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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Sandro Botticelli… Juan Gabriel… Protagoras… Aeschylus… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Sandro Botticelli
  2. Biography of Juan Gabriel
  3. Biography of Protagoras
  4. Biography of Aeschylus

Biography of Sandro Botticelli

(1445/03/01 - 1510/05/17)

Sandro Botticelli
Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi
Italian painter
He was born March 1, 1445 in Florence, in a humble family of craftsmen.
Botticelli was the nickname of his older brother, Giovanni, whose obesity led to be called "barrel" and by extension to all the members of his family.
He was a disciple of Fra Filippo Lippi, also worked with the painter and printmaker Antonio del Pollaiuolo, he learned the mastery of line, and also received great influence of Andrea del Verrocchio. To 1470 he had his own workshop.
He devoted most of his life to portraits, among them: Portrait of Giuliano de Medici (1475-1476, National Gallery of art, Washington, D.C.) and the adoration of the Magi (1476-1477, Uffizi Gallery, Florence) that contains characters with traits similar to those of the Medici family. He was influenced by the Christian Neoplatonism, which sought to reconcile Christian ideas with classics, this can be seen in the spring (c. 1478) and the birth of Venus (after 1482), created for one of the villas of the Medici family. In this area also highlights the series of four paintings Nastapio degli Honesti (Museo del Prado, Madrid), which recreates one of the stories of Boccaccio's Decameron.
In addition he painted religious subjects, mainly tables of virgins, highlighting the Virgin by writing the Magnificat (Decade of 1480), The Madonna of the pomegranate (Decade of 1480) and the coronation of the Virgin (1490), all of them in the Uffizi, and Madonna and child and two Saints (1485, Staatliche Museen, Berlin). Other works of religious theme include San Sebastián (1473-1474, Staatliche Museen) and a fresco about St. Augustine (1480, Ognissanti, Florence).
In 1481 he was called to Rome to work in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican, where he painted the frescoes of Moses tests, the punishment of the rebels and the temptation of Christ. In the Decade of 1490, after the expulsion of the Medici from Florence, and when the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola preached austerity and reform, suffered a religious crisis, although he did not abandon the city.
They are notable later works, such as la Pietà (beginning of the Decade of 1490, Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan) and about all the mystical Nativity (Decade of 1490, National Gallery, London) and the mystical Crucifixion (c. 1496, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts).
He was accused anonymously, in 1502, at the Uffiziali di Notte, institution where citizens report crimes real or imagined, for an act of sodomy with one of his assistants.
Sandro Botticelli died May 17, 1510 in Florence .

Biography of Juan Gabriel

(1950/01/07 - Unknown)

Juan Gabriel
Alberto Aguilera Valadez
Mexican composer and singer
He was born on January 7, 1950 in Parácuaro, Michoacán.
Son of Gabriel Aguilera Rodríguez and Victoria Valadés Rojas, both farmers. Dubbed "Alberto", in honor to the character of a Cuban story, "The right to be born", called Albertico Limonta, of fashion thanks to a soap opera of the XEW. He was the youngest of a total of 10 children; Rose, who died almost newly born; Virginia, his unique and spoiled sister; José Gudalupe, Gabriel, Pablo, Miguel (now deceased) and 3 Rafaeles who also died. Almost newborn, his father burned a pasture with the intention of reseeding later; fire invades other properties, and anguished by the problem, suffers a "shock" and sick. It had to be admitted to the then infamous Hospital of "La Castañeda", in the city of Mexico. Tells that he died there although there are witnesses who say that you escaped. This fact inspired to Juan Gabriel to write the song: "from sunrise to sunset". At 7 months of age, he was taken to Ciudad Juárez, where he spent his childhood.
When you have 4 years, he entered as an internal school of social improvement for children, better known as "The Court", where he stayed for 8 years. To 7 years of age met Juan Contreras of Zacatecas, tinsmith master, who taught him to work. He considered his master as a father. In memory to this man, later adopted the name of John; and Gabriel, in memory of his father. Her first stage name was Adam Moon. Then she made her debut with the song "Maria the Bandit", by José Alfredo Jiménez, accompanied by mariachi Gil lonelinessand his band. Before recording as a soloist he worked doing choirs of great figures of song as Roberto Jordán, Angélica María, Estela Núñez and César Costa.
He was accused of theft and boarding school almost year and a half in criminal Lecumberri. "It's my life" film, starring himself later emerged from such experience. There he had the opportunity of knowing, through the director of the prison, Queta Jiménez "La Prieta Linda", who not only advocated for him so he was released for lack of evidence, but that also put it in contact with the RCA to then carry out their first recordings. It was the first interpreter who recorded a song titled "night night" to him. On June 11, 1971 he signed a contract with RCA Victor and began the recording of their first album, "a young soul", which included his first big hit, "No tengo dinero". Before being accepted at RCA Victor, they rejected him at CBS, Musart and Peerless.
The songs "tears and rain","sad eyes"and "Amor eterno"dedicated to the memory of his mother, who died on December 27, 19Among other properties that are known to Juan Gabriel is old and magnificent House in ciudad Juarez, where his mother worked in domestic service.
For the first time in the history of the U.S. magazine Billboard, Juan Gabriel made his debut in the first place of Hot Latin track, with the theme "the stick" from the album "the Mexico that we".
In 2009, the Latin Recording Academy named him "Person of the year" of the Latin Grammy Awards, and according to LARAS, has sold more than 100 million albums, in addition to composing some 1,500 songs. The singers have performed his compositions: Rocío Dúrcal, Isabel Pantoja, Julio Iglesias, Rocío Jurado, Pimpernel, Chayanne, Marc Anthony, Placido Domingo, Selena, Chavela Vargas and many more.

Biography of Protagoras

(Unknown - Unknown)

Greek philosopher
"Man is the measure of all things"
"I confess that I am a sophist and I instructed the men. Oh boy! If you come to my learn what you really want to learn and not as with the other Sophists, such as Hippias (that will teach you, against your will, not ethical and physical sciences). You will learn about family matters and the State".
He was born in the 485 b.c. in Abdera, Thrace.
He moved to Athens, where he became friend of Pericles and earned fame as a teacher and philosopher. He was the first to call same sophist and teach for money receiving large amounts of students. He taught grammar, rhetoric and poetry interpretation.
His main works, of which only survive some fragments, were entitled truth and about the gods. The Foundation of his philosophy was the doctrine that nothing is good or bad, true or false, in a categorical manner and that each person is, therefore, its own final authority; This belief is summarized in his phrase: "man is the measure of all things, which are, where they are, and which are not, insofar as they are not". Protagoras criticized the superstitions and religious rites of his time, but always maintained a sceptical and agnostic stance, it not atheist. Two famous dialogues of Plato, Theaetetus, and Protagoras, contested the doctrines of Protagoras. Between her professional duties are entrusted the elaboration of a penal code to Thurii.
He was accused of IMPIETY by what you had to go into exile perishing drowned, it is believed that in the 411 BC, in the course of a trip to Sicily.

Biography of Aeschylus

(Unknown - Unknown)

Greek playwright
In Eleusis, near Athens, was born in a noble family.
He fought against the Persians at Marathon, the 490 B.c., in Salamis, 480 BC, and then, in an auditorium, the following year. It is believed that he wrote ninety works. He began his work as a youngster but it only came to get his first victory in Greek public tenders in the year 485 BCE when he was about forty years. Since then he became famous and people admired it as to its tragic peak, having won 12 dramatic contests over their lifetime. He was an innovator in the field of the tragedy and is considered as the tragic poet par excellence in the history of the world and the founder of the Greek tragedy.
Its tragedies, represented for the first time the 500 B.c., were they offered as Trilogies, or groups of three, United by a common subject, and each trilogy was followed by a satirical drama. The titles of 79 of his theatrical works are known, but only survived seven. The oldest the supplicants, it is thought that it is the first work in a trilogy about the marriage of the fifty daughters of Danao, including Egyptians and the danaidesworks. It the Persians, presented the 472 BC, is a historical tragedy about the battle of Salamis, and the action takes place in Persia, in the Court of the mother of King Xerxes I. The seven against Thebes, presented the 467 B.c., It is based on the conflict between the two sons of Oedipus, Eteocles, and Glenn, for the throne of Thebes. It is believed that it is the third work of a trilogy, and the first two are Layo and Oedipus. Prometheus bound, a work of uncertain date, portrays the punishment of the rebel Prometheus by Zeus. Probably the first work of a Promethean trilogy, whose other two would be Prometheus unchained and Prometheus which brings the ring. The three works remaining, Agamemnon, the coeforas and the eumenides (the Furies), presented the 458 B.c., form the trilogy known as the Oresteia, or history of Orestes. In Agamemnon, one of the greatest works of dramatic literature, King Agamemnon returns home from Troy and is killed treacherously by his unfaithful wife Clytemnestra. In the second work, Orestes, son of Agamemnon, returned to Argos and come the death of his father by killing his mother and her lover Aegisthus. This matricide is punished for avenging divinities, the erinyes. In the eumenides, the erinyes pursued Orestes until this is clean his guilty blood and declares him innocent the old Court of the here thanks to the intercession of Athena, Goddess of wisdom. By introducing a second actor in the play, he created the dramatic dialogue.
He also developed the representation of drama, entering the costumes and the scenery.
Had two sons: Euphorion and Bion who also created tragic works.
Aeschylus died in Gela, Sicily. He decided to go into exile to the field once the Oracle predicted that he would die crushed by a House. According to the legend, shortly afterwards a bearded vulture dropped a turtle from high altitude right on the place where he was Aeschylus. The chelonian hit against his skull causing instant death. The Oracle was not wrong. Be later erected a monument in his memory in this place.

