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Can cook with the dishwasher? Discover how

The dishwasher, a new utensil for cooking
Did you know that it is possible to cook with the dishwasher? Thus sounds weird, but it's a practical and economical way of cooking, and also ecological, since it takes advantage of the energy for two different functions. And it seems that the economic crisis and the desire to save and find new uses for all types of objects and devices, such as home appliances, is sharpening the wits and by testing the skill of many people.
In this case has been a famous Italian blogger, Lisa Casali, which has devised a new way of cooking - taking advantage of the heat that generates the dishwasher during the wash-, has submitted to various tests to find him the point, and has even written a book of recipes -Cucinare in lavastoviglie (cooking with the dishwasher, Editorial Larousse)-where detailed, step by step, the entire process.
Lisa Casali, professional environmental monitor, began learning to use all edible parts of food such as vegetables, for example, to avoid wasting so much food, and then wondered how could reduce the impact of environmental activities such as cooking food.
In addition to energy savings, among the main advantages of the technique its inventor is that the nutritional properties of food are not lost in cooking water or through steam
Occurred to him that if he took heat from the dishwasher to prepare the meal you could save water and, above all, electricity. To do so, should put the food in glass containers that are closed tightly, to prevent the wash water from penetrating inside. The blogger has tested different temperatures and washing programmes until it has given with the optimum for each dish. And it has also to analyze the contents of the dishes to demonstrate that his technique is safe.
Among the main advantages of the new method, explains the own Casali, besides saving energy involved, is that cooking at a temperature low and stable, and that the nutritional properties of food are not lost in cooking water or through steam.

How cooking in the dishwasher

Besides knowing the ingredients and the cooking times required for each recipe detailing Casali in his book, cooking in the dishwasher you must follow a few simple guidelines:
  • The necessary elements are glass jars similar to those used to store homemade jams, and plastic bags for food, which becomes les vacuum with a device especially designed for this purpose, which can be purchased at a home appliances shop.
  • Most dishwashers have three basic programmes: one fast, which lasts half an hour and reaches a temperature of around 65 ° c, one ecological (at 50 ° C), and other intensive that employs water to 75 ° C for nearly three hours.
  • Most importantly, according to the author, is to calculate well the times, since each cycle wash is suitable for a certain type of food. So fish is ideal 'washed' fast - 30 minutes at 65ºc-, while the ecological - three hours at 55 ° C - is very well suited for red meats, shellfish, and eggs.
  • Low temperatures highlight the flavor and the natural properties of food, so, Casali says that it is not necessary to add seasonings.
Article translated for educational purposes from: Webconsultas 

Sexomnia, sexual sleepwalking

Sexomnia, a rare kind of sleepwalking
Sexomnia -sleep sex in English — is a parasomnia or sleep disorder that makes a person capable of having sex while sleeping, and waking up not remember absolutely nothing of their behavior.
It is something similar to what happens to Chinas people, which rise from the bed, walk, talk, or perform other kinds of actions during sleep, and they are not aware of their actions, in this case the disorder is related to the sexual activity of the individual while remains asleep.
The sexomnia is very rare but real, and many of those affected do not arrive to check out of shame or fear to be judged, or because they do not understand that it is a medical problem. Experts estimate that 10% of adults with parasomnia present this atypical sexual behavior during sleep. Thus, if we consider that only about 1 or 2% of the adult population suffers from parasomnia, we will see that it is a very rare condition.

Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the sexomnia

Sexomnia, which was recognized as a non-REM sleep disorder does little more than ten years, normally the couple of the affected detects it in the first place, or who live with him, when they look at their characteristic symptoms: masturbation, groans, and deal with the couple for sexual intercourse, usually aggressively.
Typical symptoms of the sexomnia are masturbation, groans, and the pursuit of sexual relationship, normally aggressive character, during sleep
To reach the diagnosis, specialist begins by questioning the patient and his partner, and if confirmed intercourse during sleep unless the patient has consumed drugs, alcohol, or any substance that could alter their behavior or memories, is made a polysomnography, a test used to diagnose sleep disorders, and that registers brain activity and eye movements of the patient asleep.
Currently the sexomnia causes, are unknown, although studies indicate that it is more common in males, and especially in those with a history of night terrors or sleepwalking during childhood and adolescence. The disorder can be treated with drugs and psychological therapy, always under the supervision of a specialist, but the results vary widely from one patient to another.

