connected stakeholder would be the coffee suppliers from around the world, and the pension schemes that own shares in the business. Other stakeholders will include other businesses which are based around the Starbucks stores, as well as those impacted by the environment around coffee plantations (which is something that Starbucks is very keen to deal with since it has an ethical purchasing policy).

Marketing and Customer Relationships

Marketing today is very much focused upon business relationships, especially in the B2B markets. Historically companies would manufacture products that would be promoted to customers. However as markets have become more competitive, marketing companies seek to attract customer by building strong relationships so that customers are ‘retained’ i.e. you keep hold of your customers. This is the basis for relationship marketing, which we consider here as marketing and the customer relationship.
Think about the value-added, high quality airlines, such as Emirates. Companies such as these are specialists in building the customer relationship and it is obvious that they add value at each customer contact point. You are treated to high levels of customer service from the moment that you check-in, during your flight and even when you have finished using their service. For example, airlines have air miles promotions and upgrades which keep the customer flying with the company and ‘retains’ them as a customer.
The key to relationship marketing is the long-term customer relationship. So if you recall your introduction to marketing definitions, this is at opposite ends of the scale to be production or product orientation which is the basis for modern marketing. As a rule of thumb, relationship marketing tends to be practised well in the airline industry and in the travel industry. However branding is another way of maintaining the customer relationship, as is innovation and design. Nike and Apple may not deliver the same amount of face-to-face relationship building, but they do have very loyal long-term customers. Try to think of other examples of businesses that practice strong relationship marketing.

The marketing concept, customer focus and relationship marketing.

At this point in our studies we can now identify a path which connects the marketing concept, customer focus and relationship marketing. The marketing concept centres all organisational activities upon the customer (which is our customer focus) and if we think in terms of the long-term we have now added relationship marketing. Marketing focuses everything on our customer and their recruitment, their retention into the long-term, and finally marketing aims to extend products and services to the same customers from other product categories. So historically marketers would ‘acquire’ or recruit customers whereas today we acquire customers and then we ‘retain’ them.
There are a couple of theoretical tools that we can use here. So in this next section we are going to take a look at the Pareto principle and the loyalty ladder, which both help us to understand how we move from customer acquisition to customer retention and the implications for marketing.


Introduction to Services Marketing

What is services marketing?

A service is the action of doing something for someone or something. It is largely intangible (i.e. not material). You cannot touch it. You cannot see it. You cannot taste it. You cannot hear it. You cannot feel it. So a service context creates its own series of challenges for the marketing manager since he or she must communicate the benefits of a service by drawing parallels with imagery and ideas that are more tangible.
Search quality is the perception in the mind of the consumer of the quality of the product prior to purchase through making a series of searches. So this is simple in relation to a tangible product because you might look at size or colour for example. Therefore search quality relates more to products
and services.
Experience quality is easier to assess. In terms of service you need to taste the food or experience the service level. Therefore your experiences allow you to evaluate the level and nature of the service. You remember a great vacation because of the food or service, but by the same token you remember an awful vacation because of the hopeless food or poor service.
Credence quality is based upon the credibility of the service that you undertake. This is down to the reputation of a dentist or of a decorator. Credence is used where you have little knowledge of the topic and where you rely upon the professionalism of the expert.


Perishable – in that once it has occurred it cannot be repeated in exactly the same way. For example, once a 100 meters Olympic final has been run, there will not be another for 4 more years, and even then it will be staged in a different place with many different finalists. You cannot put service in the warehouse, or store in your inventory. An interesting argument about perishability goes like this, once a flight has taken off you cannot sell that seat again, hence the airline makes no profit on that seat. Therefore the airline has no choice but to price at peak when it sells a seat at busy times in order to make a profit. That’s why restaurants offer vouchers to compensate for quieter times, and it is the same for railway tickets and matinees in Broadway during the middle of the week.


Variability- since the human involvement in service provision means that no two services will be completely identical, they are variable. For example, returning to the same garage time and time again for a service on your car might see different levels of customer satisfaction, or speediness of work. If you watch your favourite/favorite music group on DVD the experience will be the same every time you play it, although if you go to see them on tour when they are live no two performances will be identical for a whole variety of reasons. Even with the greatly standardized McDonalds experience, there are slight changes in service, often through no fault of the business itself. Sometimes Saturday lunchtime will be extremely busy, on other days you may have to wait to go via the drive through. So services tend to vary from one user experience to another.


Homogeneity is where services are largely the same (the opposite of variability above). We considered McDonald’s above which is a largely homogeneous service, so now let’s look at KFC and Pizza Hut. Both of these businesses provide a homogeneous service experience whether you are in New York, or Alaska, or even Adelaide. Consumers expect the same level of service and would not anticipate any huge deviation in their experience. Outside of the main brands you might expect a less homogeneous experience. If you visit your doctor he or she might give one interpretation, whereas another doctor might offer a different view. Your regular hairdresser will deliver a style whereas a hairdresser in the next town could potentially style your hair differently. Therefore standardization is largely embodied by the large global brands which produce services.
Right of ownership is not taken to the service, since you merely experience it. For example, an engineer may service your air-conditioning, but you do not own the service, the engineer or his equipment. You cannot sell it on once it has been consumed, and do not take ownership of it.
Western economies have seen deterioration in their traditional manufacturing industries, and a growth in their service economies. Therefore the marketing mix has seen extended and adapted to create the services marketing mix, also known as the 7P’s or the extended marketing mix – physical evidence, process and people.
A product is tangible (i.e. material) since you can touch it or own it. A service tends to be an experience that is consumed at the point where it is purchased and cannot be owned since it quickly perishes. A person could go to a café one day and enjoy excellent service, and then return the next day and have a poor experience. Marketers talk about the nature of a service as being inseparable, intangible, perishable, homogenous and variable.


Inseparable – from the point where it is consumed, and from the provider of the service. For example, you cannot take a live theatre performance home to consume it (a DVD of the same performance would be a product, not a service). The consumer is actually involved in the production process that they are buying at the same time as it is being produced, for example an eye test or a makeover. One benefit would be that if you are unhappy with you makeover you can tell the beautician and that instant feedback means that the service quality is improved. You can’t do that with a product. Another attribute is that services have to be close to the person consuming them i.e. goods can be made in a central factory location which has the benefits of mass production. This localization means that consumption is inseparable from production.


Intangible – cannot have a real, physical presence as does a product. For example, motor insurance may have a certificate, but the financial service itself cannot be touched i.e. it is intangible. This makes it tricky to evaluate the quality of service prior to consuming it since there are fewer attributes of quality in comparison to a product. One way is to consider quality in terms of search, experience and credence.


Services Marketing Mix

As we discussed in the lesson on services, there are a series of fundamental characteristics such as intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity and perishability which are unique to a service. The traditional marketing mix which includes product, place, price and promotion could be stretched to compensate for these factors. However the services marketing mix is an adaptation of the traditional 4Ps to address these characteristics and it sees the addition of another 3Ps which are physical evidence, process and people. We will also consider how the traditional mix alters for a service with sections below on pricing for services, product for services, place for services, and promotion for services.

Of course the marketing mix for services still needs to address the remaining 4Ps of pricing, product, place and promotion. Let’s consider some examples of these four elements from the perspective of a service.

Pricing for services

Pricing needs to take into account two factors in relation to services. The first issue is what is the unit which we are pricing? Do we sell a hotel room based on its area or upon how long you use it for? Would you cost dental surgery by the amount of time you sat in the dentist’s chair or by the actual procedure that was undertaken? Secondly if a price is based upon a bundle of sub services then how do you price it as a whole? An example of this would be an all-you-can-eat menu priced at a single point e.g. €20, or would you charge for each item on the menu individually and add-on a service charge?

Product for services

In this instance our product and service are pretty much the same. However as we have discussed our service is intangible etc. One-way dealing with this is to consider that: service = product + process. So we need to focus upon the process. For example when you arrive at a hotel people process you to ensure that you are registered and your baggage is taken to a room. This is an example of people processing. Another type of processing is possession processing, and an example would be where you take your dog to be groomed, or you organise a service for your car i.e. your possessions are processed. Both of these are examples of product in relation to service.

Place for services

Where you consume the service is a central part of the services marketing mix. With the place element the marketer considers convenience, location, footfall, number of outlets, and timing. Consider an event which takes place over a weekend. If you have a food trailer which sells organic salads to the public you need to make sure that you are actually booked at the event, that people will walk past your trailer and be able to stop and queue, and that you are able to sell to the people when they want to eat. Simply scale this up for businesses like Pizza Express.

Promotion for services

Obviously services are more difficult to assess in terms of attributes in comparison to tangible products. The marketer needs to be more innovative and clear when it comes to the benefits to the target market of his or her service. The marketer can try a number of techniques which include:
  • Emphasising any tangible cues e.g. telecommunications companies will use symbols such as Mercury to emphasise speed. Burger King will use boxes and packaging which emphasise its marketing communications.
  • Exploiting celebrity to provide information about the service. There are many examples of well-known public faces telling us on TV how they purchase life assurance or organise their final will.
  • Branding is everything to service. Starbucks does sells coffee and cake but much of its offering is its service. Starbucks’ logo, its location, the ambience of their stores and the whole service experience is all part of the brand Starbucks. There are many other examples of this including KFC and McDonalds. Can you think of any more?

Physical Evidence

(Physical evidence is) . . . The environment in which the service is delivered, and where the firm and customer interact, and any tangible components that facilitate performance or communication of the service.
Zeithaml et al (2008)
Physical Evidence is the material part of a service. Strictly speaking there are no physical attributes to a service, so a consumer tends to rely on material cues. There are many examples of physical evidence, including some of the following buildings, equipment, signs and logos, annual accounts and business reports, brochures, your website, and even your business cards. Physical evidence lesson.


(Process is) . . . The actual procedures, mechanisms, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered – this service delivery and operating systems.
Zeithaml et al (2008).
There are a number of perceptions of the concept of process within the business and marketing literature. Some see processes as a means to achieve an outcome, for example – to achieve a 30% market share, a company implements a marketing planning process. However in reality it is more about the customer interface between the business and consumer and how they deal with each other in a series of steps in stages, i.e. throughout the process. Process lesson.