Jean-Paul Sartre… Gregorio Luperon… Ricardo Palma… Carlos Salinas de Gortari… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Jean Paul Sartre - Jean-Paul Sartre
  2. Biography of Gregorio Luperon
  3. Biography of Ricardo Palma
  4. Biography of Carlos Salinas de Gortari

Biography of Jean Paul Sartre - Jean-Paul Sartre

(1905/06/21 - 1980/04/15)

Jean-Paul Sartre
Philosopher, dramatist, French novelist
"Even the past can be modified: the historians do not stop to prove it"
Jean-Paul Sartre
He was born on June 21, 1905 in Paris.
Son of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of naval, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer, sister of Albert Schweitzer, theologian, philosopher, musicologist and German medical missionary. His father died when he was few months and spent his childhood under the tutelage of his grandparents.
He studied at the Lycée Henri IV, at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and at the French Institute in Berlin (Germany). He is Professor of philosophy at several high schools from 1929 until the beginning of World War II, when he joined the army.
It adopted its basic principle that existence precedes essence in his first novel, nausea, 19The Germans made him prisoner during one year (1940-1941) and when he was released he gave classes in Neuilly and some time later in Paris. He participated in the French resistance. German, unfamiliar authorities of its secret activities, allowed the representation of his play anti-authoritarian flies (1943) and the publication of his most famous philosophical work being and nothing (1943). In 1945, he left teaching and created together with Simone de Beauvoir among others, political and literary magazine Les temps modernes, which was editor in Chief.
Considered independent Socialist active after 1947, critic with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and United States in the years of the cold war. In most of his writings from the 1950s are political matters, including complaints about the violent and repressive attitude of the French army in Algeria. In 1964 he was awarded the prize Nobel of literature, which refused.
Having started from the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl, Jean Paul Sartre form is definitely with Martin Heidegger, that then-undisputed authority of German Existentialism. However, the readings of Hegel and Marx led him to a position that initially it would dampen in Existentialism is a humanism, first work in which already mark their differences with the Existentialism of Christian origin that would be represented in the figure of Karl Jaspers. Its logic led him to question a key axiom for his theory: "given that the universe cannot be measured or determined, us, man, has the possibility of choosing a path which is absolutely responsible for. "And given the loneliness and helplessness with which is chosen this individual road can be, and often happens, turned on a daunting project, but at the same time is releasing all determining coercion". He said that the existence precedes essence, hell is other and man is a useless passion. His theory of existential psychoanalysis claimed the responsibility of all individuals to make their own decisions and the recognition of an absolute freedom of choice was the necessary condition of authentic human existence.
In his latest philosophical work, Critique de raison dialectique (critique of dialectical reason, 1960), leaves the emphasis placed in the Existentialist freedom by Marxist social determinism. He argued that the influence of modern society on the individual is so great that produces the Serialization, interpreted as a loss of identity. He criticized the Soviet military intervention in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). He is considered one of the spiritual fathers of the French may He tried to found a political party and despite its critical support for Stalinism always defended vigorously the freedom and individual responsibility. His last years find it whereas Maoism as more revolutionary within the global spectrum. This earned him quite a few insults as he punched you Lucien Goldmann of being "a talmudist lost in Maoism".
His works include the novels Nausea (1938) and unfinished narrative series the ways of freedom, including the age of reason (1945), the postponement (1945) and death in the soul (1949); a biography of the French writer Jean Genet, Saint Genet, comedian and martyr (1952); plays behind closed doors (1944), the respectful prostitute (1946) and the kidnappers of Altona (1959); his autobiography, the words (1964) and a biography of the French author Gustave Flaubert, the idiot in the family (1971-1972) among many other titles.
Jean-Paul Sartre died on April 15, 1980 in Paris.

Biography of Gregorio Luperon

(1839/09/08 - 1897/05/21)

Gregorio Luperon
Military and Dominican politician
He was born on September 8, 1839 in Puerto Plata. Son of Nicolasa Luperón and Pedro Castellano.
He studied at a school in his town and with 12 years went on to work on a farm of Jamao Pedro Eduardo Dubocq property.
At the age of 22, he began his opposition to the annexation. Pursued during the fight restorers and the Government of the annexation, in September 1863 took command of the troops that attacked Santiago. On 14 September of that year he was elected to the Presidency of the Republic, charge that I do not accept.
On 8 October he was appointed General in Chief of the forces in the South and in November took over the defense of the Sabaneta. On January 20, 1864 he was appointed Chief of the Dominican liberator army. He fought the General Santana in Bermejo Brook.
In 1864 he was President, due to the illness of Benigno Filomeno Rojas. In March 1865 he married Ana Luisa Tavárez and at the end of the war, he returned to his hometown. In 1866 he formed a triumvirate that ruled the country from May 1 to August 22 stop. His Government, in 1879, took seat in Puerto Plata.
He was the interim presidency after the revolution against President Cesáreo Guillermo. Ulises Heureaux supported in 1887 but he was declared against the dictatorial measures Lilis took in his Government.
Gregorio Luperón died on May 21, 1897 in his hometown of Puerto Plata.

Biography of Ricardo Palma

(1833/02/07 - 06/10/1919)

Ricardo Palma
Peruvian writer
He was born on February 7, 1833 in Lima.
He studied in the school of Antonio Orengo and the Clemente Noel. Only fifteen years he was editor of a newspaper called satirical "the devil". The "El Comercio" newspaper published his first poems. In 1849 he studied in the Convictorio de San Carlos, and in 1852 Debuts "Rodil" and collaborates in the satirical sheet entitled "El Burro". Shortly afterwards he published "patriotic Crown" and "Juvenilia" (Lima, 1855).
He was exiled for two years in Chile (1861-1863) and upon his return to Peru, returned with the Annals of the Inquisition of Lima (1863), his first historical work outstanding. He published traditions, whose first series appears in 1872, thus initiating a cycle that is closed in 1910.
His works include verbs and gerunds (1877), neologisms and Americanisms (1896). In the first years of 1900 he published "lexicographical ballots", which are two thousand seven hundred voices that are needed in the dictionary. They appear in Barcelona "my latest Peruvian traditions".
Later, Ricardo Palma publishes a small autobiography, "strange" and "Appendix to my latest Peruvian traditions" before dying in Miraflores at the age of 86, on October 6, 19

Biography of Carlos Salinas de Gortari

(1948-04-03 - Unknown)

Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Mexican politician, President of the Republic (1988-1994)
He was born on April 3, 1948 in the City of Mexico.
He studied primary school "Abraham Lincoln", high school No. 3 "Héroes de Chapultepec" and high school in number 1 of San Idelfonso. Degree in economics by the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 19He studied also at Harvard University (United States), where he earned a master's degree in public administration (1973), another in political economy (1978) and PhD in political economy and public administration (1978).
He was Deputy Director of the economic program of the Government, Advisor to the director, Miguel de la Madrid. He directed this presidential campaign and, once Miguel de la Madrid was President, succeeded him in the post of Secretary of economic programming and planning. Salinas was a presidential candidate in 1987 by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), won more than 50% of the votes, against allegations of fraud by the PRI.
With an ambitious program of modernization, he managed to revitalize the economy of Mexico, stimulating exports, supporting free trade with the United States and in 1991 by assuming leadership to achieve a free trade agreement between Central American countries. Set up of the National solidarity programme (PRONASOL), subject of many criticisms. In the month of December 1992, the North-American free trade agreement (FTA) was signed by Salinas, the President of the United States, George Bush, and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
It entered into force in January 19Its mandate was secured greater transparency and representativeness of the opposition parties. In January 1994, he had to deal with a rebellion of the Zapatista Army of national liberation (EZLN) in the State of Chiapas.
The PRI appointed candidate for Luis Donaldo Colosio, assassinated, in full campaign, the choice fell on Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon, who took possession of the Presidency of his country on 1 December of that year. Finished his term, Salinas left Mexico following the arrest of his brother Raul, who was accused among other crimes for the murder of Colosio. Carlos Salinas testified, in November 1996 and January 1997, at the Mexican Embassy in Dublin (Ireland).
Married to Cecilia Occeli González and father of three children: Cecilia, Emiliano and Juan Cristóbal.