Article translated for educational purposes from: Webconsultas 

How to slow aging of the brain

The brain also ages
The human brain, as it is the case with the rest of the bodies, ages to our anniversary. It's an inevitable physiological process that, according to experts, starts around age 40, although the doctor Francisco Mora, neuroscientist and Professor of human physiology at the Complutense University of Madrid, says that the aging of the brain starts from 30 years.
The good news is that although there is a 25% of genetic determination that we can not change, keep your brain young and healthy it depends on 75% of our way of life, something that it is possible to control. If the best way for an organ continued active is to use it, the key to healthy aging is in train body and mind, and be prepared to pursue alternative activities after retirement and during the third age.
Neuroscience - science that studies the brain in all its aspects - It has contributed new knowledge that have served to banish some myths as that ensured that it is not possible to replace neurons, or learning ability is confined to children.
Although there is a 25% of genetic determination that we can not change, keep your brain young and healthy it depends on 75% of our lifestyle
On the other hand, and according to scientific investigations have shown, the brain is a dynamic organ and neurogenesis - process which allows regenerate cells and produce new neurons - and learning ability are maintained throughout the life. Learn how to take advantage of it is in your hands.

Tips for delaying the aging of the brain

In the opinion of Dr. Mora the fountain of eternal youth is within ourselves, and to delay aging, it is necessary to feel the excitement that filled the world with meaning and incite us to change it. This specialist offers twelve Tips for slow aging of the brain:
  1. Follow a healthy diet and low-calorie, because the characteristic of Western society supercharging harms both the brain and the rest of the body.
  2. Practice aerobic type exercise regularly, because apart from other well-known benefits, promotes the oxygenation of the brain.
  3. Train the brain, keep it active by doing activities like reading, calculation, learning a new language...
  4. Travel, learn about new cultures and people.
  5. Learn to adapt to social changes.
  6. Live with and maintain a good network of social relations.
  7. No smoking.
  8. Control stress.
  9. Sleep enough and in the dark.
  10. Enjoy life, and avoid well what this specialist called 'emotional Blackout', something that happens to many people after retirement, when already there are not challenges to be overcome.
  11. Give meaning to life, appreciating what you have.
  12. Be happy, bearing in mind that this will be easier if we follow the tips above.
Article translated for educational purposes from: Webconsultas 

Definition of magic realism. Meaning of magic realism. Concept of magic realism

Enciclopedia Universal DVD ©Micronet S.A

Definition of magic realism

With this label is known to a Spanish-American literary movement emerged in the mid-20th century, characterized by its commitment to incorporate great or wonderful elements in a narrative sharply realistic; However, the magical realism had curdled in Europe in the 1930s, after a first reference to this artistic trend by German scholar Franz Roh in 1923; soon, Italy would make his that aesthetic Massimo Bontempelli paint program, at the end of that decade. In the years that we are dealing with, more exactly since 1928, Alejo Carpentier, father of Latin American magical realism, lived in Paris and Madrid, which allowed him to come into contact with the literary currents more innovative. In this environment, not only saw the light magical realism that Carpentier would reflected in about the "real" wonderful"(1949) and that would follow other authors such as García Márquez, but also another form of writing often tagged in the same way but with distinct hallmarks: the magic of two great writers gallegos, Álvaro Cunqueiro, with its Celtic myths and realism medieval, and Gonzalo Torrente Ballester, with its literary recreation of a Galician society between the nearest and most prosaic reality and a world of fiction full of myths and legends.