(People are) . . . All human actors who play a part in service delivery and thus influence the buyers’ perceptions; namely, the firm’s personnel, the customer, and other customers in the service environment.
Zeithaml et al (2008).
People are the most important element of any service or experience. Services tend to be produced and consumed at the same moment, and aspects of the customer experience are altered to meet the individual needs of the person consuming it. People lesson.


End of Facebook

Remember Friendster? No you don’t! Remember MySpace? Yes you do! Why do you remember MySpace?
You remember it because you or people you knew used to go there for social networking. MySpace went from a great idea built in 10 days using ColdFusion to a concept that caught the imaginations of millions, to something that was sold for $580 million which then flopped. Ring any bells?
As predicted by many earlier this week, today the newsfeeds and TV stations are full of images of Mark Zuckerberg in a sludgy t-shirt with a huge smile on his face as he invites investors to take a page from Facebook. Investors on the other hand are the older guys with all the cash who don’t remember MySpace, have never been near Facebook and wear suits and ties. There will be lots of reasons why Facebook could be a great investment. Never mind that, let’s look at why Facebook could flop:
Most tech firms flop. Loads flopped on March 20th 2000. Why? Because investors were buying into everything dotcom without understanding the business models. Do the markets understand Facebook’s current business model?
Back to MySpace. Facebook has 845 million users. There aren’t that many people in the world that will ‘need’ Facebook (marketers, remember satisfying customer needs?). One simile often used for such tech businesses is ‘growing like weeds’ and it was used for Friendster (and earlier social networking concept) and MySpace.
Facebook makes its revenue from advertising. Google make billions from advertising mainly because people go to the internet to get information and to shop. People go to Facebook to socialise. It is a simple matter of how consumers behave.
There is lots of competition out there. When markets mature, the huge bureaucracies crumble. Giants can’t dance. Competitors have the opportunity to take over the market.
There will be new entrepreneurs in sludgy t-shirts with new social networking ideas. Once we bought Osmond’s records. Social networking is the new pop music. The next generation will see Facebook like a comfortable pair of Hush Puppies worn by Dad.
Will the guys leave the band? Now the tour is done and the new album is the Best of Facebook, will the knowledge workers be spending their huge payoffs, or will they be working for shareholder value for the shares you just bought?
Here’s an investment tip. Invest in the movie sequel to The Social Network.
Tim Friesner


Facebook gets ready to go public.

Shortly Facebook will begin the process of becoming a public company in the USA and it is rumoured that the company will generate $10 billion from its Initial Purchase Offering (IPO). To put this in to perspective, that makes it more valuable than companies such as Apple. Remember that Google generated $1.9 billion when it floated in 2004.
Facebook’s revenue stream comes through advertising and last year the company made a $355 million net profit from income of $1.2 million. At $10 billion that will make the IPO one of the 5 largest of all time. Rumours do have the company valued at $100 billion but to put that into some kind of perspective, that’s the value of McDonalds the hamburger restaurant. Morgan Stanley is likely to handle the administration of the floatation worth millions of dollars to the business. Facebook is could go public in April 2012 since it has to publish its annual accounts at this time anyway.
The world economy is fairly unpredictable at the moment, and Facebook is doing as well as it possibly can at this point in time. Other technology IPOs occurring around the same date include LinkedIn and Groupon, both of whom compete for online advertising using different but similar models as Facebook for income generation. One thing is for sure, Facebook’s early investors will become the new mega-rich of Silicone Valley in the same way that Google’s original venture capitalists and entrepreneurs did not so long ago.


Groupon and online marketing.

Group CEO Andrew Mason has gone on record to dispel the myths about online advertising daily Groupon. Mason explains that the perception of the man on the street about how Groupon’s business model operates, and the reality to the online marketer are poles apart. He accepts that there has been a tiny minority of high profile problems, but you get this with any pioneering business, and Groupon is dealing in the unchartered waters of online marketing and mega-mailing lists.
Groupon customers are more than 90% satisfied, and most keep coming back time and time again. His team are working for many small businesses from all around the world, in fact Groupon deals in more than 46 countries every day. Groupon now has shareholders of course after its IPO in 2011. Investors have bought into a complex model of online marketing which Mason regards a difficult to imitate. He advocates that Groupon is a relationship marketing company and that it has a huge mailing list which was a large upfront investment but now offers a competitive low cost communications route to consumers.
Groupon has a huge mailing list! It has 150 million subscribers and 250,000 advertisers (or merchants), and considers itself to be in a strong position in terms of the on-going, daily customer relationship. It is difficult to imitate but one wonders how long before the e-mail space has migrated to the social space? Will mailing lists be enough to compete with very precise consumer profiling and relationship marketing?


Social media advertising

Social media advertising relies upon the relationships generated within social media websites to target and deliver advertising campaigns to users. The advertising itself is more about the mechanics of social media advertising, because you know social media relies upon continuous engagement in communication with users and customers. As with search marketing, the digital world place plenty of information about users and their online habits. So for the purposes of this lesson, let’s have a quick look at how Facebook does social media advertising.
Facebook shows adverts to specific groups of engaged users by their desktop or mobile. The idea is to target your ads with a creative idea, then they get lots of likes, comments and shares. So a successful campaign will target ads at specific groups of people so that they are more likely to see the adverts every time they use their social media platform. As with other forms of marketing communications your Facebook campaign needs a purpose albeit to generate sales, increase brand awareness, target specific groups, or reach specific individuals.
As with Google there are a number of different types of adverts that can be shown in different places; and can be shown in various positions on page or in a newsfeed, or other places depending on who you are targeting or the types of devices using. You have the option to target based upon a series of factors such as location, age, gender, interests such as tennis or cookery, broader categories such as parents, or a variety of other related connections such as those who like or share your page. So based upon these factors you are more likely to target specific consumers.
Facebook offers a very interactive user interface, and you can get started very quickly with your advertising campaign. You might employ a social media advertising agency if you have the resources, but creating your own advert is very straightforward using Facebook’s ad create tool. Other social media platforms such as Twitter, have similar approaches to social media advertising.


Social networks

Social networks are a very important digital marketing channel, so it is important that marketers understand the essentials of social networking. They are particularly important when creating a community, based on communication and dialogue with our customers. This lesson will cover the basics of Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google + and YouTube Channels. The social network might be for your brand, product or service, or it might be for your own personal networking.


The starting point would be a Facebook company page. The benefit of creating a hub for your business on Facebook is multifaceted. As Facebook puts it, it makes your business discoverable when people search for you on Facebook they will find you. It connects your business so that you can have one-to-one conversations with your customers, who might like your page, read your post and share them with their friends, and they can check on you every time they visit. Timing is also one of the benefits of Facebook as a social networking tool, since your page can help you reach large groups of people frequently, messages which are specifically directed to their needs and interests. You can also analyze your page using insightful analytics tools, which give you a deeper understanding of your customers and how successful your marketing activities are. Facebook actually gives you a web like address, which you can put on your business cards, website and on your other marketing tools e.g. .


As with other social networks, twitter takes its business pages seriously. Twitter can help you connect your business to what people are talking about at the moment. Twitter offers a social media for people to talk about what they care about as well as what’s happening around them at the moment and this is a dialogue in which your business needs to be a main player. So twitter offers you a powerful medium to connect your message to what your customers are talking about in real-time.
  • You can listen and learn from what your competitors are tweeting or you can look for list of industry keywords to help you gather intelligence. This gives you an insight into how you may adapt your social media strategy.
  • As a medium social networks and twitter are tools that will help you grow your business; you can run innovative promotions, develop your brand and have an engaging an ongoing dialogue with your customers (and you can use twitter ad as part of your campaign)
You have 140 characters to get your point of view across; and your campaign can be innovative and maybe even viral (see the other lessons :-). For example American Express lets people use their card numbers to claim gifts such as travel tickets; companies such as Burberry are very innovative when it comes to social media, where one example would be their #Tweetwalk fashion show.


LinkedIn company pages allow you to showcase your business and to target your audience; you may even have personal pages for yourself or your marketing team. Initially you would create a company page by entering your name and company e-mail address – it’s that simple. Then you simply verify that you are eligible to create a page on your company’s behalf. You create a company profile by offering a company description and overview; this needs to be quite short and salient and it needs to show what your company does, why it is different and what it specialises in.
You would then add a banner and your logo to tailor the LinkedIn company page with your own branding; the logo will appear when other LinkedIn members search for your company and it will appear on your employees’ profiles. You might add your employees as followers in the first instance and encouraged them to add your company to their own profiles, which starts to give it a viral focus. You can add your company profile to other marketing channels such as websites, e-mails and newsletters.
Followers are your influencers and your customers, and LinkedIn will encourage you to invest time and resources to establish a robust follower base. Then as with other social networking tools you need to devise rich content to share with your followers; this means that you are beginning your dialogue. For example by posting company updates you start your conversation and word of mouth marketing begins to develop engagement; you can check company news, articles and even hot topics.

Google +

Google + is Google’s main social media offering. It is a very powerful tool for social networking, but it has more to it than Facebook and Twitter, since it links together all of Google’s services for a unique experience. Hence the next section on YouTube is closely aligned to this discussion since Google owns YouTube.
So there are pages specifically designed for businesses on Google +. There are simple series of steps to get going;
  • firstly you choose an accessible Gmail account for your business
    then you create your own page using your Gmail account, and you’re able to select your business location, discuss your
  • products or brands, explained about your company as an organisation, and there are other things that you can leave information about
  • you need to customise your public profile. You can include your tagline and an image or logo. Then as with other types of social media you can promote your page by creating a series of networked circles.
  • Finally you launch your page and measure and adapt your social media strategy.