José de San Martín Matorras… James Clerk Maxwell… Karl Popper… Alexander Fleming… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of José de San Martín Matorras
  2. Biography of James Clerk Maxwell
  3. Biography of Karl Popper
  4. Alexander Fleming biography

Biography of José de San Martín Matorras

(1778/02/25 - 1850/08/17)

José de San Martín Matorras
Latin American independence leader
"If there is the enemy greater there is victory in defeat when man overcomes himself."
José De San Martín
He was born February 25, 1778 in the town of Yapeyú, situated on the banks of the mighty River Uruguay, which depended on the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
Son of John of San Martin, born in Spain, and was Lieutenant Governor of the Department. His mother, Gregoria Matorras, also Spanish, was the niece of a conqueror of the Chaco. He was the youngest of five brothers: María Elena (1771), Manuel Tadeo (1772) and Juan Fermín (1774), born in the Real Calera de las Vacas, jurisdiction of the parish of Las Víboras, and Justo Rufino (1776), born in Yapeyú as his brother José Francisco. Between 1781 and 1784, the family resided in Buenos Aires.
When he was 16 years old he travels to Spain since his father was stationed there. He entered the Seminario de Nobles of Madrid and in 1789 began his military career in the regiment of Murcia. He participated in the campaign of Africa fighting in Melilla and Oran. In 1797 he was promoted to second lieutenant for his actions against the French in the Pyrenees.
Cadiz is linked with the American group that conspired for the independence of Spanish America. To return to your country at the age of thirty-three, was recognized him the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and the triumvirate charged him with the creation of a squad, who then was the famous Regiment of grenadiers on horseback.
He created a secret society that called the Logia Lautaro to: "work with system and plan the American independence and happiness". Its leading members, in addition to San Martín were: Alvear, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón , Zapiola, Bernardo Monteagudo.
On September 12, 1812 he married Maria of the Remedios de Escalada, that belonged to a distinguished family. In October of that same year, arrives the news of the victory of the army of Belgrano in Tucumán, and occurs in Buenos Aires a motion prepared by the lodge in order to impose their candidates in the triumvirate.
Refers to the Second triumvirate consisting of: Juan José Paso, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña , and Antonio Álvarez Jonte. The first decisions of the triumvirate is the strengthen the army and send an expedition to put site to Montevideo, occupied by the realistic. In January 1813 José Rondeau narrow site of Montevideo while in Buenos Aires, Sunday, January 31, meets the General Constituent Assembly, known in history with the name of the year 13 Assembly.
Are decided reforms such as: the name of the King of Spain disappears from public documents; the Assembly is declared sovereign; removed the coats of arms and titles of nobility; Approve the colors of the flag of Belgrano, the coat of arms and the anthem; removed the Inquisition.
The triumvirate ordered San Martín protection of the shores of the Paraná before the landing of the royalists. In the first charge, the horse of St. Martin was knocked down locking leg of the Colonel. Granadero Baigorria transfers with a spear to a Spanish soldier who was trying to hurt San Martin. Juan Bautista Cabral soldier cast foot to land and raised the horse, allowing his boss to merge, then was mortally wounded. A few hours of combat, already knowing the result, uttered the famous words: "I die happy! We have beaten the enemy! "." The victory had been obtained in a few minutes. The royalists escaped down the ravine abandoning its weapons, cannons, and banners.
Shortly after the triumph of the General Belgrano against the royalists in the battle of Saltawas known. Appointed Chief of the army of the North, supported his plan to liberate Chile and use the Pacific Highway to get to Peru, the realistic power base. It was Governor of the and organized the Army of the Andes, which crossed the mountains in a deal that allowed him to give a victorious battle at the cost of Chacabuco (1817). It then occupied the capital, where refused the post of Supreme director of Chile. In 1818 he beat the royalists in Maipú, consolidating freedom of Chile.
The Government of Buenos Aires called it to participate with his army in the civil war which was kindled in the Argentine Coast, but chose to disobey this order and in 1820 landed with an expedition on the coast of the Peru. After almost a year of tactical movement occupied Lima and on July 28, 1821 proclaimed the independence of the Peru, whose Government took charge of guard.
His interview with Bolívar, which addressed the situation of America held in Guayaquil in July 18He then returned to Lima, where he declined the command.
Retired to private life, he returned to Buenos Aires, and in 1824 he embarked for Europe. He returned in the year 1829, but he refused to disembark for not taking part in civil strife that break to his country. Back in Europe, José de San Martín settled definitively in the French port city of Boulogne-sur-Mer, where he died on August 17, 18

Biography of James Clerk Maxwell

(1831-06-13 - 05/11/1879)

James Clerk Maxwell
British physicist
He was born on June 13, 1831 in Edinburgh, in the bosom of a wealthy family.
In 1841, he began his studies at the Edinburgh Academy, where he showed an exceptional interest in geometry, discipline on which was his first work scientific, published when he was only fourteen years of age. He studied at the universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge. He is Professor of physics at the University of Aberdeen from 1856 to 18In 1871 was the most outstanding professor of experimental physics at Cambridge, where he supervises the construction of the Cavendish laboratory.
Expands the investigation of Michael Faraday on electromagnetic fields, demonstrating the mathematical relationship between the electric and magnetic fields. It also shows that light is composed of electromagnetic waves. His most important work is the Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Tratado on electricity and magnetism, 1873), where, for the first time published its set of four equations that describes the nature of electromagnetic fields in terms of time and space.
James Clerk Maxwell died in Cambridge, United Kingdom, on November 5, 1879, eight years before the experimental confirmation of his electromagnetic theory.

Biography of Karl Popper

(1902/07/28 - 1994/09/17)

Karl Raimund Popper
British philosopher
He was born on July 28, 1902, in Vienna (Austria), to a Jewish family who later converted to Protestantism.
Working for some time in the child clinic of Alfred Adler. He obtained his doctorate in philosophy from the University of his native city in 19In 1929 obtained the Chair of mathematics and physics in secondary education.
Although he was not a member of the so-called School of philosophy of Vienna, he sympathized with his scientific attitude, although it criticized some of its tenets. He developed an outstanding academic career in Europe, Australia, India, Japan and the United States. From 1937 to 1945 he worked as a professor at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, and later at the University of London.
In the logic of scientific discovery (1934), he criticized the idea that science is essentially inductive. He proposed a criteria test which he calledverisimilitude, to determine the scientific validity, and underlined the deductive nature of science. In the open society and its enemies (1945), he defended democracy and showed objections to the authoritarian implications of political theories of Plato and Karl Marx. He is the author of in search of a better world, the responsibility of living, conjectures and refutations, the myth of the common framework and the body and the mind.
In 1965 he is awarded the title of Sir. He was a visiting professor at several universities, and his works have been translated into more than twenty languages. He is considered to be one of the main philosophers of the 20th century.
Karl Popper died in London on 17 September 19

Alexander Fleming biography

(1881-08-06 - 1955/03/11)

Alexander Fleming
Bacteriologist and award British Nobel
He was born on August 6, 1881, near Darvel, Ayr (today part of Strathclyde), Scotland.
Son of Hugh Fleming (1816-1888) and Grace Stirling Mortonen (1848-1928). Hugh was father of four surviving children from his first marriage and was 59 years old at the time of his second marriage with Grace. Alexander was the seventh of eight children. His family was devoted to agriculture and animal husbandry. With 13 years, after the death of his father, March to London along with his brother John and a half-brother, both students of medicine.
Before moving to London she went to Louden Moor School, Darvel School and Kilmarnock Academy, schools in his hometown. He spent four years in a shipping company as an administrative before studying at the Polytechnic in Regent Street, Faculty of medicine, St. Mary completo Hospital of the University of London, where he graduated with honors in 1905 as a specialized surgeon, and where he worked as Professor of bacteriology from 1928 until 1948, year in which he was named Professor Emeritus.
He participated in the first world war as a captain in the Army Medical Corps, providing some innovations that were overshadowed by its other subsequent discoveries. It conducted research during the war trying to discover something like the "salvarsan", to control infections. He developed important research in the fields of bacteriology, Immunology, and chemotherapy . In 1922, he discovered lysozyme, in tears, bodily secretions antiseptic, albumin, and certain plants.
The discovery of penicillin took place accidentally in 1928 in the course of his research on influenza. Fleming noticed that mold was growing up on the plate and that around of it had formed a halo or area free of staphylococci, a fact that immediately caught his attention. It was, rightly, that that layer of mold contained a substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria. He called the active substance penicillin notatum and in 1929 published his finding in a magazine without arousing greater interest in the scientific community. For 1932, Fleming had changed his object of study and never gave the crucial step: testing the substance in mice.
Despite having discovered a substance capable of fighting bacterial infections, Fleming and his colleagues failed to isolate penicillin, the first antibacterial drug. The chemist Gerhard Domagk developed the Prontosil in 19Penicillin in its purest form produced it in 1940 Howard Walter Floreyand Ernst Boris Chain . Actually, penicillin began to be massively used in World War II, and many lives were saved thanks to her.
He was appointed sir in 19In 1945, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain British scientists for their contributions to the development of penicillin. In 1946 he received the Medal of gold of honour of the Royal College of Surgeons. In 1948 he was awarded the Grand Cross of the order of Alfonso X, el Sabio.
On December 23, 1915, he married the Irish nurse Sarah Marion McElroy. His only son, Robert Fleming, (born 1924) became a general practitioner. After the death of Sarah in 1949, Fleming married Greek Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, on 9 April 1953.
Years before the heart attack that ended his life in London, on March 11, 1955 Alexander Fleming stated that its only merit was to not ignore that suggestive coat of rust. He was buried in Saint Paul's Cathedral, in London.