Meaning of magical realism

The notion of magical realism was employed for the first time by the German critic specializing in art Franz Roh, who devised the term to refer to a painting that reflected a modified reality.
However, the concept gained greater significance when the Venezuelan Arturo Uslar Pietri used it to describe the work of certain authors of Latin American origin. Since then, it is considered that magical realism is a literary genre of broad artistic range that had its heyday in the middle of the 20th century.
Among the main features that usually appear in the novels of magic realism, the content is fantastic or magical elements that are perceived as normal by the characters. On the other hand, stands out the presence of the sensory as part of the perception of reality.
Magical realism also encompasses the myths and legends, which can be presented by multiple narrators (which combined first, second and third person).
You can not speak of Latin American literature without naming to magical realism, because from the Latin-American Boom to the present day, she has nurtured by elements belonging to the fantasy. However, it is necessary to clarify that it is not the same talk of magic realism to fantasy, because so that a work can be contained in the latter should not be exclusively fantastic but contain elements of fantasy in a realistic story, where these elements are taken as natural by the characters.
Texts belonging to magical realism meet conditions that make them distinctive.
It has a theme with realistic features but that has surreal elements that have to do with the Latin American memory, the search for identity and sensitivity.
* A space, minimum where all actions are developed which possesses an atmosphere of intimacy where they operate the figures that give life to the story.
* Characters a little "crazy", with an almost dreamlike vision of the life they planned and carried out travel time and space without moving from the place. Trance States allowing them to live intense events and resolve conflicts that carry from childhood. They are beings that are always at the forefront of the political and social events of his time.
* Time is perceived in this context how cyclical or distorted, so that you can repeat is present or is similar to the past. In terms of scenarios, they tend to be associated with the Latin American reality, so are poverty and social marginalization.
The main exponents of magic realism, include two authors who were awarded the Nobel Prize for literature: Gabriel García Márquez Colombian and Guatemalan Miguel Ángel Asturias.
Magical realism was the ideal answer for authors who live in countries where the dictatorship and censorship corrupted all areas of society, could express themselves fluently, allowing through fantasy explain those elements of the reality that with the exact words would have condemned them to death.
It should be noted that the main book of magical realism is "One hundred years of solitude" by García Márquez, a work which during the IV International Congress of the Spanish language was chosen as the most outstanding Spanish after the always remembered "Don Quijote de la Mancha".
Finally, we want to make it clear that when analyzing a work belonging to this genre we must bear in mind that the main objective of the author is to know the truth, instigating to give with the origin of life or understand certain issues that make the lives of their characters or society to which it belongs; in this quest for the truth are supernatural elements, because superstition, the landscape of dreams and fantasy are part of the reality, enrich everyday life and allow this copper a sense of transcendence.

Concept of magic realism

Magical realism is an artistic current that magical elements or illogical situations, compared with other more realistic or normal considered works. Developed in the mid-20th century, his expression was especially through literature, although it also included painting and filming.
The term magic realism was used for the first time in 1925, by the German critic Franz Roh, which referred to a particular style of painting. Later, it was used to describe the style of some American painters like Paul Cadmus, Ivan Albright and George Tooker, among other artists of the decades of 1940 and 1950. It is important to mention that, unlike the use of the term in the literature, when he describes the Visual Arts, not refers to paintings with elements of magic and illogical, but realistic in extreme and, at times, worldly.
Important were the writers Alejo Carpentier, Jorge Luis Borges and Juan Rulfo, who with his first works were able to influence the Latin American Boom of the 1960s. It is said that the first work of magic realism was Pedro Páramo de Juan Rulfo. Important were also the work of Isabel Allende, "House of spirits", and Gabriel García Márquez, "One hundred years of solitude", which were hits for sale around the world. In fact, the latter is often considered the best exponent of magical realism, also including his works "The autumn of the Patriarch" and "Chronicles of a death announced". Outside Latin America, magical realism influenced the works of authors such as Italian Italo Calvino, Czech Milan Kundera, and Salman Rushdie English.
As for filming are some stories by Woody Allen which can be seen within the magical realism. Highlights "Zelig", "The Purple Rose of Cairo", "Alice", "Shadows and Fog" and "The Curse of the Jade Scorpion".
The works of magical realism are characterized by certain elements present in them: there are magic items that characters considered normal; the magical elements can guess but not explained; It contains multiple narrators who may be first, second, and third persons; the time may be distorted and is perceived as cyclical and not linear; the everyday is transformed in experiences that can be supernatural; the characters can revive; the scenes are mostly American. The above are just some of the elements of magic realism.
Magical realism features include the following: on issues, there is diversity of historical epochs, a cultural essence of miscegenation and pre-Columbian elements to their mythological values. As for the characters, they often have journeys that are not only physical, but also change of space time. As to the time, it can be chronological (with a logical course), static (time stops as if it were not important), inverted (night, day is), and there may also be a rupture of the planes of the time (the present is mixed with the past and the future).