YouTube Channels

You Tube channels give your business the opportunity to record and publicise videos. It might be advisable at this stage to use the same Gmail account as you did for Google +; it’s likely the Google will automatically integrate the accounts, so trying to keep them separate is probably pointless. The medium gives you the opportunity to network with more than 1 billion people worldwide who visit YouTube monthly. So you need to ask yourself what you want to get from YouTube and integrate it into your marketing communications plan.
  • Set yourself goals in relation to what you want the channel to achieve
  • decide on how best to adapt the you Tube channel to suit your corporate identity; for example you can customise channel background and add logos and details about your organisation
  • you may need commercial products such as Camtasia or Sony Vegas (or one of many other options) to record your videos
  • you may wish to employee company to film and edit your videos, or you might want to give it a personal touch and do it yourself
  • once the videos uploaded think carefully about how you describe the video and the tags you use; they need to appeal to your target audience
  • you can organise your video content as individual videos or playlists based on particular topics or themes; again think about how your users will want to access the videos
  • you will probably want to allow comments on your YouTube videos, and if so you will need to make sure that your business is checking comments regularly and that it feeds back on all comments as quickly as possible; it’s all part of the global dialogue with users. If comments cannot be managed and switch them off, although viral marketing needs comments to fuel the fire.
  • as with other forms of social media you can promote them on your website or through any other channels which you use regularly, or you could use Google AdWords or similar PPC solutions.
  • YouTube has very detailed Analytics, so you can measure reactions to any changes you might make to your social media campaign.
Finally you may wish to coordinate the usage of your social media approaches, and for this you need a social media management tool such as;


Twitter launches brand pages.

Twitter has launched its first brand pages in the United Kingdom. According to Twitter, companies have a branded page which consists of a banner, and a Tweet feed at the top of their page which can house other media such as video.
Twitter now forms part of integrated campaigns for UK companies which include Asda, Cadburys, EA Games’ FIFA and Sky HD. They join brands from the USA which began using the Twitter medium at the end of last year which included giants such as Bing, Dell, Heineken, Staples, HP and Coca-Cola.
A study undertaken by Simple Usability employed an eye tracking study to measure how the users’ eye movements change under different stimuli. The experiment delivered a Twitter brand page designed so that companies can get the most out of their Twitter exposure. The study also recognises the problems for brands and Twitter since more than 50% of all users access Twitter on cell phones so that they won’t actually see the branding no matter how effective it might be once the user looks at it. The idea is that the user clicks on a link to funnel them to more defined brand content.
In the more successful campaigns, according to Simple Usability, brand owners should have an effective header image, embedded media should be included in all Tweets, and content should be transparent because this is what users want from Twitter.
Marketing companies need to decide which media provider is best for them: Twitter, Facebook or Google +? In this battle, Twitter’s competitive advantage is the ease of interaction with clients. It gives the brand a chance to attract new followers and use analytics to measure and improve performance. It’s all about control.
Tim Friesner
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The Wall of Tears, Galapagos Islands | Amazing Images.

The Galápagos Islands are best known for their diverse flora and fauna. The islands were made famous by Charles Darwin whose keen observation on the island, during the voyage of the Beagle, eventually led to the development of his theory of natural selection and evolution. Today, the islands and their surrounding waters is a protected national park and a biological marine reserve, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. But the islands also has a dark history. In 1832, the Galapagos Islands were annexed by Colonel Ignacio Henandez and the archipelago became part of the Republic of Ecuador. Soon after, penal colonies were established on the island due to it’s remoteness and isolation from the mainland that made any escape nearly impossible. Prisoners from the mainland were transferred to the islands and were forced to work in agricultural fields. The first colonists were exiled soldiers sent away from home for taking part in a failed coup attempt on the mainland. But the awful living conditions resulted in number of revolts and by 1952, the settlement had failed.wall-of-tears-isabela-3
The Wall of Tears on Isabela island. Photo credit
A number of attempts were made to settle on Galapagos Islands but none were successful. Manuel J. Cobos, who brought prisoners and indentured laborers to work on his sugarcane fields and coffee plantation, were killed by his own workers. Another José Valdizán, who obtained a 12-year contract from the government of Ecuador to extract orchil from Galapagos, died during an uprising in 1878.
Towards the end of the Second World War, the Ecuadorian government established another brutal penal colony on the island of Isabela. In 1946, 300 prisoners were transferred to Isabela and were forced to build a pointless stone wall as a form of punishment. The prisoners had to walk long distances to the quarry, cut out large volcanic rocks and then carry them back to the site. Many prisoners died in suffering. Finally, in 1958 the prisoners revolted leading to the guards being killed and many prisoners dying. The government closed the Isabela penal colony a year later.
The remains of the futile wall, some 100 meters long, can still be seen close to Puerto Villamil today, standing as testament to a period of cruelty and torture. It has been named the “Wall of Tears”.
Photo credit
Photo credit
Photo credit
Sources: / BBC / Discovering Galapagos
Extracted from the website: Amusing Planet for educational purposes

White Sands Desert, New Mexico | Amazing Images.

About 26 km southwest of Alamogordo and just south of the White Sands Missile Range, in the state of New Mexico, the United States, is an immense area of snow-white sand. But unlike other desert, the sand here is not composed of quartz, but gypsum crystals. Gypsum is one of the most common mineral compounds found on Earth but is rarely found in the form of sand, as it easily dissolves in water. Gypsum is often found in hot springs and in lake and sea water, and can occur as deposits when the water evaporates. And that’s precisely how the gypsum dunes at White Sands were formed.white-sands-national-monument-2
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The Tularosa Basin, where White Sands is located, is a shallow basin surrounded by the Sacramento and San Andres Mountains. About 100 million years ago, rainwater and melt water came from the mountains dissolving gypsum from the sedimentary rocks and the concentrated solutions were washed down the mountainsides, and accumulated in Lake Lucero in the Tularosa Basin. As the water evaporated away it left behind a layers of crystallized gypsum. Weathering then reduced these crystals to fine, sandy grains, which were carried farther up the basin by the winds, and deposited in what is now the White Sands. Lake Lucero is today a dry bed but its lowest portion occasionally fills with shallow water after recent rains.
The White Sands cover an area of over 700 square kilometers with dunes that often reach as high as 15 meters. It is the largest gypsum dune field in the world. The dunes are constantly changing as they are moved by the steady southwest winds.
Unlike other desert sands, gypsum crystals do not absorb heat from the sun rays due to which they are cool to the touch. One can easily walk upon the sand with bare feet, even in the hottest summer months, which makes it suitable for sand boarding.
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Extracted from the website: Amusing Planet for educational purposes

Photographing Cruise Ships From Above by Jeffrey Milstein | Amazing Images.

Modern cruise ships look gigantic enough from the shore, but their true scale is only revealed when viewed from above. New York-based photographer Jeffrey Milstein provides us this view. Milstein, who is an architect, specializes in photos of planes and infrastructure. His most famous photo project was shooting the underbelly of airplanes from the ground, an activity which he did for 15 years. He also shot airports while flying above in an helicopter showing us its marvelous engineering and complexity. This time around, he has been shooting cruise ships.jeffrey-milstein-cruise-ships-8
Caribbean Princess.
Flying between 900 and 1,400 feet in the air, Milstein photographs the ships from the passenger seat of a helicopter, as it swoops above the decks. He can take only one photo on every pass, and in an hour’s time, he gets only two or three chances. To increase his chances of a better capture, Milstein works with a manual control medium format camera mounted on a gyroscope to eliminate vibration. There’s no door on Milstein’s side, which gives him an obstruction-free view and room to maneuver.
Milstein’s photographs are so crisp and detailed, that when viewed in its full 80 megapixel capacity, you can see every detail on the decks – passengers lounging on deck chairs, water slides, golf course, dance floors, basketball courts and pools of various shapes and sizes.
Most of these pictures were taken at Florida’s Port Canaveral, where millions of cruise passengers embark on vacation each year. He has also photographed ships in Fort Lauderdale and Miami for his ongoing project.
Milstein’s aerial photography will be on display at New York’s Benrubi Gallery between July 9–Aug. 22 and at L.A.’s Kopeikin Gallery between July 18–Aug. 22.
Royal Caribbean Majesty of the Seas.
Royal Caribbean Majesty of the Seas. Close-up.
Royal Caribbean Majesty of the Seas. Close-up.
Royal Caribbean Majesty of the Seas. Close-up.
Royal Caribbean Freedom of the Seas.
Norwegian Sky.
Disney Dream.
Carnival Victory.
Carnival Victory.
Carnival Sensation.
via Slate
Extracted from the website: Amusing Planet for educational purposes

1 Chronicles 1-2-3-4, Bible Highlights: week starting october 5

Highlights From Bible Reading: 1 Chronicles 1-4. Information for personal study.

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Research for Highlights of : 1 Chronicles 1-4


“The sons of Goʹmer were Ashʹke•naz, Riʹphath, and To•garʹmah.”

*** it-1 p. 192 Ashkenaz ***
1. The first named of three sons of Gomer, the son of Japheth.—Ge 10:3; 1Ch 1:6.
In Jewish writings of medieval times (and even thereafter) the term “Ashkenaz” was applied to the Teutonic race, and more specifically to Germany. Thus, even today Jews from Germanic countries are referred to as Ashkenazim in contrast to the Sephardim, Jews from Spain and Portugal.

*** it-2 p. 813 Riphath ***
A son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth. (Ge 10:2, 3; 1Ch 1:6) At 1 Chronicles 1:6 the Masoretic Hebrew text has “Diphath”; however, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, and some 30 Hebrew manuscripts have “Riphath.” The difference in spelling is perhaps the result of a copyist’s writing the Hebrew daʹleth (ד) instead of the Hebrew rehsh (ר), the letters being very similar in appearance.


“The sons of Jaʹvan were E•liʹshah, Tarʹshish, Kitʹtim, and Roʹda•nim.”

*** it-2 p. 178 Kittim ***
Kittim is listed as one of the four “sons” of Javan, although the name appears only in the plural form in all Scriptural references. (Ge 10:4; 1Ch 1:7) The name thereafter is used to represent a people and region.
Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, I, 128 [vi, 1]) referred to Kittim as “Chethimos” and associated it with Cyprus and with “the name Chethim given by the Hebrews to all islands and to most maritime countries.” The ancient Phoenicians referred to the people of Cyprus as Kitti. Modern authorities generally agree with such identification of Kittim with Cyprus.
The city of Kition (Citium) on the SE coast of Cyprus is best known as a Phoenician colony, and so some scholars have viewed the listing of Kittim among the descendants of Japheth as out of place. (Ge 10:2, 4; 1Ch 1:5, 7) However, the evidence shows that the Phoenicians were relative latecomers to Cyprus and their colony at Kition is considered to date from only about the ninth century B.C.E. Thus, after The New Encyclopædia Britannica (1987, Vol. 3, p. 332) identifies Kition as the “principal Phoenician city in Cyprus,” it adds: “The earliest remains at Citium are those of an Aegean colony of the Mycenaean Age (c. 1400-1100 BC).”—See also Vol. 16, p. 948.