Howard Gardner… Pablo Iglesias Turrión… Pericles… Alejo Carpentier… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Howard Gardner
  2. Biography of Pablo Iglesias Turrión
  3. Biography of Pericles
  4. Biography of Alejo Carpentier

Biography of Howard Gardner

(1943/07/11 - Unknown)

Howard Gardner
American psychologist
He was born on July 11, 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania.
Son of Ralph Gardner and Hilde Weilheimer, Jewish immigrants who fled Germany before the second world war.
He was Professor of piano from 1958 to 19He graduated from Harvard University in 1965 with a degree in social relations, and studied with the renowned psychoanalyst Erik Erikson. He completed his PhD in evolutionary psychology while working with psychologists Jerome Bruner and Roger Brown, and the philosopher Nelson Goodman.
Co-Director of Project Zero at the school Superior of education from Harvard University. Project Zero is a research group that develops, for thirty years, the learning processes of children and adults.
Professor of education and psychology at Harvard University and of Neurology at the Boston School of medicine. He is the author, among other books of "multiple intelligences", "creative minds" and "non-school mind", which consists of three parts: the first presents the synthesis of current knowledge about the way in which human beings learn during the first years of his life. In the second, it is the educational process in general, the institutions and the rules of cultural institutions. In the third, rehearses a proposal to reform the education from his conception of the mind not school.
It was Gardner, who with his model recognizes other human capacities the same value has traditionally had exclusively granted to the verbal and mathematics, mainly (a conception reductionist intelligence, product of the educational and social historical context in which arose). Gardner, on the other hand, talks about different ways of being smart, Relativizing the associated stigma, in the conception reductionist, lack of capacity and involving a quantitative planning of individuals, who even claimed as justification for the fundamentally social structure (the intellectual superiority by gender and race).
It has a score of distinctions "honoris causa" of universities including Tel Aviv, Princeton, McGill, etc.
In Spain, the jury of the Prince of Asturias Foundation awarded him with the Prince of Asturias prize for Social Sciences on May 11, 2011.
Married to Ellen Winner, had a son, Benjamin. Gardner has three other children from a previous marriage: Kerith (1969), Jay (1971) and Andrew (1976).
Term introduced by psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983 with which designates a set of seven types of intelligence, which covers the following:
Verbal intelligence: it is the ability to work efficiently with problems that involve or imply a verbal symbols.
Mathematical intelligence: it is the ability to perform activities that involve conceptual and abstract thinking
Both are typical academic intelligences
Spatial intelligence: ability to handle forms, good perception of environment, space, thinking is related to images, it is the kind of intelligence that artists and architects, have such
Kinesthetic intelligence: ability to have good communication with body language, is for example that ballet dancers have.
Musical intelligence: sensitivity to music and all kind of sounds. It is that the musicians have.
Intelligence staff: they are those that include the personal skills and the ability to intrapsychic.
Interpersonal intelligence: includes leadership skills, ability to cultivate relationships and maintain friendships, ability to resolve conflicts, skills in the kind of social analysis.

Biography of Pablo Iglesias Turrión

(1978/10/17 - Unknown)

Pablo Iglesias Turrión
Spanish politician
"We work experience in political communication from the main space of political socialization that is television."
Pablo Iglesias
He was born on October 17, 1978 in Madrid, Spain.
Paul is called in honor of the founder of Spanish socialism. His maternal great-uncle shot in the Spanish Civil War. His Socialist, paternal grandfather and Commander of the army of the Republic, was sentenced to death and spent 5 years in prison. His mother, a labor lawyer, the first of his family who came to the University, he played in hiding, like his father, Javier Iglesias (Madrid, 1954) inspector of labour and Social Security, which met the jail during Franco's dictatorship and which, according to his son, was a member of the FRAP (Patriot and antifascist Revolutionary Front).
Only child reared in Vallecas; He studied at the Instituto Juana of Castile in the barrio Moratalaz, which highlights its interventions in ethics classes. Later it licenciaría right (2001) and in Political science with extraordinary award (2004), the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, where he also earned doctorate (2008), with a thesis on post-national collective action. He made postgraduate studies including the master's degree in Humanities (2010) by Universidad Carlos III, and Arts in Communication (2011) by the European Graduate School (Switzerland). He is Professor of political science at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Politically positioned on the far left from a young age, he started as a militant at age 14 in the Union of Communist Youth of Spain (UJCE), organization that remained until the He was member of the Executive Board of the Foundation Center for political studies and social (CEPS Foundation), organization dedicated to the production of critical thinking for promoting left-wing policies.
He has collaborated as a columnist in newspapers as a public, Kaosenlared, Diagonal and rebellion. In 2003 it began in Tele K, a programme dedicated to the policy entitled La Tuerka , which moved to channel 33 broadcast live. From January 2013, presented a program of similar content: Fort Apache, in the Iranian capital serving the TV chain. In May of that same year, he began as a commentator and political polemicist in the program El Gato Al Agua, the chain of rights Intereconomía, debuting with the theme of the convocation of the Congress surrounds. After this participation became collaborator in political gatherings like the cat to the water, the Bell the cat (13 TV), the sixth night (La Sexta), the four mornings and 24 h night (24 hours). In October 2013 he was awarded the «focus» of Journalism Award by the Department of journalism and Audiovisual Communication of the Carlos III University of Madrid and the NGO Coordinator for the development-Spain, for his contribution to social change, shared with Ignacio Escolar and Jordi Évole journalists in the individual category. He became director of content and creativity of productions with hand left (CMI).
In the month of January 2014 presented the motion we intending to stand for the elections of the same year, being the most voted candidate in the open primary. On 25 may, this movement managed to 5 seats in the elections to the European Parliament, becoming a surprise because the 1.245.948 votes (almost 8%) received and his short career of just 4 months of political activity.
On November 15, 2014, ten months after founding the formation, Pablo Iglesias was proclaimed First Secretary general in the history of the Party (with 95.311 votes, 88.6% of the supports) in a ceremony held at the Teatro Nuevo Apolo of Madrid, which also were announced to the rest of members of the management of can (citizen Council and Commission on guarantees) , between Carlos Jiménez Villarejo, Juan Carlos Monedero, Iñigo Errejón, facing Carolina Bescansa and Luis Alegre, among others.
Related Tania Sánchez Melero, former Councillor of the municipality of Rivas - Vaciamadrid and member of Izquierda Unida in the Madrid Assembly.

Biography of Pericles

(Unknown - Unknown)

Athenian politician
He was born in 495 BC in Athens. Son of Xanthippus, Commander of the army that defeated the Persians at Mycale in 479 B.c.
He had as teachers to the sophist and Damon Athenian music teacher and the Ionian philosopher Anaxagoras that they influenced prominently in their training. It got the recognition of the majority of Athenians through his eloquence, wisdom, honesty and patriotism.
Among his friends the dramatist Sophocles, the historian Herodotus, the sculptor Phidias and the sophist were Protagoras; It was mistress Aspasia of Miletus, a woman famous for its culture.
As head of the Democrats, Pericles tried all Athenian citizens to participate in Government. He was the introducer of the payment in Exchange for services to the State and who was elected the members of the Council by raffle among all Athenian citizens. Under the League of Delos, formed as a defense against attacks from Persia, the Athenians were the leaders of the large naval force that was created. Pericles became undisputed leader of Athens during fifteen years. It rose to this at the expense of the nationals City-States. He restored the temples destroyed by the Persians and built many new buildings, the most splendid one of which was the Parthenon, on the Acropolis. This building provided work to the poorest citizens and made Athens the most magnificent city of his time. Athens became an important centre for literature and art.
Its supremacy aroused the jealousy of other Greek city-States, notably of Sparta, great enemy of Athens. The cities feared the hegemonic project of Pericles and attempted to overthrow the Athenian domination. After the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, Pericles brought together residents of Attica in Athens and allowed army Peloponnese hit different parts of the country. The following year broke out the plague in the overcrowded city, that ended with the popular confidence.
He was removed from his post, tried, and fined for misuse of public funds, but re-elected strategist in 429 BC
Pericles died in 429 BC in Athens because of the plague.

Biography of Alejo Carpentier

(1904-12-26 - 1980/04/24)

Alejo Carpentier
Novelist, essayist and Cuban musicologist
He was born on December 26, 1904, in Lausanne, Switzerland. Son of an French architect.
Part of his studies in his native town, he studied twelve years, moved to Paris where he attended the Lycée Jeanson de Sailly, and began musical studies with his mother, developing an intense musical vocation. Upon returning to his country, he studied architecture, although it would not end the race.
He began to work as a journalist and to participate in political movements left-wing. He was imprisoned and with his release, went into exile in France. He returned to Cuba where he worked on the radio and he conducted important research on Cuban popular music. He visited Mexico and Haiti where he became interested in the revolts of the 18th-century slaves. He moved to Caracas in 1945 and did not return to Cuba until 1956, year in which there was the triumph of the Castro revolution. He worked in various diplomatic positions for the revolutionary Government.
In his work, you can see influences of surrealism. He worked in the magazine Revolution surréaliste, expressly commissioned by French literary critic and poet André Breton. Among his novels are: the Kingdom of this world (1949), on the Haitian revolution and the tyrant of 19th centuryHenri Christophe, and the lost steps (1953), the fictitious Journal of a Cuban musician in the Amazon. The time war (1958) the violence of the Cuban Government during the 1950s. In 1962 he published the age of enlightenment, which deals with the lives of three characters dragged by the French Revolution. Concert Baroque (1974) presents his visions about the mix of cultures in Latin America. They followed the appeal of the method (1974) and the rite of spring (1978).
The term "marvelous reality" invented by Carpentier and reported in the prologue to his novel the Kingdom of this world has served to establish his own novelistic. It is an imitation of so-called "magical realism" incorporated into the description of the Latin-American reality.
In 1977, he received the Cervantes Prize for literature.
Alejo Carpentier died in Paris (France) on April 24, 19

Hans Christian Oersted… Paul Cézanne… Adolfo de Huerta… Jürgen Habermas - Jürgen Habermas… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

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  1. Biography of Hans Christian Oersted
  2. Biography of Paul Cézanne
  3. Biography of Adolfo de Huerta
  4. Biography of Jürgen Habermas - Jürgen Habermas

Biography of Hans Christian Oersted

(1777/08/14 - 1851/03/09)

Hans Christian Ørsted
Danish chemist and physicist
He was born August 14, 1777 in Rudkøbing.
He studied at the University of Copenhagen, where he was Professor of physics at that University in 1806.
In the year 1819 he discovers electromagnetism, when in an experiment for students, the compass needle accidentally placed near a cable moved. This discovery was crucial in the development of electricity, since it highlighted the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
It is the unit of measurement of the magnetic reluctance. In 1844 appeared his mechanical physics Manual.
Hans Christian Oersted died in Copenhagen on March 9, 1851.