Information recovered from:
Enciclopedia Universal DVD © Micronet S.A. 1995-2013

One hundred years of solitude by Gabriel García Márquez

Garcia Marquez tells the story of a town, Macondo, from its Foundation until its destruction. The different moments and the existence of this town are impressive. We will do a scan of the episodes that include the fictional universe of one hundred years of solitude, we can warn close relationships between language and its different carriers (Narrator and characters), and the reality that describes the novel, the Macondo. Therefore, in the novel by García Márquez, the language of the narrator and the characters acts as constructor of reality.

Contextual analysis:

One hundred years of solitude by Gabriel García Márquez "El Gabo" in 1967, tells the story of a Colombian family, in which the stylistic influences of the American novelist William Faulkner can be tracked in epic tone.
With Cien Años de Soledad García Márquez it has aroused admiration in many Western countries by the very personal mixture of reality and fantasy that takes place in his narrative works, always located at Macondo, an imaginary city in its country.

García Márquez

Melquiades composed the history of Macondo and its inhabitants. What we are reading, to read the novel, is not more than the parchment in which the Gypsy wrote the story; only that this newly we know it in the outcome of the work. When you finish our reading, also just Macondo. As readers, we are witnessing the Macondo Foundation, to the origins of this people; We are also witnesses of its evolution and finally destroyed. With the development of the life at Macondo, we also know the origin and evolution of its language, which summarizes the history of all human language.
In one hundred years of solitude are several points of view regarding a same historical fact: starts the legend with the location of Colonel Aureliano Buendía. Simultaneous and contradictory information declared him victorious in Villanueva, defeated in Guacamayal, devoured by the Indians Motilones, dead in a village of swamp and again rebelled in Urumita.
Similarly, two points of view is projected onto the events that took place in Macondo during the civil war: the massacre told by José Arcadio second version and the official version of events, according to which there was no dead, are two stories which deny the possibility of history as a single fact. The official version, thousand times repeated and crushed nationwide finally prevail: there was no dead, satisfied workers had returned to their families, and the banana company was suspending activities as he passed the rain.
[...] It was still searching and the extermination of the criminals, murderers, arsonists and rioters of the decree number four, but the military denied it own relatives of his victims, who overflowed the office of commanders in search of news. "Insurance that was a dream," insisted the officers.
For the official version, which over time will be considered the true story, at Macondo you nothing has happened, is happening or will never happen. This is a happy town. They were thus the extermination of union bosses.