*** it-2 p. 819 Rodanim ***
Listed as one of Javan’s four sons at 1 Chronicles 1:7. There is uncertainty as to the correct spelling of the name, since the Masoretic text at 1 Chronicles 1:7 has “Rodanim,” whereas many Hebrew manuscripts and the Latin Vulgate here read “Dodanim.” “Dodanim” also appears in the Masoretic text at Genesis 10:4, where, however, the Greek Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch read “Rodanim.” In Hebrew the letter “r” (ר) and the letter “d” (ד) are very similar and hence could be confused by a copyist. (Thus “Riphath” in Ge 10:3 appears as “Diphath” at 1Ch 1:6 in the Masoretic text.) Most translations present both names. Many lexicographers consider “Rodanim” to be the preferred reading. Commentators that accept this reading consider it likely that the people descending from this son of Javan populated the island of Rhodes and the neighboring islands of the Aegean Sea.


“Cush became father to Nimʹrod. He was the first to become a mighty one on the earth.”

*** it-2 p. 503 Nimrod ***
Son of Cush. (1Ch 1:10) The rabbinic writings derived the name Nimrod from the Hebrew verb ma•radhʹ, meaning “rebel.” Thus, the Babylonian Talmud (Erubin 53a) states: “Why, then, was he called Nimrod? Because he stirred up the whole world to rebel (himrid) against His [God’s] sovereignty.”—Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation, by Menahem M. Kasher, Vol. II, 1955, p. 79.
Nimrod was the founder and king of the first empire to come into existence after the Flood. He distinguished himself as a mighty hunter “before” (in an unfavorable sense; Heb., liph•nehʹ; “against” or “in opposition to”; compare Nu 16:2; 1Ch 14:8; 2Ch 14:10) or “in front of” Jehovah. (Ge 10:9, ftn) Although in this case some scholars attach a favorable sense to the Hebrew preposition meaning “in front of,” the Jewish Targums, the writings of the historian Josephus, and also the context of Genesis chapter 10 suggest that Nimrod was a mighty hunter in defiance of Jehovah.
The beginning of Nimrod’s kingdom included the cities of Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, all in the land of Shinar. (Ge 10:10) Therefore it was likely under his direction that the building of Babel and its tower began. This conclusion is also in agreement with the traditional Jewish view. Wrote Josephus: “[Nimrod] little by little transformed the state of affairs into a tyranny, holding that the only way to detach men from the fear of God was by making them continuously dependent upon his own power. He threatened to have his revenge on God if He wished to inundate the earth again; for he would build a tower higher than the water could reach and avenge the destruction of their forefathers. The people were eager to follow this advice of [Nimrod], deeming it slavery to submit to God; so they set out to build the tower . . . and it rose with a speed beyond all expectation.”—Jewish Antiquities, I, 114, 115 (iv, 2, 3).
It appears that after the building of the Tower of Babel, Nimrod extended his domain to the territory of Assyria and there built “Nineveh and Rehoboth-Ir and Calah and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: this is the great city.” (Ge 10:11, 12; compare Mic 5:6.) Since Assyria evidently derived its name from Shem’s son Asshur, Nimrod, as a grandson of Ham, must have invaded Shemite territory. So it would seem that Nimrod made the start in becoming a mighty one or hero, not only as a hunter of animals but also as a warrior, a man of aggression. (Ge 10:8) Observes the Cyclopædia by M’Clintock and Strong: “That the mighty hunting was not confined to the chase is apparent from its close connection with the building of eight cities. . . . What Nimrod did in the chase as a hunter was the earlier token of what he achieved as a conqueror. For hunting and heroism were of old specially and naturally associated . . . The Assyrian monuments also picture many feats in hunting, and the word is often employed to denote campaigning. . . . The chase and the battle, which in the same country were connected so closely in aftertimes, may therefore be virtually associated or identified here. The meaning then will be, that Nimrod was the first after the flood to found a kingdom, to unite the fragments of scattered patriarchal rule, and consolidate them under himself as sole head and master; and all this in defiance of Jehovah, for it was the violent intrusion of Hamitic power into a Shemitic territory.”—1894, Vol. VII, p. 109.
Concerning deification of Nimrod, see GODS AND GODDESSES (Babylonian Deities).


“Mizʹra•im became father to Luʹdim, Anʹa•mim, Le•haʹbim, Naph•tuʹhim,”

*** it-1 p. 103 Anamim ***
Hamitic descendants of Mizraim. Since Mizraim became synonymous with Egypt, it is probable that the Anamim settled there or in that area. (Ge 10:13; 1Ch 1:11) A cuneiform text of the time of Sargon II of Assyria (second half of the eighth century B.C.E.) apparently refers to them under the name “Anami.”

*** it-2 p. 236 Lehabim ***
A name appearing at Genesis 10:13 and 1 Chronicles 1:11 among the descendants of Ham through Mizraim. Since the Hebrew name is a plural form, many scholars hold that a tribe taking its name from one of Mizraim’s sons is meant. (See, however, MIZRAIM.) The Lehabim are generally identified with the Libyans and at least seem to have constituted one of the tribes inhabiting Libya in ancient times. While identification is difficult, they were probably the same as the Lu•vimʹ mentioned elsewhere in the Hebrew text, as at 2 Chronicles 12:3, where the American Standard Version reads “Lubim” and other translations read “Libyans.”—Mo; NW; RS.

*** it-2 p. 418 Mizraim ***
Listed second among the sons of Ham. (Ge 10:6) Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptian tribes (as well as some non-Egyptian tribes), and the name came to be synonymous with Egypt. (Ge 10:13, 14; 50:11) Thus, the word “Egypt” in English translations actually renders the Hebrew Mits•raʹyim (or Ma•tsohrʹ in a few cases, 2Ki 19:24; Isa 19:6; 37:25; Mic 7:12). The Amarna Tablets, written in the first half of the second millennium B.C.E., refer to Egypt as Misri, similar to the modern Arabic name for the land (Misr).
Many scholars hold that Mizraim is a dual form representing the duality of Egypt (that is, Upper and Lower Egypt), but this is conjectural. (See EGYPT, EGYPTIAN.) The names of Mizraim’s descendants are apparently plural forms: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. (Ge 10:13, 14; 1Ch 1:11, 12) For this reason it is usually suggested that they represent the names of tribes rather than individual sons. Although this is possible, it should be noted that there are other names that appear to be dual or plural in their construction, such as Ephraim, Appaim, and Diblaim (Ge 41:52; 1Ch 2:30, 31; Ho 1:3), each obviously referring to only one individual.


“Path•ruʹsim, Cas•luʹhim (from whom the Phi•lisʹtines came), and Caphʹto•rim.”

*** it-1 p. 422 Casluhim ***
A son or people descended from Mizraim, the son of Ham. The Biblical record shows that it was the Casluhim “from among whom the Philistines went forth.” (Ge 10:6, 13, 14; 1Ch 1:8, 11, 12) Since other texts speak of the Philistines as coming from Caphtor or Crete (Jer 47:4; Am 9:7), some scholars suggest that the above phrase should be transposed to come after the last-named descendant of Mizraim, Caphtorim. However, there is no need to assume a contradiction in these texts. The record at Genesis (paralleled by that in Chronicles) is genealogical. The other references to the Philistines as proceeding from Caphtor are likely geographic, indicating a migration from the territory of the Caphtorim.

*** it-2 p. 418 Mizraim ***
Listed second among the sons of Ham. (Ge 10:6) Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptian tribes (as well as some non-Egyptian tribes), and the name came to be synonymous with Egypt. (Ge 10:13, 14; 50:11) Thus, the word “Egypt” in English translations actually renders the Hebrew Mits•raʹyim (or Ma•tsohrʹ in a few cases, 2Ki 19:24; Isa 19:6; 37:25; Mic 7:12). The Amarna Tablets, written in the first half of the second millennium B.C.E., refer to Egypt as Misri, similar to the modern Arabic name for the land (Misr).
Many scholars hold that Mizraim is a dual form representing the duality of Egypt (that is, Upper and Lower Egypt), but this is conjectural. (See EGYPT, EGYPTIAN.) The names of Mizraim’s descendants are apparently plural forms: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. (Ge 10:13, 14; 1Ch 1:11, 12) For this reason it is usually suggested that they represent the names of tribes rather than individual sons. Although this is possible, it should be noted that there are other names that appear to be dual or plural in their construction, such as Ephraim, Appaim, and Diblaim (Ge 41:52; 1Ch 2:30, 31; Ho 1:3), each obviously referring to only one individual.


“Caʹnaan became father to Siʹdon, his firstborn, and Heth,”

*** it-2 pp. 635-636 Phoenicia ***
Origin and Name. The history of the Phoenicians begins after the Flood with Noah’s grandson Canaan, a son of Ham. Canaan became the progenitor of 11 tribes, one of these, the Sidonians, being the descendants of Canaan’s firstborn, Sidon. (Ge 10:15-18; 1Ch 1:13-16) The Sidonians were therefore Canaanites. (Jos 13:4-6; Jg 10:12) They themselves, and others too, called their land Canaan. On a coin of the time of Antiochus Epiphanes the Syrophoenician city of Laodicea is described as “a mother city of Canaan.”
However, in time the Greeks preferred to call these Canaanite Sidonians by yet another term, Phoenicians. So it was that Canaanite, Sidonian, and Phoenician were names sometimes used interchangeably for the same people. In Isaiah’s prophecy, for example, Phoenicia is termed “Canaan.”—Isa 23:11; JP; RS; NW, ftn.


“as well as the Jebʹu•site, the Amʹor•ite, the Girʹga•shite,”

*** it-1 p. 962 Girgashite(s) ***
A people descended from Ham through Canaan. (Ge 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 1:8, 13, 14) The Girgashites resided W of the Jordan. Although powerful, they and six other Canaanite nations suffered defeat, for Jehovah delivered them into the hands of his people. (De 7:1, 2; Jos 3:10; 24:11) This fulfilled God’s promise made to Abraham centuries earlier. (Ge 15:13-21; Ne 9:7, 8) The names “Girgash” and “Ben-Girgash,” found in the Ugaritic literature, have been cited as indirect confirmation of the Girgashites’ existence.