Biography of Paul Cézanne

(1839/01/19 - 1906/10/22)

Paul Cézanne
French painter
He was born on 19 January 1839 in Aix-en-Provence, South of France. Son of a wealthy banker, he met in his childhood Émile Zola. At the end of the 1950s he decides to devote himself to painting, although it begins studied law to please his father.
In 1862 he began his studies of art in Paris. He attended the Académie Suisse for drawing. There he meets Guillaumin. He made his first works with thick pigments and in dark tones. He developed a style of painting hard, dense, thick, strong strokes, taking as a model the Caravaggio Italian and the Spanish Diego Velázquez. The most significant influence in its beginnings was Camille Pissarro, who introduced him in the new impressionist technique to achieve the effects of natural light. Under the tutelage of Pissarro, in the period between 1872 and 1873, went from dark tones to bright colors and began to concentrate on scenes of rural life.
The Impressionist him accepted into the Group and exhibited with them in 1874 and 18His major contribution to painting was done after the dissolution of the group Impressionist, when it drifts towards a more intellectualized painting. During the Decade of 1880 he spent much time in his Aix en Provence native.
In 1886 he thought he saw references to his failures in a Zola novel and broke relations with him. That same year he inherited the fortune of his father and achieved economic independence, but remained in their social isolation. He continued painting directly from life with bright colorful Impressionist type, and was gradually simplifying the application of the paint. He complained of his failure in the representation of the figure human and, indeed, the great works with human figures in his last years, as bathers (c. 1899 - c. 1906, Philadelphia Museum of art), reveal a curious distortions.
In the year 1895 Ambroise Vollard, Paris art dealer, he organized an exhibition of his works and promoted them with great success during the following years. To 1904, it reached the consecration in one of the large official halls of painting.
Many young artists traveled to Aix-en-Provence to see you work and advice in his later years. Before his death on October 22, 1906 in Aix, Paul Cézanne had already achieved a considerable reputation.

Biography of Adolfo de Huerta

(1881/05/26 - 1955/07/09)

Adolfo de la Huerta
Mexican President
He was born on May 26, 1881 in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
He studied at the Colegio de Sonora in his hometown and in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria in Mexico; He took courses of accounting, music and singing.
In 1900 it was orphaned and moved to Guaymas, where he was Assistant to fork of books, dealer, a bank clerk, Manager of a tannery and singing teacher.
In 1908 he joined the Antirreeleccionista party, he was representative in Guaymas. On February 20, 1913 arose in Monclova to Carranza , who had risen in arms against the General market gardens. Defeated the usurper, he was provincial of Sonora Governor, from may 1916 to August 31, 19After being the Senator of the Republic, was consul general in New York, 1918, and constitutional Governor of Sonora, 1 ° of September of 1919 to April 23, 1920.
As Governor of Sonora, he headed the revolution of Agua Prieta that ended with the Government and life of Venustiano Carranza. The Congress appointed him substitute President of the Republic, on June 1, 19During his rule he managed the pacification of the country, establishing good relations with the last zapatistas on war footing by approving the execution to the author of the assassination of Emiliano Zapata, Jesús Maria Guajardo (who was later executed), and subjecting the intellectual author Pablo González. He also managed the coup military Félix Díazmeant weapons. However, their success was to achieve the surrender of general Francisco Villa through dialogue.
Under his rule were the elections in those who succeeded Álvaro Obregón, who incorporated it into his Government as Secretary of the Treasury. However, years later would have to confront the same Obregón as part of the rebellion without a head. After the defeat of this uprising, he escaped to Los Angeles, California, where he earned life as a singing teacher. In 1935, President Lázaro Cárdenas granted him amnesty, and appointed him general inspector of the Mexican consulates in the United States.
Adolfo de la Huerta died in the City of Mexico, July 9, 19

Biography of Jürgen Habermas - Jürgen Habermas

(1929/06/18 - Unknown)

Jürgen Habermas
German philosopher and sociologist
He was born on June 18, 1929 in Düsseldorf.
The fact of being born with cleft palate made it difficult talking clearly and establish social relationships because it often suffered rejection. He received twice corrective surgery in childhood and declared that his disability made him reflect on the importance of communication, preferring word written as a means.
Until his graduation at the gymnasium, he lived in Gummersbach, near Cologne. He was raised in the bosom of a Protestant family, being his grandfather director of the seminary in Gummersbach. His father, Ernst Habermas, was executive director of the Chamber of industry and Commerce of Cologne, and is described by Habermas as a nazi sympathizer.
He studied at the universities of Göttingen (1949-1950), Zurich (1950-1951) and Bonn (1951-1954), obtaining a doctorate in philosophy in 1954 with a dissertation written on the conflict between the absolute and the story thought of Friedrich von Schelling, entitled "Das absolute und die Geschichte." Von der Zwiespältigkeit in Schellings Denken".
In 1955 he married with with Ute Wesselhoeft and worked as a journalist, until Theodor Adorno was invited to be part of the re-opened Institute for Social Research (IIS) in Frankfurt, where he came in contact with the Empirical Social Research redirecting their studies towards the critical theory of society. It was Adorno Assistant from 1954 until 19Habermas is the heir of the Frankfurt School and the best known representative of the "critical theory" that fascinated the young people on the threshold of the student movement of the 1960s.
He was often misunderstood in their own country and they also made a mockery of his "free speech", confusing the ideal tenets with concrete communication conditions, and at the political level his social criticism was made responsible for the terror of the extremist "Group of the Red Army" (RAF), while already in the summer of 1967 Habermas had denounced the "left fascism".
It is a critique of positivism and the technique in his work science and technique as ideology (1968), raising a series of questions about the possible forms of coexistence between the advanced industrial societies and democracy. Contributed by its critical approach to society to remember that"freedom and justice are the indisputable pillars of common democratic values". Theory of communicative action, published in two volumes in 1981, it presents a theory of modern society in which applies the methods of philosophy along with the of the sociology, social philosophy and philosophy of language. It became one of the great contemporary philosophers, with findings of thought as influential as the concept of constitutional patriotism. Their positions on bioethics or on European policy, lie you, as committed intellectual.
He was Professor of philosophy in Heidelberg and Professor of philosophy and sociology at Frankfurt. Between 1971 and 1980 is director of the Institute Max Planck in Stamberg. Since 1994, he is Professor Emeritus of the Goethe University in Frankfurt.
In 2001, he received the prestigious Peace prize of the German booksellers. In 2003, he was awarded in Spain the Príncipe de Asturias prize for Social Sciences. Doctor honoris causa of the universities of Jerusalem, Buenos Aires, Hamburg, Northwestern University Evanston, Utrecht, Tel Aviv, Athens and the New School for Social Research in New York among others. Member of the German Academy of language and poetry.

Gabino Barreda… Mario Benedetti… Fray Bartolome of the houses… Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

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  1. Biography of Gabino Barreda
  2. Biography of Mario Benedetti
  3. Biography of Fray Bartolome of the houses
  4. Biography of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

Biography of Gabino Barreda

(1820/02/19 - 20/03/1881)

Gabino Barreda
Physician, philosopher and Mexican politician
He was born on 19 February 1820 in Puebla.
In 1843 he entered the School of medicine. At the outbreak of war with United States joined ranks to fight in the battles and attending to the wounded.
He moved to Paris where he was a student of Auguste Comte between 1847 and 1851 and introduced the positivism in the tradition of the philosophy of mexicana. In 1851 he returned to his homeland where he obtained by opposition the Chair in medical philosophy at the school of Medicine of Mexico and later the Natural history and General pathology when it was created at the Faculty of Mexico that module.
It belonged for a few seasons to the Legislative Chamber of the country, which represented in the international postal Conference, held in Paris in 1878, and as a Minister Plenipotentiary of Germany. Barreda believed that it is not within the limits of the experience should be considered as inaccessible.
He served an important social influence and drafted on behalf of the President Benito Juárez, Victor Maximiliano and conservative reaction law of public instruction of 1867, created also the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria. In his civic prayer, distinguished in the history of Mexico a stage colonial, corresponding to the State religion; followed from the independence on the other, the metaphysical State; advocating the next start of a positive period.
His works include "moral education" (1863).
Gabino Barreda died on March 20, 1881 in City of Mexico.