José Arcadio Buendía, as a young man, accompanied by his men, with women, children and animals, crossed the mountains looking for an outlet to the sea, and twenty-six months after they withdrew their company and Macondo was founded to avoid having to undertake the way back. At the beginning, it was a village that was not sent with papers; When Don Apolinar cited showed the role in which he had been appointed Magistrate of the town, José Arcadio Buendía said: in this town do not send papers. We see the primitive stage of Macondo, where there is prevalence of orality; then, we will see the importance of the written language.
In the early phase of Macondo, in the origins of this town, we find its founders and first inhabitants who are faced with the requirement of nominating who contemplate first and resort to finger-pointing. The world was so recent that many things lacked name, and to mention had to point out them with your finger; Macondo was by then a very recent town; the Narrator emphasizes that a people without dead, is a people without a past. And Macondo was, at the beginning, a people without cemetery. As well as Macondo begins to have existence from its Foundation, there is a fact source that gives existence to this village in the world of the dead:
[...] because Macondo was a village unknown for the dead until it reached Melquiades and noted with a black dot in the multicolored maps of death.
In the second chapter of the novel, José Arcadio (second generation) is going with the Gypsies who year after year had their inventions to Macondo. Ursula runs immediately in the footsteps of his son; When José Arcadio Buendía (father) warns the absence of his wife, it brings together a group of men and they depart in pursuit of Ursula:
Indigenous fishermen, whose language is unknown, showed them sign at dawn that they had seen happen to anyone. Among the great innovations that different groups of Gypsies brought to Macondo, appeared the ice as the greatest invention of our time. The macondinos paid five Reals to touch it and feel to the sacred.
The history of Macondo in some manuscripts is an object of study; We see it clearly in the hard work of decipherment conducted Aureliano Babilonia. Aureliano occupied all of your tomorrows in deciphering the scrolls; He had become a man castellated written actually
Ursula expressed ever to Arcadio José: instead of walking thinking your crazy novelerias, you must take care of your children - replied. Watch them how they are, abandoned to the good of God, just like donkeys. José Arcadio Buendía took the words of his wife at the bottom of the letter. He looked through the window and saw two barefoot children in the sunny garden, and had the impression that only at that moment had begun to exist, conceived by the spell of Ursula.
José Arcadio Buendía, absorbed by the inventions of the Gypsies and fascinated by them thereby, become experimenter, had forgotten the reality that surrounded it. It was only for their inventions. He had even stopped dealing with their children; in a way, they had ceased to exist for him. The spell of Ursula is the expression used by the narrator as a synonym for "words of Ursula"; from these, the moment in which they are pronounced, children begin to exist for her father.
In the history of the family Buendia is interesting to note the explanation the genealogy of the names. In the long history of the family, the stubborn repetition of names had enabled him to draw conclusions that seemed strict to him. While the Aurelian were withdrawn, but lucid mindset, the José Arcadio were impulsive and entrepreneurs, but they were marked by a tragic sign. The history of the Buendía family is a history of repetitions. The name Aureliano and José Arcadio repeatedly speak of the eternal return. The characters, designated with the names of others, acquire traits of personality of his predecessors. This grouping by class (the Aurelian and the Arcadians) defines the nature of the characters and marks their destinies.
When Aureliano, the first human being who was born in Macondo, was three years old, went to the kitchen and surprised his mother saying:
is it going to fall. The pot was well placed in the center of the table, but as soon as the announcement was made by the child started an irrevocable irregular movement toward the edge, as driven by an inner dynamism, and it shattered on the floor. The harbinger of Aurelian did not stay in the words; within the plane of the real imagination also appear episodes in which clearly the Word determines reality.
Here are the omens of Aureliano which become facts. Other prophetic words of Aureliano constitute important episodes Center.
Colonel Aureliano Buendía, after eight months of having party, wrote to his mother Úrsula. Inside the sealed envelope that sent him through an emissary, had a paper written with a precious calligraphy that said: much care for Dad because he is going to die. Then they entered the room of José Arcadio Buendía, they shook it with all his strength, they shouted in the ear, they put a mirror in front of the nostrils, but could not wake him.
The plague of insomnia and oblivion. The macondinos had contracted this disease; even children remained awake without power, like the rest of the inhabitants of the village, to sleep in any way. Later no one returned to worrying about the useless habit of sleep.
[...] the most feared disease of insomnia was not the inability to sleep, because the body did not feel any fatigue, but their inexorable evolution towards a more critical manifestation: Oblivion [...] began to be erased from his memory the childhood memories, then the name and the notion of things, and finally the identity of people and even the consciousness of their own beingto sink into a kind of idiocy without a past.
Aurelian was who discovered the formula that would defend them from evasions of memory: mark everything with his name was how not to forget the reality. Inked swab marked every thing with your name: table, Chair, clock, door, wall, bed pan. It was to corral and marked animals and plants: cow, goat, pork, chicken, cassava, taro, banana.
Little by little, studying the infinite possibilities of oblivion, he realized that there could come a day that recognized the things by their inscriptions, but its utility is not remembered. The sign that hung in the cervix of the cow was an exemplary sign of the way in which Macondo residents were willing to fight against oblivion: this is the cow, have to milk it every morning to produce milk and milk must boil it to mix it with coffee and coffee with milk.
Thus they continued to live in an elusive reality , momentarily captured by words, but which had elope without remedy when they forget the values of the written word.
There is between cartels that had invaded Macondo, one said Dios. Everything that could be captured by the words immediately became a reality. Verification of its existence was the possibility to be expressed by the language. This episode, whose origin is the arrival in the town of visitation, a guajira Indian, and of his brother, who were fleeing a plague of insomnia that flagelaba to his tribe for several years, Macondo transformed during the time it lasted the plague. The first who manifested symptoms of the disease was Rebecca, with her: eyes lighting like a cat in the dark.
This is one of the most significant in terms of the relationship between words and things. The loss of the word is the loss of memory and the past.
The plague of oblivion introduces us to a storyteller that front the event emphasizes the idea of a close dependence of reality with respect to language; the idea that the things and its utilities are represented by words that name them appears in all its glory, is taken to the extreme.