“the Hiʹvite, the Arkʹite, the Siʹnite,”

*** it-1 p. 165 Arkite ***
Descendants of Ham through Canaan and one of the 70 post-Flood families. (Ge 10:17; 1Ch 1:15) They settled along the Mediterranean Coast W of the Lebanon Mountains.


“The sons of Shem were Eʹlam, Asʹshur, Ar•pachʹshad, Lud, and Aʹram, and Uz, Hul, Geʹther, and Mash.”

*** it-1 pp. 701-702 Elam ***
1. One of the five sons of Shem from whom descended “families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.” (Ge 10:22, 31; 1Ch 1:17) The names of Elam’s sons are not specified; his name, however, designates both a people and a region on the SE border of Mesopotamia.
Historically, the name Elam applied to an area in what is now called Khuzestan in SW Iran. It included the fertile plain on the eastern side of the lower Tigris Valley, watered by the Karun and Karkheh rivers, and evidently extended into the mountainous regions bordering this plain on the N and E, although these two boundaries are the least certain. A region called Anshan is believed to have been situated in these mountainous regions and is represented in inscriptions as forming a part of Elam from an early period. Elam, located at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, was, therefore, in somewhat of a frontier position, being one of the regions where territory populated and generally dominated by Semitic races confronted or merged with races descended from Noah’s other sons, principally the Japhetic line.
The land of Elam was called elamtu by the Assyrians and Babylonians and Elymais by the classical Greek writers, who also at times referred to it as “Susiana” after the city of Susa, or Shushan, at one time evidently the capital of Elam. Under the Persian Empire, Susa (Shushan) was a royal city. (Ne 1:1; Es 1:2) It was situated on the trade routes leading off to the SE and also up into the Iranian plateau. Efforts to gain control of these routes made Elam the object of frequent invasion by Assyrian and Babylonian rulers.
Language. In discussing Elam, reference works generally claim that the writer of Genesis listed Elam under Shem only on a political or a geographic basis since, they say, the people of Elam were not Semitic. This view they base on the claim that the language of the Elamites was not Semitic. Investigation, however, reveals that the earliest inscriptions found in the geographic region designated Elam are “mere lists of objects pictorially jotted down on clay-tablets with the numbers of each beside them, indicated by a simple system of strokes, circles and semicircles . . . their contents at this time are purely economic or administrative.” (Semitic Writing, by G. R. Driver, London, 1976, pp. 2, 3) These inscriptions could reasonably be called “Elamite” only as meaning that they were found in the territory of Elam.
The weight of the argument of those opposing the inclusion of Elam among the Semitic peoples, therefore, rests principally upon later inscriptions in cuneiform, regarded as dating considerably within the second millennium B.C.E., as well as on the Behistun monument (of the sixth century B.C.E.), which contains parallel texts in Old Persian, Akkadian, and “Elamite.” The cuneiform inscriptions attributed to the Elamites are said to be in an agglutinative language (one in which root words are joined together to form compounds, thereby distinguished from inflectional languages). Philologists have not been able successfully to relate this “Elamite” language to any other known tongue.
In evaluating the above information, it should be remembered that the geographic region in which the descendants of Elam eventually concentrated may well have been occupied by other peoples prior to or even during such Elamite residence there, just as the early non-Semitic Sumerians resided in Babylonia. The Encyclopædia Britannica (1959, Vol. 8, p. 118) states: “The whole country [designated Elam] was occupied by a variety of tribes, speaking agglutinative dialects for the most part, though the western districts were occupied by Semites.”—Italics ours; MAP and CHART, Vol. 1, p. 329.
That the cuneiform inscriptions found in the region of Elam would not of themselves prove that the true Elamites were originally non-Semitic can be seen from the many ancient historical examples that can be cited of peoples adopting a tongue other than their own because of domination or infiltration by foreign elements. There are likewise examples of ancient peoples simultaneously employing another language along with their own for commercial and international uses, even as Aramaic became a lingua franca used by many peoples. The “Hittites” of Karatepe wrote bilingual inscriptions (evidently in the eighth century B.C.E.) in “Hittite” hieroglyphic script and in old Phoenician. Some 30,000 clay tablets of the time of Persian King Darius I were found at Persepolis, a royal Persian city. They were mainly in the language termed “Elamite.” Yet Persepolis would not be called an Elamite city.
Further showing that it is unwise to view the table of nations at Genesis chapter 10 as purely geographic, and not actually genealogical, is the evidence in the form of sculptures carved for Elamite kings and dated by archaeologists as far back as the time of Sargon I (whose rule they assign to the latter part of the third millennium). These sculptures not only present the form of typical Akkadian (Semitic Assyro-Babylonian) figures but also bear Akkadian inscriptions.—The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, edited by J. D. Douglas, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 433.

*** it-1 p. 1157 Hul ***
A son of Aram. (Ge 10:23) At 1 Chronicles 1:17, though, Hul appears to be listed as a son of Shem. In the Alexandrine Manuscript and Hebrew manuscript Kennicott 175, 1 Chronicles 1:17 reads as does Genesis 10:23, having the phrase “and the sons of Aram” before listing Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. So, the omission of the words “and the sons of Aram” at 1 Chronicles 1:17 in the Masoretic text may be due to scribal error. But this is not necessarily the case; in the Scriptures, “sons” can also include grandsons and even later descendants. (For what might be a comparable situation, see 1Ch 1:4, where Shem, Ham, and Japheth are not introduced as sons of Noah, perhaps because their relationship to Noah was so well known that the original writer felt it unnecessary to make the identification.)

*** it-2 p. 349 Mash ***
A descendant of Shem through Aram. (Ge 10:22, 23; 1Ch 1:17, Sy and six Heb. manuscripts) At 1 Chronicles 1:17 the Masoretic text reads “Meshech” instead of “Mash.” But this is probably a scribal error, since Meshech is listed as a “son” of Japheth.—Ge 10:2; 1Ch 1:5.

*** it-2 p. 919 Shem ***
After Aram, the parallel account at 1 Chronicles 1:17 also lists “Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash,” but at Genesis 10:23 these are shown to be sons of Aram. Biblical and other historical evidence indicates that Shem was thus the progenitor of the Semitic peoples: the Elamites, the Assyrians, the early Chaldeans, the Hebrews, the Aramaeans (or Syrians), various Arabian tribes, and perhaps the Lydians of Asia Minor. This would mean that the population descended from Shem was concentrated principally in the southwestern corner of the Asiatic continent, extending throughout most of the Fertile Crescent and occupying a considerable portion of the Arabian Peninsula.—See articles under the names of the individual sons of Shem.

*** it-2 p. 919 Shem ***
The fact that Shem is mentioned first is of itself no definite indication that Shem was Noah’s firstborn, since Shem’s own firstborn son (Arpachshad) is listed third in the genealogical records. (Ge 10:22; 1Ch 1:17)


“Ar•pachʹshad became father to Sheʹlah, and Sheʹlah became father to Eʹber.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 8 par. 5 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
1:18—Who was Shelah’s father—Cainan or Arpachshad? (Luke 3:35, 36) Arpachshad was the father of Shelah. (Genesis 10:24; 11:12) The term “Cainan” at Luke 3:36 may well be a corruption of the term “Chaldeans.” If this is so, the original text may have read, “the son of Chaldean Arpachshad.” Or it may be that the names Cainan and Arpachshad refer to one and the same person. Not to be overlooked is the fact that the expression “son of Cainan” is not found in some manuscripts.—Luke 3:36, footnote.


“The sons of Elʹi•phaz were Teʹman, Oʹmar, Zeʹpho, Gaʹtam, Keʹnaz, Timʹna, and Amʹa•lek.”

*** it-2 p. 1104 Timna ***
1. Concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz and mother of Amalek. (Ge 36:10-12) In the genealogy at 1 Chronicles 1:36, there are first enumerated five sons of Esau’s son Eliphaz. Next are added, “Timna and Amalek.” Professor C. F. Keil remarks on this: “The addition of the two names Timna and Amalek in the Chronicle thus appears to be merely an abbreviation, which the author might well allow himself, as the posterity of Esau were known to his readers from Genesis. The name Timna, too, by its form (a feminine formation), must have guarded against the idea of some modern exegetes that Timna was also a son of Eliphaz.” (Commentary on the Old Testament, 1973, Vol. III, First Chronicles, p. 53) Thus, Eliphaz’ six sons were listed, but with the notation that one of them, Amalek, was of Eliphaz’ concubine, Timna. It must be remembered that Amalek became a nation that hated God’s people and concerning whom Jehovah said: “Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” (Ex 17:8-16) Thus the accounts, both in Genesis and in Chronicles, give this detail concerning the origin of Amalek. This Timna is possibly the same as No. 2.


“The son of Aʹnah was Diʹshon. The sons of Diʹshon were Hemʹdan, Eshʹban, Ithʹran, and Cheʹran.”

*** it-1 p. 101 Amram ***
3. Name given to a Seirite, a son of Dishon, in the King James Version rendering of 1 Chronicles 1:41.—See HEMDAN.


“The sons of Eʹzer were Bilʹhan, Zaʹa•van, and Aʹkan. The sons of Diʹshan were Uz and Aʹran.”

*** it-1 p. 68 Akan ***
Last named of three sons of Sheik Ezer of the Seirites. (Ge 36:20, 21, 27) The Masoretic text reads “Jaakan” at 1 Chronicles 1:42, but the Greek Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus) and 22 Hebrew manuscripts read “Akan” in agreement with Genesis 36:27.

*** it-1 pp. 635-636 Dishan ***
(Diʹshan) [possibly, Antelope].
A Seirite, a sheik of the Horite in the land of Edom. (Ge 36:20, 21; 1Ch 1:38) Genesis 36:28 says the sons of “Dishan” were Uz and Aran, while 1 Chronicles 1:42 in the Hebrew Masoretic text, Greek Septuagint, and Syriac Peshitta refers to “Dishon” as their progenitor. This difference in vocalization, apparently the result of a copyist’s error, is resolved in many English translations (AS, KJ, JB, Le, NW, Ro, Yg) by using the same rendering in both texts, as does the Clementine recension of the Latin Vulgate.

