ADS BY GOOGLE
CastlesA castle (from the latin castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the middle ages by the nobility. Scholars debate the extent of the word Castle, but generally considered that it is the private fortified residence of a Lord or noble. This is different from a palace that is not fortified, from a fortress, which was not always a residence of nobility, and a fortified settlement, which was a public defense - although there are many similarities between this type of construction. The use of the term has changed over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. During the approximately 900 years that castles were built they took in a large number of forms with many different characteristics, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits, were very common.
A European innovation, castles originated in the 9 and 10 centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire as a result its territory is divided between individual Princes and Lords. These noble built castles to control the immediately surrounding area, and were offensive and defensive structures, but rather provide a base from which it could launch attacks, as well as protection from enemies. Despite its military origins often stood the Castle studies, the structures also serve as centres of administration and symbols of power. Urban castles were used to control the local population and important travel routes, and rural castles is often close to the features that they were an integral part of life in the community, such as factories and fertile lands.
Many castles were originally built of Earth and wood, but their defenses had later been replaced by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, and lacked features such as towers and it was based on a central tower. At the end of the 13th century and principles of the 12, emerged a scientific approach to the defense of the Castle. This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis in that flanqueara the fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence one inside each other entering function at the same time to maximize firepower of the Castle. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of technology, Castle of the Crusades, as concentric fortification, and inspiration from earlier defenses, as Roman forts. Not all elements of the architecture of the castles were of military nature, and devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power. Some large castles long have had approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape.
While gunpowder was introduced into Europe in the 14th century, did not affect significantly the Castle until the 15th century, when artillery became in powerful enough to break through walls of stone. While castles continued building until well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire makes them unfriendly and undesirable for living places. As a result, Royal Castles fall into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, and rural houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century, there was a renewed interest in castles, with the construction of castles of drills, which forms part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military objective.
Main parts of a castleThe wall. All enclosure goes fenced a high and thick wall with a path that runs at its top. Of stretch on stretch, cubes or towers that allow diversifying shooting angles and defend themselves are interspersed in the wall. All canvases are often topped by battlements for the protection of defenders. It is also common to have flown POEs to improve the conditions of firing on the attackers. At the foot of the wall and surrounded by outside a moat is sometimes opened to prevent the approach of the enemy; saves with drawbridges. There may be more than one walled defensive ring.
Torre del homenaje. It is the main tower, which serves as the residence of the Lord and complies with the most important functions of the Castle, Harbor rooms major and, occasionally, food stores. More sheltered in relation to a possible foreign attack, is in the position so if sucumbiese the rest of the defenses, this tower provide a last refuge.
Barbican Tower: is a work of fortification in front of the walls and protecting an access door. They could have fortified own portals of mandatory step to access the main gate
Comb or rake tends to be a heavy grating, topped below on tips that it formed part of the fortifications of the door next to the drawbridge and the Barbican.
Battlements, were as function protecting defenders, some had holes, as embrasures (for firearms) or loopholes (to launch throwing weapons
Adarve or camino de ronda, where defenders are parapetaban.
The courtyard: is a central space around the patio where certain rooms, as the Chapel (when there is one), the banquet room, ships for quartering of troops, etc. are distributed The entrance to the Castle occurs through the courtyard; He is accessed from the rest of the units.