The miraculous:

Tired of preaching in the desert, the father Nicanor [...]. She begged so much that it lost the voice [...]. He sang the Gospel voice lacerated by the appeal. The boy who had helped mass brought him a cup of thick and smoky chocolate which he took without breathing. The lips with a tissue which pulled out of the sleeve, extended arms and closed his eyes is then cleaned. Then the father Nicanor towered twelve inches above the ground level. It was a compelling resource.

The mythical legendary

García Márquez appropriates fictional realities present in other literary texts; These are absorbed by one hundred years of solitude. Mitico-legendarias realities that were the subject of several literatures are also here the novelistic of the Colombian author.
As the story unfolds, Melquiades is sitting in the corner, sitting at the desk, scrawling undecipherable signs; Since the beginning of the novel we can discover that Melquiades is the narrator of the story, you are building it from the word. The Gypsy spent hours and hours scrawling her enigmatic literature. Melquíades is one be prodigious who claimed to possess the keys of Nostradamus; This reference to the character, the power of his prophetic Word is highlighted. Melquiades had a look that seemed to know the other side of things.
What the inhabitants of Macondo? Insofar as the characters do not decode the manuscripts of Melquiades, may not know their identity (species sentenced to live a hundred years in solitude) or its final destination (the destruction). Aureliano second was given the task of deciphering the manuscripts of Melquiades; but it was impossible. The letters seemed clothes to dry on a wire, and resembled more to music writing which the literary. In one of their working hours, Aureliano second felt that he was not alone in the room. There was Melquiades; Since that time were almost every afternoon. With respect to manuscripts, it explained that no one must know its sense as they have not fulfilled one hundred years.
Aureliano Babilonia, who Yes could eventually translate the scrolls, locked in their task of deciphering the manuscripts, with an emergence of Melquiades told him this had already discovered in what language they were written: in Sanskrit. Aurelian had time to learn Sanskrit in the years missing parchments fulfilled a century and they could be deciphered.
Aureliano Babilonia, become sang, occupied his time in learning Sanskrit to arrive on time with the translation. After three years since Santa Sofía de la Piedad will take grammar, he translated the first statement. But it still needed to understand those encrypted verses. There was a wonderful moment where he found the scroll keys under the heading that said: the first of the lineage is moored on a tree and the last ants are eating it. He thus understood that those manuscripts was deciphering understood the history of the family, written by Melquíades even in its most mundane details, one hundred years in advance. In the denouement of the novel revealed the identity of the Narrator: Melquiades.
The history of Macondo was written, the words preexistieron to the Foundation, development and destruction of the village. Aureliano Babilonia knew that his destiny was written:
[...] began to decipher the moment that was living, deciphering it as he lived it, prophesying himself in the Act of decoding the last page of the scrolls, as if he were seeing in a spoken mirror.
[...] before reaching the final verse already had understood that not it would be ever of that room, as it was planned that the city of mirrors (or mirages) would be ravaged by the wind and banished the memory of the men at the moment when Aureliano Babilonia ended to decipher the parchments, and that everything written on them was unrepeatable since always and forever", because the strains sentenced to one hundred years of solitude did not have a second opportunity on Earth".


García Márquez, Gabriel (1928 -), writer, journalist and prize Colombian Nobel. He was born in Aracataca and was formed initially in the field of journalism. He was the editor of El Universal, a newspaper in Cartagena during 1946, El Heraldo in Barranquilla between 1948 and 1952, and El Espectador in Bogota from 1952. His best-known novels are one hundred years of solitude (1967), which recounts in epic tone of a Colombian family history, and in which the stylistic influences of the American novelist William Faulkner, and the autumn of the Patriarch (1975), political power and corruption can be tracked.
Chronicle of a death foretold (1981) is the story of a murder in a small Latin American city, love in the time of cholera (1985) is a love story that develops also in Latin America. The general in his Labyrinth (1989), on the other hand, is a fictional account of the last days of the revolutionary and statesman Simón Bolívar. It is also author of several books of short stories such as the incredible and sad history Eréndira and her grandmother to the heartless (1972) or strange pilgrims (1992). Garcia Marquez has aroused admiration in many Western countries by the very personal mixture of reality and fantasy that takes place in his narrative works, always located at Macondo, an imaginary city in its country. His last published work, news of a kidnapping (1996), is a fictionalized on Colombian narco-terrorism report. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1982 and he was formally invited by the Colombian Government to return to their country, where served as an intermediary between the Government and the guerrillas at the beginning of the Decade of the eighties.

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