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Concept of AbacoAn abacus is an appliance that is used to perform simple arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction and multiplication). Consists of a wooden box with parallel bars that are movable ball, useful also for teaching these simple calculations. Its origin goes back to the area of Asia minor, many years before our era.
The term "abacus" is a word in several languages, with several possible etymological sources discussed. Latin terms were used abacus and the respective plural, abaci. Abax or abakon, meaning "flat" or "table" was used in the Greek language. Another likely source is the Abaq Semitic word meaning "dust". In the language Tamazigt (berber) even today in some dialects abaq means seed.
The seeds, along with small rods and pebbles or stones, called "calculi" in latin and is employed to calculate in the abacus, they were the first items used to perform the calculation in the history of mankind.
Equivalents of the word abacus in other languages: Chinese Suan Pan is in Japanese Soroban, Korean Tschu bread, Vietnamese Ban Tuan or Ban Tien, Russian Schoty, Coulba Turkish and Armenian Choreb.
It is an instrument of calculation that uses accounts that slide along a series of wires or metal bars or wood attached to a framework to represent the units, tens, hundreds, thousand, tens of thousand, hundred of thousand units, and so on. It was invented in Asia minor and is considered the precursor of the modern digital calculator. Used by merchants in the middle ages throughout Europe and the Arab world, he was replaced gradually by arithmetic based on indo-arabes numbers. Although rarely used in Europe after the 18th century, is still used in the Middle East, Russia, China, Japan and Korea.
The abacus is considered as the oldest instrument of calculation, adapted and appreciated in various cultures. The time of origin of the abacus is indeterminate. In very early times, primitive man found materials to devise instruments of count. It is likely that your home was on a surface flat and stones that moved on lines drawn with dust. Nowadays tend to think that the origin of the abacus is located in China, where the use of this instrument is still notable as in Japan. Other views argue that the abacus was born in sub-Saharan Africa, where the ancestors of the current abacus were chessboards scratched in the sand or rocks, used both to perform arithmetic calculations such as to play various traditional intelligence, that games in the Sahara and the Canary Islands are very abundant.
As much of the arithmetic was initially performed with the abacus, this term has become a synonym for arithmetic. That name is text Liber Abaci Italian mathematician Leonardo de Pisa Fibbonacci published in two editions in 1202 and 1228, which deals with the use of the indo-arabigos numbers. The copy that has seen the light at present, corresponds to the edition of 1228.
He disappeared to dispose of other methods to make calculations, to such an extent that it was impossible to find trace of his technique.
The evidence of the use of the abacus arise in opinions of the ancient Greek writers. For example, Demosthenes (384-322 BC) wrote about the need for the use of stones to perform difficult mentally perform calculations. Another example is the calculation methods found in the comments of Herodotus (484-425 BC), speaking of the Egyptians said: "the Egyptians move your right hand to left in calculations, as the Greeks are from left to right".
Some of the physical evidence of the existence of the abacus were found in ancient times of the Greeks in the archaeological excavations. A great amphora of 120 cm of height, which was called Cup of Dario and appears a figure representing a counter that performs calculations by manipulating accounts between whose drawings was found in 1851. The second archaeological sample is a real Board count found in 1846 on the island of Salamis; Board of Salamis, probably used in Babylon 300 BC, is a great piece of marble 149 cm long by 75 cm wide, with inscriptions that refer to certain types of coins of the era; This Board is broken into two parts. Moreover, it is known that Romans employed his abacus with limestone stones or marble for the accounts to which they called "calculi" which is the root of the word calculation.
It was frequent that, in school, the abacus was used to teach students the basic operations of arithmetic. In the trade, on the other hand, the abacus was used to make accounts.
In America, the local populations that were settled in the territory prior to European arrival employed a kind of Abacus which was known as quipu, whose strings could tie in a different way to tell or even to transmit messages.
The invention of the calculator and computer made that abacus lose popularity, despite the fact that is still used in several Asian countries.
In this sense, we can establish currently worldwide makes use of the abacus from the billiard players. And it is that said item or system is that used to go by marking the points that will be adding each of the participants of the game.
It is common to hear about natural abacus that comes to define the hand of any be human. A designation this that is due to the fact that it is considered that this part of the body is the most ancient abacus which has made calculations and mathematical operations since ancient times.
It is also the abacus of reading which is a table that is used to teach reading to children or the Pythagorean abacus which is used to carry out tasks of mathematical multiplication.