Biography of Mario Benedetti

(1920/09/14 - 2009/05/17)

Mario Benedetti
Uruguayan writer
He was born on September 14, 1920 in Paso de los Toros, Tacuarembó Department 200 kilometers north of Montevideo. At the age of four, he moved to Montevideo, due to the work of his father, pharmacist.
She attended primary school in the German school of that city and high school, as a free student. From the age of fourteen, he began to work as a stenographer, teller, salesman, bookseller, journalist, translator, public employee and trade.
Member featured calledUruguayan 45 generation", his books participated in the"boom"in sales of Latin American narrative of the 50s to the 70s and its texts were collected and reported by singers like Viglieti, Rosa León, Jairo, Luis Pastor, Isabel Parra, Soledad Bravo, and Claudia and Alberto.
From 1945 to 1975, he works on the weekly March, closed by the dictatorship. He is Professor of literature and part as exiled in the 1970s Buenos Aires, Lima, Havana , and Spain. It has cultivated all genres, with initiation in poetry in books such as office poems (1956), everyday life and existential tone. Montevideans tales (1960) ventured into the realism. In 1960 he tried socio-political critique with the country of the tail of straw. His novels the truce (1960) and thank you for the fire (1965) try the social vices of the consumer society. Its narrative became politicized with the birthday of Juan Angel (1971) and spring with a broken corner (1982), incorporating the theme of exile and return in the House and the brick (1977), winds of exile (1982), geography (1984) and the solitude of Babel (1991). His play Pedro and the captain (1979) deals with torture.
It has picked up its critical task in the continent mestizo lyrics (1967), on arts and crafts (1968), the desexilio and other guesses (1984) and critical accomplice (1988) as well as the autobiographical evocation in the dregs of coffee (1993). In 1996 he published his complete stories, and in 1995, the poetry book oblivion is full of memory. In 1997, scaffolding published another novel in an autobiographical style.
On May 16 of the same year, Mario Benedetti was named Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Alicante, in Spain , and on 30 September was awarded the Premio Léon Felipe- 97 to the Civic values that provides the Foundation of the same name.
In October, he read his poem "Che 1997", in Mexico, which paid tribute to the guerrilla fighter Ernesto "Che" Guevara on the 30th anniversary of his death in Bolivia. On May 31, 1999, it received the VIII Premio Reina Sofía de Poesía Iberoamericana. In this same year publishes two works "time box", which brings together 25 previously unpublished tales, and 'Haiku corner', a book of poetry inspired by the Japanese poetry.
In 2003 he returned to the novel with the title "the sadness and other joys". In September 2003 he presented in the Círculo de Bellas Artes of Madrid his book "the future of my past" and appears "memory and hope" in September 20"A message to young people", written to ask them to never stop fighting for their dreams and is at the service of new generations who want to listen to their advice.
In November 2002 La Intendencia (Mayor) of Montevideo declared 'Illustrious citizen' of the city during a ceremony headed by the Mayor of the capital of Uruguay, Mariano Arana. In his last public appearance, in December 2007, Benedetti was awarded the Francisco de Miranda order by Venezuelan President, Hugo Chávez, at the University of the Republic of the Uruguay, acclaimed by the hundreds of students who recognized in the poet to his national Bard.
His last published work, the collection of poems 'witness of one's own', was presented in August 20In this work he already sensed the end of his days, while insisting on the loneliness without his beloved light (his wife, who died in 2006 after 60 years of marriage). "Happens overnight and I'm alone / charge myself barely / good love death took him / and I don't know who keep on living", said. Benedetti, who was dragging a delicate state of health.
He died on May 17, 2009 at his home in the Uruguayan capital.

Biography of Fray Bartolome of the houses

(1484/08/24 - 1566/07/17)

Bartolomé de Las Casas
Spanish religious
He was born August 24, 1484 in Seville. The son of a Baker of surname Penalosa and his wife's surname Casaus (Spanish form in Las Casas).
He studied in Seville and Valladolid. At age 19, with his father, he accompanied Christopher Columbus on his second voyage to America. He entered the Order of Santo Domingo. Back to Hispaniolain 1502, to work on the conversion of the Indians, he was ordained priest.
There he met well system the encomiendas territorial, the conquerors applied at will. Those practices resulted in the enslavement of the indigenous and the depopulation of its lands. In order to put an end to the abnormalities that Indians deal gave rise, he returned to Spain, where convinced the Cardinal Cisneros to send a Commission to the Spanish in order to inquire into the facts and reported abuses. The intrigues and the ineffectiveness of this Commission made it to fail its management and Las Casas returned to Spain to adoption of more vigorous measures for the protection of indigenous peoples.
Finally, the Government adopted ideas that had been designed to prevent the evils denounced. Carlos V requested the granting of territory stretching along the coast from the Gulf of Paria to the western border of the province, today known as Santa Marta. He proposed to form a colony composed of farmers, craftsmen and ecclesiastical awaiting civilizing, within the period of two years, 10,000 Indians and instruct them in the useful arts in order to make his art and its industry 15,000 ducats of income for the Crown of Castile.
The capitulations were signed and became the sea in 15The company failed because it took refuge in a Dominican convent of Santo Domingo where was devoted to the work of the missions and began his "General history of the Indies" (1552-61). He made a new trip to Spain (1539), charged with a mission of your order and in order to also get, again, support and help for the Indians. Charles V promised him that the Indians would be treated as subjects and not as slaves.
In 1544, embarked for the fifth time to America refusing to give communion to the Spanish which after promulgated the new laws followed taking into slavery to their indigenous settlers. In 1545, he was appointed Bishop of Chiapas, in Mexico, whose diocese had until 1547, date in which again returned to Spain, when he was about to appear in the works of Ginés Sepúlveda in which made considerations on the just war, its causes and conditions, and judging as such which had developed against the Indians in America.
The two authors clashed in Valladolid, where Las Casas defended the thesis of the character exclusively spiritual of the donation and the legitimacy of the sovereignty of Indians. With the work of Las Casas the Black legend of the conquest of America will begin.
Bartolomé de Las Casas died July 17, 1566 in Madrid.

Biography of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

(Unknown - 1579/02/16)

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Lawyer, writer and Spanish conquistador
He was born in Córdoba in 1509.
Degree in law from the University of Salamanca. He enlists as Chief Justice in the expedition of Pedro Fernández de Lugo , who had as destination Santa Marta (today Colombia), where they arrived in 15On 5 April he departed with 600 soldiers to explore the Magdalena river, in search of Peru. Their ranks were diminished by hunger and the repeated attacks of the Indians. They arrived at the plateau of Cundinamarca, which christened Nuevo Reino de Granada, and the city of Santafé de Bogotá founded August 6, 1538.
After recognizing several places, decided to choose the place that served as the playground of the Zipa, in a part of the square that today is known as the Chorro de Quevedo, between the intersection of calle 13 with carrera 2a, at the foot of the hills that today surround the capital. Jiménez de Quesada, Nicolás Federmann and Sebastián of Benalcázar attended at the same time and in one place, so that each of them was attributed the conquest of the territory. They return to Spain so the Crown UNCLOS in the dispute. Not be recognized his merits is dedicated to particular activities, until in 1550 he returned to Bogota as Marshal and regidor perpetuo.
Being an old man, he began in 1569 a new expedition, in which he lost nearly all his men and 150,000 ducats. Jiménez Gonzalo de Quesada died ruined the 16 February 1579 in Mariquita (Nueva Granada).

William Gates - Bill Gates… Pedro Calderón de la Barca… Martin Heidegger… Thomas Malthus… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of William Gates - Bill Gates
  2. Biography of Pedro Calderón de la Barca
  3. Biography of Martin Heidegger
  4. Biography of Thomas Malthus

Biography of William Gates - Bill Gates

(1955/10/28 - Unknown)

William Gates
Henry III
American businessman
He was born on October 28, 1955 in Seattle, Washington.
Son of William Henry Gates Jr. and Mary Maxwell. It has English, German, Scottish, and Irish ancestry. His father was a partner interest of one of the most powerful law firms in the city, and his mother belonged to the Board of Directors of First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. His maternal grandfather, JW Maxwell, was President of a National Bank. He had one older sister, Kristi (Kristianne), and a younger sister, Libby.
At age 13, he enrolled in Lakeside School, a private preparatory school. When I was in eighth grade, the mothers Club at the school used funds? to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR and General Electric computer for school students. Gates, became interested in the programming of the system of GE in BASIC and was excused from math classes for training in computing. He wrote his first computer program on this computer an implementation of tic-tac - toe that you allowed users to play against the computer.
He sold his first software program - a system of scheduling for school - by $4,200 at age He graduated from Lakeside School, in 1973 as a National Merit Scholar. He enrolled at Harvard University in the fall of 1973, where he met Steve Ballmer, who was the CEO of Microsoft since January 2000 to February 20Founder of Microsoft in 1975 along with Paul Allen, companion studies and partner in the creation of programming languages.
Microsoft in 1975, when it was founded, had just three employees (one of them was Gates) and obtained income by just 16 thousand dollars. At Harvard, during the year 1975, partnered with Allen to develop a version of the programming language BASIC for the Altair, the first computer or personal computer. In 1977 he leaves Harvard to devote himself completely to Microsoft. In the early eighties, Microsoft evolves from developer of programming languages to the diversification of software, producing operating systems, applications and programming tools. This was since 1981 with the introduction of MS-DOS, an operating system for new personal computers from International Business Machines Corporation (IBM PC) as well as other PC makers that standardized the MS-DOS, thus facilitating the compatibility of software. Microsoft created word processors, such as Microsoft Word for the IBM PC. They also developed a software application for the Apple Macintosh until in 1984 it came out to the market the first Mac.
The U.S. Department of Justice found guilty to Microsoft of monopolistic practices in the digital age more important antitrust case. As soon as it was learned the dreaded bug, Microsoft shares suffered a dramatic depreciation of the order of the 79 billion dollars, also causing the collapse of the shares of other companies on the New York Stock Exchange. THE trial is the result of the lawsuit filed by attorneys from 19 States of the American Union in 1998 against Microsoft by having integrated Explorer browser to its Windows operating system in order to take advantage in the Internet access to the Netscapecompany, creator of the Navigator. The company commanded by Gates defended arguing that separate the Windows Explorer was not possible, given that it was part of the same product. The ruling by Judge Jackson also said that Microsoft is guilty of pressuring computer makers to include the Explorer pre-installed operating systems and not Netscape Navigator.
Gates amassed a great fortune, according to the annual Forbes magazine list appeared as the United States and the world richest man on numerous occasions. On 16 June 2006 makes public its intention of abandoning their daily work in front of your company. On June 27, 2008 leave his post at the head of Microsoft handing over control of the company to Steve Ballmer to devote himself to the Foundation Bill & Melinda Gates, dedicated to rebalancing opportunities in health and education. They were awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for international cooperation 2006. He resigned as Chairman of Microsoft in February 2014, assuming the new position of technology advisor in support of the newly appointed Chief ExecutiveSatya Nadella.
He married Melinda French on January 1, 19Had three children, Jennifer Katharine (1996), Rory John (1999) and Phoebe Adele (2002).