*** it-1 p. 636 Dishon ***
(Diʹshon) [possibly, Antelope].
The name of one or possibly two different men in the genealogies recorded at Genesis 36:20-28 and 1 Chronicles 1:38-42.
At Genesis 36:20, 21 (also vss 29, 30) seven “sons of Seir the Horite” are listed as sheiks, namely, Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. Then, in verses 22 to 28, each of the seven sheiks is listed with his sons. At verse 25 one of the sons of Anah is named Dishon. Some believe that this Dishon is a grandson of Seir and a nephew of Sheik Dishon, considering that the seven sheiks were all “sons” of Seir in the strict sense of the word, that is, of the same generation.
Others, however, believe the account to present the seven sheiks merely as descendants of Seir, not of the same generation, hence “sons” in the broad sense of the word. So they suggest that the Dishon of verse 25 is the same as Sheik Dishon (Ge 36:21, 26) and not his nephew. According to this view, although actually the son of Sheik Anah, Dishon is named with the other six sheiks not because of being their brother but because of being their equal in the sense of being a sheik.


“When Samʹlah died, Shaʹul from Re•hoʹboth by the River began to reign in his place.”

*** it-2 p. 768 Rehoboth ***
2. A city of unknown location from which came Shaul, an early Edomite king. (Ge 36:31, 37; 1Ch 1:43, 48) In both references to it, the place is called “Rehoboth by the River.” Generally in the Bible the designation “the River” means the Euphrates. (Ps 72:8; 2Ch 9:26; compare Ex 23:31 and De 11:24.) Thus some geographers have suggested either of two sites near the junction of the Khabur and Euphrates rivers. This would mean, however, that Shaul was from a city far outside of Edomite territory. Certain modern geographers, however, believe that in these two instances “the River” refers to a river in Edom or near one of its borders, such as the Zered (Wadi el-Hasaʼ) running into the southern end of the Dead Sea. Geographer J. Simons proposes a site about 37 km (23 mi) SE of the tip of the Dead Sea.


“Then Haʹdad died. The sheikhs of Eʹdom were Sheikh Timʹna, Sheikh Alʹvah, Sheikh Jeʹtheth,”

*** it-2 p. 1104 Timna ***
3. The first name found in the list of 11 “sheiks of Esau,” or Edom. (Ge 36:40-43; 1Ch 1:51-54) In the view of many translators, Timna and the other names listed are personal names. (AS, KJ, JB, NW, RS) However, it is generally acknowledged that the expression “according to their families, according to their places, by their names” indicates that a tribe or an area is meant. Some versions therefore prefer expressions such as “the chief of Timna.” (JP, AT) In fact, at Genesis 36:41, in the same list, a woman’s name, Oholibamah, appears, allowing for the name Timna to be that of a woman. Eusebius and Jerome identified Timna with an Edomite site called “Thamna,” which stood in their day. (Onomasticon, 96, 24-27) However, the location of any such region named for Timna is currently unknown.


“The sons of Zeʹrah were Zimʹri, Eʹthan, Heʹman, Calʹcol, and Daʹra. There were five of them in all.”

*** it-1 p. 765 Ethan ***
1. One of four men whose wisdom, though great, was exceeded by Solomon’s. (1Ki 4:31) This Ethan may be the writer of Psalm 89, for the superscription identifies Ethan the Ezrahite as its writer. In 1 Chronicles 2:6, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara are all spoken of as sons of Zerah of the tribe of Judah and possibly are the same as the men mentioned in First Kings. Ethan is referred to as the father of Azariah.—1Ch 2:8; see EZRAHITE.


“Oʹzem the sixth, and David the seventh.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 1 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
2:15—Was David the seventh son of Jesse? No. Jesse had eight sons, and David was the youngest. (1 Samuel 16:10, 11; 17:12) One of the sons of Jesse evidently died without having any children. Since that son would have no bearing on genealogical records, Ezra omitted his name.

*** w02 9/15 p. 31 Questions From Readers ***
• Why does 1 Chronicles 2:13-15 refer to David as the seventh son of Jesse, whereas 1 Samuel 16:10, 11 indicates that he was the eighth?
After King Saul of ancient Israel turned away from true worship, Jehovah God sent the prophet Samuel to anoint one of Jesse’s sons as king. The divine record of this historical event, written by Samuel himself in the 11th century B.C.E., presents David as the eighth son of Jesse. (1 Samuel 16:10-13) Yet, the account penned by Ezra the priest some 600 years later says: “Jesse, in turn, became father to his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh.” (1 Chronicles 2:13-15) What happened to one of David’s brothers, and why does Ezra omit his name?
The Scriptures state that Jesse “had eight sons.” (1 Samuel 17:12) One of his sons evidently did not live long enough to get married and have children. Having no descendants, he would have no claim in tribal inheritance nor any bearing on genealogical records of Jesse’s lineage.
Now let us think of Ezra’s day. Consider the setting under which he compiled Chronicles. The exile in Babylon ended about 77 years earlier, and the Jews were resettled in their land. The king of Persia had authorized Ezra to appoint judges and teachers of the Law of God and to beautify the house of Jehovah. There was a need for accurate genealogical lists to confirm the tribal inheritances and to ensure that only authorized people served in the priesthood. So Ezra prepared a full account of the nation’s history, including a clear and dependable record of the lineage of Judah and of David. The name of the son of Jesse who died childless would be irrelevant. Hence, Ezra omitted his name.


“Their sisters were Ze•ruʹiah and Abʹi•gail. The sons of Ze•ruʹiah were A•bishʹai, Joʹab, and Asʹa•hel, three.”

*** it-1 p. 21 Abigail ***
However, it is noteworthy that the record at 1 Chronicles 2:13-16 does not call Abigail and Zeruiah ‘daughters of Jesse’ but rather “sisters” of Jesse’s sons, including David. This allows for the possibility that their mother had first been married to a man named Nahash, to whom she bore Abigail and Zeruiah before becoming Jesse’s wife and the mother of his sons. It cannot, therefore, be stated dogmatically that Abigail was the daughter of Jesse.—See NAHASH No. 2.


“Abʹi•gail gave birth to A•maʹsa, and the father of A•maʹsa was Jeʹther the Ishʹma•el•ite.”

*** it-2 p. 72 Jether ***
6. Father of David’s onetime army chief Amasa. (1Ki 2:5, 32) Second Samuel 17:25 in the Masoretic text calls him Ithra and says that he was an Israelite, but 1 Chronicles 2:17 calls him an Ishmaelite, possibly because he lived for a time among the Ishmaelites.


“After the death of Hezʹron in Caʹleb-ephʹra•thah, A•biʹjah the wife of Hezʹron bore him Ashʹhur the father of Te•koʹa.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

*** it-1 pp. 1105-1106 Hezron ***
According to the reading of 1 Chronicles 2:24 in the Masoretic text, Hezron died at Caleb-ephrathah, and after this his widow Abijah bore Ashhur, the father of Tekoa. However, some scholars believe that the Masoretic text does not preserve the original reading, since Hezron is listed among the 70 “souls of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt” and so must have died in that land (Ge 46:12, 26, 27), and it seems to them unlikely that a place in Egypt bore the Hebrew name Caleb-ephrathah. Hence, many translators have emended 1 Chronicles 2:24 to correspond more to the readings of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate. The Jerusalem Bible renders this text: “After Hezron’s death, Caleb married Ephrathah, wife of Hezron his father, who bore him Ashhur, father of Tekoa.” The translation by J. B. Rotherham reads: “And after the death of Hezron Caleb entered Ephrathah, and the wife of Hezron was Abiah who bare him Ashhur father of Tekoa.” So, according to these alterations, “Ashhur” is either the “son” of Hezron by Abiah (Abijah) or the “son” of Caleb by Ephrathah.


“The son of Shamʹmai was Maʹon. Maʹon was the father of Beth-zur.”

*** it-1 p. 306 Beth-zur ***
The name Beth-zur appears in a genealogical list of the descendants of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel at 1 Chronicles 2:45. Maon is there said to be “the father of Beth-zur.” Many commentators understand Beth-zur to refer to the town of that name, Maon in such case being the father of those settling there, or perhaps the chief or principal one of the city.


“Caʹleb’s concubine Eʹphah gave birth to Haʹran, Moʹza, and Gaʹzez. Haʹran became father to Gaʹzez.”

*** it-1 p. 902 Gazez ***
(Gaʹzez) [Shearer].
First Chronicles 2:46 says Caleb’s concubine Ephah gave birth to Haran, Moza, and Gazez, and then it states that Haran “became father to Gazez.” Hence, there may have been two men named Gazez: (1) a son of Caleb, and (2) a grandson of Caleb. But if the expression, “As for Haran, he became father to Gazez,” is simply a clarification identifying the Gazez mentioned initially as, not Caleb’s son, but his grandson, this would mean there was only one Gazez, namely, the son of Haran and grandson of Caleb.


“In time she bore Shaʹaph the father of Mad•manʹnah, Sheʹva the father of Mach•beʹnah, and Gibʹe•a. Caʹleb’s daughter was Achʹsah.”

*** it-1 p. 389 Caleb ***
Achsah is listed as the daughter of “Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel” (No. 1 above) who lived about a century and a half before “Caleb the son of Jephunneh.” (1Ch 2:42, 49) Some commentators say there was only one Caleb. But the great lapse of time between Judah’s grandson Hezron and the settlement of Canaan precludes such a conclusion. Others say that both Calebs must have had daughters by the same name. However, women are mentioned in genealogies only when they have had a major role in the history of God’s people. And since there was only one famous Achsah, she must have been the daughter of the second Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. Still other commentators would drop this statement about Achsah from the verse (1Ch 2:49) as a misplaced scribal addition, but they have no textual authority. However, it is more reasonable to think that the original writer intentionally included this abrupt notice in verse 49 for a special purpose, using “daughter” in its wider sense to mean a descendant to call attention to the fact that Achsah was not only the daughter of Caleb the son of Jephunneh but also a direct descendant of Caleb the son of Hezron.

*** it-2 p. 290 Madmannah ***
1. This name appears in the list of descendants of Judah through Caleb. Caleb’s concubine Maacah is stated to have borne “Shaaph the father of Madmannah.” (1Ch 2:49) However, most scholars consider the term “father” to be used here in the sense of “founder” and consider Madmannah in this text to correspond with the town considered below, Shaaph being viewed as the founder or perhaps the rebuilder thereof after its capture. It may be noted that the names of Kiriath-jearim and Bethlehem appear in a similar context in the following verses.—1Ch 2:50, 54.


“These were the descendants of Caʹleb. The sons of Hur the firstborn of Ephʹra•thah were Shoʹbal the father of Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim,”

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.


“Salʹma the father of Bethʹle•hem, and Haʹreph the father of Beth-gaʹder.”

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.


“Shoʹbal the father of Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim had sons: Ha•roʹeh and half of the Me•nuʹhoth.”

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

*** it-2 p. 372 Menuhoth ***
(Me•nuʹhoth) [Resting-Places].
According to the Masoretic text, apparently a Judean family descended through Shobal. (1Ch 2:4, 52) But some scholars prefer emending the Hebrew text to read “the Manahathites,” as in verse 54. (JB, Mo) And a Jewish commentary on Chronicles gives the alternate reading “who supervised half of the resting-places” and notes: “Shobal was in charge of half the caravan stations in the land of Judah.”—Soncino Books of the Bible, edited by A. Cohen, London, 1952, p. 15.


“The sons of Salʹma were Bethʹle•hem, the Ne•tophʹa•thites, Atʹroth-beth-joʹab, half of the Man•a•haʹthites, and the Zorʹites.”

*** it-1 pp. 214-215 Atroth-beth-joab ***
(Atʹroth-beth-joʹab) [Crowns [that is, circular enclosures] of the House of Joab].
A name appearing among “the sons of Salma” in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. (1Ch 2:54) Some consider this to be the name of a town in Judah, pointing to the inclusion of such names as Kiriath-jearim, Beth-gader, Bethlehem, and others in these genealogies. However, the mere correspondency of a name with that of a town is not a certain indication that the town is referred to, since there are numerous instances of persons and towns bearing the same name. Nevertheless, the form or meaning of certain names in the genealogies does seem to be of a geographic nature rather than a personal one. The solution may rest in the view held by many scholars that it is more precisely to the inhabitants of the town that reference is made, rather than to the geographic site itself. Thus, the expression “father of” in certain occurrences is understood to mean the “founder of” or “chief settler of” the particular population dwelling in the place indicated.
It may be noted that the word “father” appears in the original Hebrew at Genesis 4:20, 21 but in some translations is rendered “ancestor” (AT; JB) or “founder” (NW). Hebrew lexicons include among the possible meanings of the Hebrew term “father” that of “ruler, chief” (A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, by Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 1980, p. 3), “forefather, ancestor of tribe, nation . . . of a place . . . founder of a class or station, . . . of a trade . . . founder, chief magistrate of a place.” (Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, by L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Leiden, 1958, p. 1)—Compare Isa 22:20-22.

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.


“These were born to him in Jerusalem: Shimʹe•a, Shoʹbab, Nathan, and Solʹo•mon; the mother of these four was Bath-sheʹba the daughter of Amʹmi•el.”

*** it-1 p. 708 Eliam ***
1. Father of Bath-sheba. (2Sa 11:3) Called Ammiel at 1 Chronicles 3:5.


“And nine other sons were Ibʹhar, E•lishʹa•ma, E•liphʹe•let,”

*** it-1 p. 718 Elishama ***
3. A son born to David in Jerusalem. This Elishama is listed as Elishua in 2 Samuel 5:15, in 1 Chronicles 14:5, and in two Hebrew manuscripts at 1 Chronicles 3:6. Elishua is generally considered to be the correct name, as the name Elishama appears again in 1 Chronicles 3:8 and therefore could easily have crept into verse 6 through a scribal error. However, since the Hebrew Masoretic text, the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Latin Vulgate read “Elishama” at 1 Chronicles 3:6, this form of the name has been retained in the New World Translation as well as other translations.

*** it-1 p. 719 Elishua ***
(E•liʹshu•a) [God Is Salvation].
One of the sons born to King David in Jerusalem. (2Sa 5:15; 1Ch 14:5) Elishua is called Elishama at 1 Chronicles 3:6.—See ELISHAMA No. 3.


“The sons of Jo•siʹah were the firstborn, Jo•haʹnan, the second, Je•hoiʹa•kim, the third, Zed•e•kiʹah, the fourth, Shalʹlum.”

*** it-2 p. 86 Johanan ***
4. Firstborn son of King Josiah. (1Ch 3:15) Since he is nowhere mentioned in connection with succession to the throne of Judah, as are his three younger brothers, he must have died before his father’s death.—2Ki 23:30, 34; 24:17; Jer 22:11; see JOSIAH No. 1.

*** it-2 p. 1227 Zedekiah ***
At 1 Chronicles 3:15, Zedekiah is listed as the “third” son of Josiah. Whereas he was actually the fourth son in the order of birth (compare 2Ki 23:30, 31; 24:18; Jer 22:11), he may here be placed before his full brother Shallum (Jehoahaz) because of having ruled much longer.


“The sons of Jec•o•niʹah the prisoner were She•alʹti•el,”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 2 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
3:17—Why does Luke 3:27 refer to Jeconiah’s son Shealtiel as the son of Neri? Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel. However, Neri apparently gave his daughter to Shealtiel as a wife. Luke referred to Neri’s son-in-law as Neri’s son just as he did in the case of Joseph, calling him the son of Mary’s father, Heli.—Luke 3:23.

*** w92 7/15 pp. 5-6 Does the Bible Contradict Itself? ***
▪ Who was the father of Shealtiel?
Certain texts indicate that Jeconiah (King Jehoiachin) was the fleshly father of Shealtiel. (1 Chronicles 3:16-18; Matthew 1:12) But the Gospel writer Luke called Shealtiel the “son of Neri.” (Luke 3:27) Neri apparently gave his daughter to Shealtiel as a wife. Since the Hebrews commonly referred to a son-in-law as a son, especially in genealogical listings, Luke could properly call Shealtiel the son of Neri. Similarly, Luke referred to Joseph as the son of Heli, who was actually the father of Joseph’s wife, Mary.—Luke 3:23.

*** it-1 p. 147 Archaeology ***
Near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon some 300 cuneiform tablets were uncovered relating to the period of King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Among lists of the names of workers and captives then living in Babylon to whom provisions were given appears that of “Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud,” that is, “Jehoiachin, the king of the land of Judah,” who was taken to Babylon at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem in 617 B.C.E. He was released from the house of detention by Awil-Marduk (Evil-merodach), Nebuchadnezzar’s successor, and was given a daily allowance of food. (2Ki 25:27-30) Five of Jehoiachin’s sons are also mentioned on these tablets.—1Ch 3:17, 18.

*** it-1 p. 199 Assir ***
The King James Version uses the name Assir at 1 Chronicles 3:17; however, many modern translations (AS, AT, Mo, NW, Ro, RS) view the Hebrew word here, not as a proper name, but, rather, as an expression descriptive of Jeconiah (Jehoiachin) as a captive or prisoner in Babylon. (2Ki 24:12-15; 25:27-30) The New World Translation fittingly reads: “And the sons of Jeconiah as prisoner [ʼas•sirʹ] were Shealtiel . . .”


“Mal•chiʹram, Pe•daiʹah, She•nazʹzar, Jek•a•miʹah, Hoshʹa•ma, and Ned•a•biʹah.”

*** it-1 p. 147 Archaeology ***
Near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon some 300 cuneiform tablets were uncovered relating to the period of King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Among lists of the names of workers and captives then living in Babylon to whom provisions were given appears that of “Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud,” that is, “Jehoiachin, the king of the land of Judah,” who was taken to Babylon at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem in 617 B.C.E. He was released from the house of detention by Awil-Marduk (Evil-merodach), Nebuchadnezzar’s successor, and was given a daily allowance of food. (2Ki 25:27-30) Five of Jehoiachin’s sons are also mentioned on these tablets.—1Ch 3:17, 18.


“The sons of Pe•daiʹah were Ze•rubʹba•bel and Shimʹe•i; and the sons of Ze•rubʹba•bel were Me•shulʹlam and Han•a•niʹah (and She•loʹmith was their sister);”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 3 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
3:17-19—How were Zerubbabel, Pedaiah, and Shealtiel related? Zerubbabel was a son of Pedaiah, who was a brother of Shealtiel. Yet, the Bible at times calls Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel. (Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27) This could be because Pedaiah died and Shealtiel raised Zerubbabel. Or perhaps since Shealtiel died without having a child, Pedaiah performed brother-in-law marriage, and Zerubbabel was the firstborn of that union.—Deuteronomy 25:5-10.

*** it-1 p. 916 Genealogy of Jesus Christ ***
Matthew indicates that Zerubbabel is the son of Shealtiel (Mt 1:12), and this coincides with other references. (Ezr 3:2; Ne 12:1; Hag 1:14; Lu 3:27) However, at 1 Chronicles 3:19 Zerubbabel is referred to as the son of Pedaiah. Evidently Zerubbabel was the natural son of Pedaiah and the legal son of Shealtiel by reason of brother-in-law marriage; or possibly, after Zerubbabel’s father Pedaiah died, Zerubbabel was brought up by Shealtiel as his son and therefore became legally recognized as the son of Shealtiel.

*** it-2 p. 594 Pedaiah ***
3. Third-named son of King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) born during the Babylonian exile. Pedaiah became father to postexilic Governor Zerubbabel and was therefore a vital link in the line leading to Jesus. (1Ch 3:17-19)

*** it-2 p. 911 Shealtiel ***
As to Zerubbabel’s father: Pedaiah is once so identified (1Ch 3:19), but Pedaiah’s brother Shealtiel (1Ch 3:17, 18) is so termed in all other instances. (Ezr 3:2, 8; 5:2; Ne 12:1; Hag 1:1, 12, 14; 2:2, 23; Mt 1:12; Lu 3:27) If Pedaiah died when his son Zerubbabel was a boy, Pedaiah’s oldest brother Shealtiel might have raised Zerubbabel as his own son. Or, if Shealtiel died childless and Pedaiah performed levirate marriage on his behalf, the son of Pedaiah by Shealtiel’s wife would have been the legal heir of Shealtiel.