Biography of Pedro Calderón de la Barca

(1600/01/17 - 1681/05/25)

Pedro Calderón de la Barca
Spanish poet and playwright
He was born on January 17, 1600, in Madrid. It is said that it seemed to have been born dead, so introduced him in a pot with hot water, to come into contact with the water burst into their first cries.
Family of noble ancestry credited, was the third son of a Secretary of the Board and greater accounting of Treasury.
He studied at the Colegio Imperial de Madrid, run by the society of Jesus, and continued in the universities of Alcalá and Salamanca until 1620.
He was involved in several violent incidents, as an accusation of murder and violation of the closure of a convent of nuns. Regarding his military life, it is known that he participated in the campaign to quell the revolt of Catalonia against the Crown (1640).
In 1623 it represented his first known comedy, love, honor and power. La dama duende (1629). was involved in lawsuits because of the testament of his father, which forced the playwright and his brothers to plead with her stepmother and to sell the position of his father to pay what is asked. He entered the service of the Duke of Frías, which toured Flanders and Northern Italy between 1623 and 1625.
He wrote home with two doors, bad is save (1632), there is no teasing with love (1637), the constant Prince (1629), the prodigious magical (1637), Médico de su honra (1635), the Mayor of Zalamea (1640), and his masterpiece, life is a dream (1636). In its sacramental highlights the great theatre of the world (1636). He was wounded during the siege of Lerida, obtained the absolute license in 1642 and a pension. In 1651 was ordered priest.
He had a reputation at the Court of Philip IV and his name is associated with the inauguration of the Palace of the Buen Retiro in Madrid, in 1635, as well as numerous palatial theatre performances. The King honored him by giving him the habit of Santiago. He was also Chaplain of the Toledo Cathedral and chaplain to the King.
Pedro Calderón de la Barca died in Madrid from May 25, 16

Biography of Martin Heidegger

(1889-09-26 - 1976/05/26)

Martin Heidegger
German philosopher
He was born on September 26, 1889 in Messkirch, Baden (Germany).
With 20 years he entered the Seminary of the Jesuits in Freiburg, but two weeks was asked to leave the Congregation, apparently because of his weak health. He subsequently entered the Diocesan Seminary in the same city. He studied Catholic Theology for two years, and since 1911 Western philosophy at the University of Freiburg, where he studied with Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology.
During World War I he volunteered as a volunteer, but again because of health problems, it was not sent to the front being assigned to the censorship of correspondence. Between 1919 and 1923 was Husserl Assistant with whom he started in the phenomenological method, which would then make their own. After teaching at Marburg, and after retiring from the Chair of philosophy at the University of Fribourg, Husserl recommended him for the post and this thus assumed ownership in 1928.
Married Elfride Petri on March 21, 1917, in a Catholic ceremony officiated by his friend Engelbert Krebs, and a week later in a Protestant ceremony. He was father of Hermann and Jörg Heidegger. He met Hannah Arendt, and the affair was soon to emerge, but Heidegger was Catholic, was married, had two children and, above all, a social reputation that was not willing to throw overboard. They kept the relationship with ups and downs, but the intellectual always remained. The fundamental reason for the breakdown, was the affiliation of the author of "being and time» to the nazi party and the inevitable flight from Germany of Arendt by their Jewish status. Also maintained relations with another student: Elisabeth Blochmann, Jewish father and which helped to emigrate before the second world war, resumed contact after the war.
Hitler seized power in Germany in 1933 and his Government appointed him Rector of the University of Freiburg and it accepted the post and joins the party National Socialist (NSDAP) expressing their adherence to the National Socialist regime in his speech at the inauguration. Heidegger had some complacency towards the regime of Hitler, whose external order praised in the early months of the Third Reich. Baffled by the rear of the system evolution and the war, waiving the Rectorate by disagreements with the Government and fails to deal with politics. The resignation did not prevent that it was dismissed as a teacher in Fribourg, after the occupation of Germany by the allies. After six years, he would return to his chair as Honorary Professor. His academic activity was already much less constant. He received some of his disciples, Marcuse, insistent suggestion that is publicly retract his speech of 1933, he never wanted to give explanations.
Considered to be one of the most complex and important of the 20th century, philosophers one of the greatest figures of modern philosophy. Heavily influenced by the pre-Socratic, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, in his most outstanding work, be and time (1927), is interested in what he considered the essential philosophical question: what is be?. Since then, his essays and scientific production was very extensive.
He argued that the individual is in danger of being immersed in the world of objects, the routine daily, and conventional and surface behaviour of the crowd. The feeling of fear (Angst) pushes the individual into a confrontation with death and the last meaningless of life, although a true sense of self and freedom can be acquired only by this confrontation. The idea of the no sense of human existence made him to be considered as part of the current Existentialist, precursor largely from the ideas of philosophers such as Jean Paul Sartre. This work others followed it as an Introduction to metaphysics (1953). He felt that the modern technological society has favored an elemental and manipulative attitude that has private being and meaning to human life, a State called nihilism.
Since 1952 is removed to his native village, and began preparations for the edition of his complete works, which shall consist of 70 volumes at the end of 1974.
Martin Heidegger died in Messkirch May 26, 1976, in the same village in the Black Forest in which it was born. At his request, he was buried according to the rite of the Catholic Church with the Bell Tower of the Church of his hometown. One of his nephews, priest, presided over the craft.

Biography of Thomas Malthus

(17/02/1766 - 1834/12/29)

Thomas Robert Malthus
British Economist and demographer, clergyman
He was born on 17 February 1766 in Surrey.
He studied at Jesus College, Cambridge University. In 1793 he was elected a member of the management team of the Jesus College, since that resignation in 1804 to contract marriage. In 1798, he officiated in the parish of Albury in Surrey. From 1805 until his death worked as Professor of modern history and political economy at the College of the East India Company at Haileybury.
His main contribution to economics was his theory of population, published in his book, 'essay on the principle of population' (1798), which holds that the population tends to grow faster than the supply of food available for your needs. When there is an increase in food production exceeding the population growth is stimulated the growth rate; on the other hand, if the population grows too in relation to food production, growth stops due to famines, diseases and wars. Thanks to his writings the first systematic demographic studies were conducted. Also influenced later economists, notably David Ricardo, whose "iron of the wage law" and his theory of the distribution of wealth included some elements of the ideas of Malthus.
Among his other works are, research on the nature and progress of rent (1815) and principles of political economy (1820).
Thomas Malthus died at Hertford on December 29, 1834.

Herbert Spencer… Oscar Wilde… Rafael Sanzio de Urbino… Ferdinand VII of Spain… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Herbert Spencer
  2. Biography of Oscar Wilde
  3. Biography of Rafael Sanzio de Urbino
  4. Biography of Ferdinand VII of Spain

Biography of Herbert Spencer

(1820-04-27 - 1903/12/08)

Herbert Spencer
English social theorist
He was born on April 27, 1820 in Derby.
Of self-taught formation.
His work social statistics, stressing the importance of freedom and the importance of science was published in the year 1851.
Along with Charles Darwin was responsible for the dissemination and acceptance of the theory of evolution.
On Principles of Psychology (1855) he says that organic matter has its origin in a unified State and that individual characteristics are developed gradually by evolution. It created a philosophical system based on his theory of evolution that would encompass and integrate all existing areas of knowledge.
In 1860 he published a system of synthetic philosophy. The first installment, entitled first principles was published in 1862; then appeared principles of biology (2 volumes, 1864-1867), principles of Sociology (3 volumes, 1876-1896) and principles of ethics (2 volumes, 1892-1893). In scientific, political, and speculative essays (3 volumes, 1891), studying the overall impact of the theory of evolution on scientific and philosophical thought.
Its scientific orientation led him to observe the social phenomena of scientific way. For him philosophy is a synthesis of scientific principles that come to replace the medieval theological explanations.
Herbert Spencer died on December 8, 1903 in Brighton.

Biography of Oscar Wilde

(16/10/1854 - 1900/11/30)

Oscar Wilde
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde
Novelist, poet, literary critic and Irish playwright
He was born on October 16, 1854, in Dublin.
It was the second of the three sons of William Wilde and Jane Wilde.
Her mother, under the pseudonym "Speranza" wrote poetry for the movement Young Ireland in 1848 as an Irish nationalist. In his youth he participated in literary gatherings that her mother organized.
His father was a famous surgeon Irish specializing in oto-ophthalmologic and was knighted in 1864 for his work as Assistant Commissioner of the censuses of Ireland; He also wrote books on Irish Archaeology and peasant folklore.
By his father, he was a descendant of the Dutch Colonel, Wilde, who accompanied King William to Ireland on the invasion of 16His father also had three children before his marriage, to those who acknowledged paternity becoming in charge of their education.
Until he was nine, he was educated at home, where a French and a German governess in their languages, also had Greek and Italian knowledge. He then attended the Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. He studied at Trinity College in Dublin.
As a student at the University of Oxford, he excelled in the study of the classics and wrote poetry; his long poem Ravenna won the prestigious Newdigate Prize in 1878.
Disciple of Walter Pater and very influenced by the painter Whistler, in 1891 published a series of essays (intentions) which gave rise to be considered one of the foremost representatives of aestheticism, whose most dazzling and exquisite aspects made clear both in his work as in your life. Wilde always was an eccentric character, wearing long hair and wore velvet breeches. His room was full of art objects and decorative elements, such as sunflowers, peacock feathers and Chinese porcelain. Their attitudes and manners were repeatedly ridiculed in Punch satirical publication and the comic opera of Gilbert & Sullivan, patience.
His first book was poems (1881), and his first play, Vera, or the nihilists (1882). After the publication of his book of poems he toured America where 140 lectured in only nine months. He directed The Woman s World, Journal of strong feministtendency, and gave the press a text in open defense of socialism (The Soul of Man under Socialism). Among his early works are two collections of fantasy stories, written for children, the happy Prince (1888) and the House of pomegranates (1892), and a collection of short stories, lord Arthur Saville's crime (1891). His only novel, the picture of Dorian Gray (1891), is a melodramatic story of moral decay, noted for its brilliant, epigrammatic style.
His theatrical works most interesting were the four comedies in lady Windermere's fan (1892), a woman of no importance (1893), an ideal husband (1895) and the importance of being earnest (1895), characterized by its witty dialogues. He managed to demonstrate an innate talent for theatrical effects and the farce, and applied to these works some creative methods used to use in his other works such as the paradoxes in the form of reverse saying, some of which have come to be very famous. Salomé is a serious play about obsessive passion. Written in French, the actress Sarah Bernhardtpremiered in Paris in 18Later, the German composer Richard Strauss composed an eponymous opera based on it.
He settled in London and, in 1884, married a wealthy Irish woman, Constance Lloyd, with whom he had two sons, Cyril and Vyvyan. Since then, he devoted himself exclusively to literature. Wilde wanted to make his life a true work of art, faithful to the approaches of the turn aestheticism and collecting the pre-Raphaelitefinely decadent sensitivity; Hence his commentary on André Gide: "I put all my genius in my life, and my works only I put my talent". He managed to so focus in its bizarre and provocative character, the ingenuity of their conversations and an amorality that made flag in the famous final episode of its process and imprisonment for homosexuality.
In 1895, at the peak of his career, became the central figure of the much-talked-about trial of the century. Wilde, who had maintained a close friendship with lord Alfred Douglas, was accused by his father, the Marquess of Queensberry, of sodomy. Pleaded le guilty at the trial, held in may 1895 and sentenced to two years of hard labor; He left prison ruined materially and spiritually.
He spent the rest of his life in Paris, under the false name of Sebastian Melmoth. In prison, he wrote De profundis (1895), an extensive list of repentance for his past lifestyle. Some critics have considered it an extremely revealing work; others, however, a little sincere sentimental explosion. The Ballad of Reading prison (1898), written at Berneval, France, very shortly after getting out of prison, and published anonymously in England, is one of its most powerful poems. In it he exhibits the hardness of prison life and the desperation of the prisoners. For many years, the name of Oscar Wilde endured the stigma imposed by the puritanical Victorian society. His works remain a universal validity.
Converted to Catholicism shortly before dying of meningitis on November 30, 1900 in the Hôtel d'Alsace, no. 13, rue des Beaux Arts in Paris because of an attack of meningitis.
And all men kill what you love,
hear it all over the world,
some do it with one bitter look, some with a MEW Word;
the coward with a kiss,
the brave with a sword!

Biography of Rafael Sanzio de Urbino

(1483-04-06 - 1520/04/06)

Rafael Sanzio Urbino
Raffaello Sanzio
Italian Renaissance painter
He was born on April 6, 1483 in Urbino.
Early in its formation were next to his father, the painter Giovanni Santi. He subsequently studied with Timoteo Viti in Urbino. Rafael, named PT divine teenager Apollo and Marsyas (Louvre Museum, Paris) and the dream of the Knight (1501, National Gallery, London). In 1499, he travels to Perugia, where he was Assistant to the painter Perugino. Then look very similar to his master's works: the marriage of the Virgin (1504, Brera Gallery, Milan, work painted in Florence) and the table of the altarpiece of Città di Castello, the Virgin and the Saints Jerome, Magdalena and John the Evangelist (1503, National Gallery, London).
In 1504 he comes to Florence, where he studied Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo , and Fra Bartolommeo, appreciating their anatomical studies and dramatic poses. A change of style taking the perspective of more natural and soft. Painted several madonnas: Madonna del Granduca (1504-1505, Palazzo Pitti, Florence). He exhibits the influence of Leonardo in the expression of serenity, the triangulated composition: the beautiful gardener (1507-1508, Louvre Museum, Paris) and the Madonna of the goldfinch (1505, Uffizi Gallery, Florence). Performs The Entombment of Christ (1507, Gallery Borghese, Rome).
In 1508 he moved to Rome, required by the Pope Julius II, who commissioned the mural decoration of four small stanze in the Vatican Palace. In the Stanza della Segnatura (1509-1511) shows a ceiling the allegories of the theology, philosophy, poetry and justice. The dispute, which represents the argument of the dogma of the Trinity is located in the wall, under theology. The famous School of Athens, under philosophy, represents to Plato, Aristotle and other ancient philosophers where argue. Under the poetry is Mount Parnassus where Apollo appears surrounded by the muses and the great poets. Finally, under justice, Gregory IX and Justinian showing their codes. La Stanza d´Heliodoro (1512-1514), contains scenes depicting the triumph of the Catholic Rome over their enemies.
When he died on Julio II in 1513 happens Leo X increasing the influence of Raphael. Master Builder of the St. Peter's Basilica in 1514, and a year later directs all archaeological excavations in Rome. Painted part of the third room of the Palace of the Vatican, of the Fire in the Borgo (1514-1517). The rest is the work of his assistants. To the Fourth Chamber, the Hall of Constantine, made designs. In addition he has paintings of easel, as the Portrait of Pope Julius II (1511-1512), The Sistine Madonna (c. 1514, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden); the Transfiguration (1517-1520, Vatican).
Rafael died in Rome on April 6, 15

Biography of Ferdinand VII of Spain

(1784/10/14 - 1833/09/29)

Ferdinand VII
King of Spain (1808-1833)
He was born on October 14, 1784 in El Escorial, Madrid.
Third son of Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma.
In 1802 he married Maria Antonia of Naples, who wept in desperation to see him for the first time; his mother described Fernando as "of horrible aspect", alluding to his fatness (had to weigh more than 100 kg), his piping voice and his apathetic nature. Eventually his wife took his affection, but the Princess died in 18It was secretly in contact with Napoleon and asked her a Princess of his family wife, until the plot was discovered and resulted in the process of El Escorial (October 1807 - January 1808). Just two months later the riot of Aranjuez reached full success: Godoy was dismissed and Carlos IV abdicated in his son Fernando VII began to reign (19 March 1808), in the midst of the popular enthusiasm, since it was considered as a victim of the hated Godoy, who feared even that pretend to impersonate him on the throne.
Ferdinand VII, next to the Royal family, was attracted to Bayonne by Napoleón Bonaparte, who forced him to resign from the Spanish Crown in its favour. Napoleon appointed King of Spain to his brother Jose, who reigned until 1814 with the name of Joseph I. During the war of independence, the Council of Regency, brought cuts in Cádiz(1810) and was declared the "sole and legitimate King of the nation Spanish don Fernando VII of Bourbon", as well as null and without effect the transfer of the Crown in favour of Napoleon.
In 1814, Fernando VII returned to Spain. A group of Deputies, presented the so-called Manifesto of the Persians, where he advised him the restoration of the absolutist system and the repeal of the Constitution prepared in the Cortes de Cádiz (1812). In the first stage of his Government there was a purge of liberal and francized. Liberal pronouncements as of Rafael del Riego (1820) in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla) occurred in the army that forced the King to swear to the Constitution.
The Trienio Liberal or constitutional (1820-1823) was the second stage of his reign where continued reform work initiated in 1810: abolition of the privileges of class, suppression of the manors, abolition of the entailed estates, suppression of the Inquisition, the criminal code preparation and recovery of the entry into force of the Constitution of 1812.
Since 1822, this reformist policy had its response in a counter-revolution in the Court, the so-called Regency of Urgell, supported by peasant elements, and abroad, with the Holy Alliance, who defended the rights of the absolute monarchsfrom the heart of Europe. April 7, 1823 entered Spain French troops commanded by general Duke of Angoulême, the Hundred thousand sons of St. Louis, who is joined by realistic Spanish troops. Without little opposition, absolutism was restored.
The last stage of the reign of Fernando VII was again absolutist. Again abolished the Constitution and all the institutions existing in January 1820, except the Inquisition were re-established. The final years of the reign were focused on the succession issue.
The Salic law, which prevented reign women was valid since 17In 1789, the courts adopted a Pragmatic sanction which repealed it, but it was not published until 1830, when the King, on his fourth marriage, to María Cristina de Borbón, expected a successor. Soon after, born Princess Isabel. The Court then formed a group of 'pure realistic', advocating the candidacy to the throne of the brother of the King, don Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, and denied the legality of pragmatics published in 1830.
In 1832, during a serious illness of the King, courtiers Carlist convinced the Minister Francisco Tadeo Calomarde, who managed Fernando VII to sign a decree repealing of pragmatics, leaving again in force the Salic law (recovering the regulation of 1713). With the improvement of the health of the King the Government headed by Francisco Cea Bermúdez put back into effect pragmatics, with what, to the death of the King in Madrid, on September 29, 1833, was left as heir his eldest daughter Isabel (Isabel II).