“and the sons of Shec•a•niʹah were She•maiʹah and the sons of She•maiʹah: Hatʹtush, Iʹgal, Ba•riʹah, Ne•a•riʹah, and Shaʹphat—six in all.”

*** it-2 p. 921 Shemaiah ***
26. A distant descendant of David. (1Ch 3:9, 10, 22) Some scholars think that the words “and the sons of Shemaiah,” in the middle of verse 22 (which is followed by only five names), should be omitted as a scribal error, thus crediting Shecaniah with six sons. However, other scholars suggest that Shemaiah and his five sons were reckoned as the six descendants of Shecaniah.


“The sons of Judah were Peʹrez, Hezʹron, Carʹmi, Hur, and Shoʹbal.”

*** it-1 p. 420 Carmi ***
The designation “sons of Judah” at 1 Chronicles 4:1, where Carmi is listed, evidently is to be understood as including later descendants.—Compare 1Ch 2:4-7.


“and Pe•nuʹel was the father of Geʹdor, and Eʹzer was the father of Huʹshah. These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephʹra•thah and the father of Bethʹle•hem.”

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 1163 Hushah ***
Either a “son” of or a city “fathered” or “founded” by Ezer of the tribe of Judah. (1Ch 4:1, 4) If Hushah designates a city, then it was likely the home of one of David’s mighty men, Sibbecai, who was probably also called Mebunnai. (1Ch 27:11; compare 2Sa 23:27; 1Ch 11:29.) Some regard Hushah as the name of a city and identify it with Husan, about 6 km (3.5 mi) W of Bethlehem.


“Ashʹhur the father of Te•koʹa had two wives, Heʹlah and Naʹa•rah.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.


“Naʹa•rah bore to him A•huzʹzam, Heʹpher, Teʹme•ni, and Ha•a•hashʹta•ri. These were the sons of Naʹa•rah.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.


“And the sons of Heʹlah were Zeʹreth, Izʹhar, and Ethʹnan.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.


“Jaʹbez was more honorable than his brothers; and his mother named him Jaʹbez, saying: “I gave birth to him in pain.””

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
The name Jabez comes from a root that can mean “pain.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Let us examine 1 Chronicles 4:9, 10.
All that we know about Jabez is found in these two verses. According to verse 9, his mother “called his name Jabez, saying: ‘I have given him birth in pain.’” Why did she choose such a name? Did she bring forth this son with more than the usual birth pangs? Was she perhaps a widow, lamenting the fact that her husband was not there to welcome their baby into the world? The Bible does not say. But this mother would someday have reason to be especially proud of this son. Jabez’ siblings may have been upright men, but “Jabez came to be more honorable than his brothers.”


“Jaʹbez called on the God of Israel, saying: “O that you would bless me and enlarge my territory and let your hand be with me and preserve me from calamity, so that it may bring no harm to me!” So God brought about what he had asked for.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Let us examine 1 Chronicles 4:9, 10.

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Jabez was a man of prayer. He began his prayer by pleading for God’s blessing. He then made three requests that reflect a heart full of faith.
First, Jabez implored God, saying: “Enlarge my territory.” (Verse 10) This honorable man was no land-grabber, coveting what belonged to his fellow man. His earnest request may have had more to do with people than land. He may have been asking for the peaceful enlargement of his territory so that it could hold more worshippers of the true God.
Second, Jabez pleaded for God’s “hand” to be with him. God’s symbolic hand is his applied power, which he uses to help his worshippers. (1 Chronicles 29:12) To receive the requests of his heart, Jabez looked to the God whose hand is not short toward those who show faith in him.—Isaiah 59:1.
Third, Jabez prayed: “Preserve me from calamity, that it may not hurt me.” The expression “that it may not hurt me” may suggest that Jabez prayed, not to escape calamity, but to be kept from being grieved or overcome by the effects of evil.
Jabez’ prayer revealed his concern for true worship and his faith and trust in the Hearer of prayer. How did Jehovah respond? This brief account concludes with the words: “Accordingly God brought to pass what he had asked.”
The Hearer of prayer has not changed. He delights in the prayers of worshippers. Those who place their faith and trust in him may have this confidence: “No matter what it is that we ask according to his will, he hears us.”—1 John 5:14.

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
The Targums, Jewish paraphrases of the Sacred Scriptures, render Jabez’ words: “Bless me with children, and enlarge my borders with disciples.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 6 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
4:9, 10. Jehovah answered the fervent prayer of Jabez for a peaceful enlargement of his territory so that it might accommodate more God-fearing people. We too need to offer heartfelt prayers for an increase as we zealously share in the disciple-making work.


“Eshʹton became father to Beth-raʹpha, Pa•seʹah, and Te•hinʹnah, the father of Ir-naʹhash. These were the men of Reʹcah.”

*** it-1 p. 302 Beth-rapha ***
(Beth-raʹpha) [House of Rapha].
The name appears at 1 Chronicles 4:12 where Eshton is said to have become “father to Beth-rapha.” The use of “Beth” (meaning “House”) in the name has led many commentators to view it as applying to a family “house” or to a place. Keil and Delitzsch’s Commentary on the Old Testament (1973, Vol. III, 1 Chronicles, p. 88) observes: “Eshton begat the house (the family) of Rapha, of whom also nothing further is said; for they can be connected neither with the Benjamite Rapha (viii. 2) nor with the children of Rapha (xx. 4, 6, 8).”


“Me•oʹno•thai became father to Ophʹrah. Se•raiʹah became father to Joʹab the father of Ge-harʹa•shim, so called because they were craftsmen.”

*** it-2 p. 77 Joab ***
1. Son of Seraiah, a descendant of Kenaz of the tribe of Judah. Joab was “the father of Ge-harashim” (meaning “Valley of Craftsmen”), “for,” says the Bible account, “craftsmen are what they became.” Evidently Joab was “father” or founder of the community of craftsmen living in the valley.—1Ch 4:1, 13, 14; see GE-HARASHIM.


“The sons of Caʹleb the son of Je•phunʹneh were Iʹru, Eʹlah, and Naʹam; and the son of Eʹlah was Keʹnaz.”

*** it-1 p. 1216 Iru ***
(Iʹru) [possibly from a root meaning “full-grown ass”].
The first-named son of Caleb the spy; of Judah’s tribe. (1Ch 4:15) Some scholars think that the name was really Ir and that the “u” was only the Hebrew conjunction and.


“(And his Jewish wife gave birth to Jeʹred the father of Geʹdor, Heʹber the father of Soʹco, and Je•kuʹthi•el the father of Za•noʹah.) These were the sons of Bi•thiʹah, the daughter of Pharʹaoh, whom Meʹred married.”

*** it-2 p. 26 Jekuthiel ***
A descendant of Judah and “father of Zanoah.” (1Ch 4:1, 18) Zanoah is the name of a city rather than a person in its other occurrence (Jos 15:56, 57), so Jekuthiel as its “father” was likely the father of those who settled there, or was himself its founder or chief settler.


“The sons of Sheʹlah the son of Judah were Er the father of Leʹcah, Laʹa•dah the father of Ma•reʹshah, and the families of the workers of fine fabric of the house of Ash•beʹa,”

*** it-1 p. 189 Ashbea ***
(Ash•beʹa) [Let Me Make One Swear (Take an Oath)].
The house of Ashbea descended from Judah’s son Shelah and was noted for its production of fine fabric. (1Ch 4:21) The Targums add that their linen was made for kings and priests.

*** it-1 p. 1154 House ***
(15) an association of workers engaged in the same profession (1Ch 4:21);


“and Joʹkim, the men of Co•zeʹba, Joʹash, and Saʹraph, who became husbands of Moʹab•ite women, and Jashʹu•bi-leʹhem. These records are ancient.”

*** it-1 p. 525 Cozeba ***
(Co•zeʹba) [probably, Liar].
A site in Judah where descendants of Shelah the son of Judah resided. (1Ch 4:21, 22) Most scholars consider Cozeba to be the same as Achzib (“Chezib” in some versions) mentioned at Genesis 38:5 and Joshua 15:44, and on this basis it is tentatively identified with Tell el-Beida (Horvat Lavnin), 5 km (3 mi) WSW of Adullam.

*** it-1 p. 1256 Jashubi-lehem ***
Name in the genealogies of Judah, possibly a descendant of Shelah. However, some translators think this means “returned to Lehem,” that is, “to Bethlehem.”—1Ch 4:21, 22; RS, AT, JB, Mo.


“They were potters who lived in Ne•taʹim and Ge•deʹrah. They lived there and worked for the king.”

*** it-1 p. 525 Cozeba ***
The men of Cozeba are apparently included in the expression “they were the potters.”—1Ch 4:23;


“Bilʹhah, Eʹzem, Toʹlad,”

*** it-1 p. 231 Baalah ***
3. A town in the Negeb region of Judah (Jos 15:29), evidently referred to as Balah in Joshua 19:3 and Bilhah in 1 Chronicles 4:29. It was subsequently allotted to the tribe of Simeon as an enclave city. Its specific location is unknown, but evidently it lay to the SE of Beer-sheba.


“along with their settlements that were all around these cities as far as Baʹal. These were their genealogical enrollments and the places where they lived.”

*** it-1 p. 231 Baalath-beer ***
(Baʹal•ath-beʹer) [Mistress of the Well].
An enclave city of Simeon within the territorial limits of Judah. (Jos 19:1, 8) Also called “Ramah of the south” (or Negeb), it is evidently referred to simply as Baal at 1 Chronicles 4:33 and may be the same as the “Ramoth of the south” at 1 Samuel 30:27. The references to it would place it S of Beer-sheba, thus in the Negeb.


“And they went to the entrance of Geʹdor, to the east side of the valley, to look for pastures for their flocks.”

*** it-1 p. 925 Gerar ***
Some scholars suggest altering 1 Chronicles 4:39, 40 to read “Gerar” (as does LXX) instead of “Gedor.” This passage connects Gedor with a region originally inhabited by the Hamites and having good pasturage, and this description would fit the Biblical references to the area around Gerar.

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