Definitions and concepts of genome
Definition of genomeThe genome is all of the genetic information which possesses an organism or a species in particular. In eukaryotic organisms genome comprises the DNA contained in the nucleus, organized into chromosomes, and the mitochondrial genome. The term was coined in 1920 by Hans Winkler, Professor of botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany, as a portmanteau of the words gene and chromosome.
Diploid organisms have two copies of the genome in their cells, due to the presence of pairs of homologous chromosomes. Agencies or haploid cells only contain a copy. There are also agencies polyploid, with groups of homologous chromosomes.
The sequencing of the genome of a species no analyzes genetic diversity or the polymorphism of genes. The comparison between individuals through genotyping is required to study variations in a gene.
The investigations carried out so far suggest that the complexity of the human genome is not already in the number of genes, but how part of these genes are used to build different products in a process that is called alternative splicing (alternative splicing). Another important reason for this complexity lies in the fact that there are thousands of chemical modifications to manufacture proteins as well as of the Repertoire of mechanisms that regulate this process.
Fields of application of genomic research
• In medicine, they are used genetic tests for the diagnosis of diseases, confirmation diagnosed, information of forecasting as well as the course of the disease, to confirm the presence of disease in asymptomatic patients and, with varying degrees of certainty, to predict the risk of future disease in healthy people and in their offspring. Genome information can also be used for the study of susceptibility to diseases.[citation required]. The possibility of development of techniques or to treat hereditary diseases. The procedure involves replacing, manipulating, or supplementing nonfunctional genes with functional genes. In essence, the gene therapy is the introduction of genes into the DNA of a person to treat diseases. The possible creation of drugs tailored to the patient pharmacogenomics and gene therapy.
• Microbial genomics, with applications in the development of drugs, among others.
• Ark., anthropology, evolution and study of human migration, paleogenetics mainly from fossil DNA
• Identification by DNA.
• Agriculture and bioprocesamiento.
Concept of genomeIt is called the genome of one species to the whole of the genetic information encoded in one or several molecules (Acido Desoxirribo nucleic) DNA (very few species RNA), where keys are stored for the differentiation of the cells that form different tissues and organs of an individual. Through the propagated from individuals that information is permanently reformatted and transmitted to descendants, constituting a dynamic population.
This coded information set is the genome, and of the resulting morphological and functional characteristics of the "expression" of this information characterizes every species of living beings.
Definition of genomeIn the year 1920, and as a portmanteau of the words gene and oma, was when the genome concept emerged from the hands of Hans Winkler (Professor of Botany of the University of Hamburg). A term used primarily in the field of science and in particular in the biology.
The meaning given such term the dictionary of the Real Academia Española de la Lengua is the gene pool of a species or an individual that are contained in a single set of chromosomes. I.e., the genetic information of a being in question.
Wide is the amount of information contained in the genome which brings with it that is excessively complex study of the same and this is due not only to one itself but also to the chemical changes that occur or the process that occurs and that is called alternative splicing.
Today the cited study of this concept and everything he involves has become a very important issue within the scope of science. And all this because thanks to him achieve benefits such as the diagnosis and prevention of various diseases.
And not to forget that studies of susceptibility to diseases, interventions on a specific disease, assessments of risk and also the DNA identification are developed also thanks to his research.
Concept of genomeIn the field of genetics, there is no doubt that the genome concept is the more central and relevant, one on which all investigations and works are carried out. The genome is the set of genetic and hereditary characteristics that make up each individual and make it completely unique and different from all the others. This genetic burden applies not only to human beings if not also to animals, plants and other living beings. However, the study of the genome has been particularly interesting in reference to humans and other animals since it has allowed to develop significant advances and improvements in the quality of life.
It can be estimated that early progress in the field of genetics were made in the mid-19th century, but it would not be until the mid-20th century and particularly in the last decades of this century that could understand and isolate the human complex genetic system comprehensively. Newly in 2003 is accomplished complete sequence of the genes that make up the human being and which differentiate it from other living beings.
The genome is found in DNA (or deoxyribonucleic acid) of each individual animal or plant and therefore is unrepeatable, unique in its style. This DNA is present in all cells that make up an organism, in the case of human beings, each of them has a number of 46 chromosomes which, in addition to determining the physical and biological traits of each individual, give you sex (being those belonging to male sex chromosomes XY and XX to the feminine). Each of these chromosomes is the drive that hosts the genes that can range from 400 to more than 3300 genes per chromosome.
The discovery and isolation of the human genome has been one of the most important advances of modern science that has allowed scientists from around the world and from different areas, developing significant discoveries and theories which, applied to everyday life, they may represent significant changes in the quality of life of living beings, especially of the human being. Examples of this can be the treatment and cures for numerous diseases, access to organ transplants, the development of new techniques of fertilization, etc.
Definition of genomeIt is called hereditary coding genome that possess living beings in their cellular structure, the genome is a compound in the style of a "database" natural in which is contained the information of a generation. The composition of a eukaryotic cell allows that this genome protected by lipid layers within the cell, which implies one fortress in the preservation of the species, as opposed to prokaryotic cells which have genomic compound scattered in the cytoplasm, including forming part and cell shape. Species genome is a subject of extensive study, evolved after the invention of the microscope, the generation of data according to the performance of the species allows researchers formulate and design structures of the genome in computers and analyze each one of the relevant aspects and not in a highly complex study, medical purposes.
Medicine evolved significantly in the past century, because in addition to contain relevant information about the trajectory of the specimen, traits that define the origin of the strains of many diseases, vital information for the search for the cure of these were found. It is important that the use of Microbiology in this aspect is only a tool rather than technology presto, however thanks to her progress in the study of the genome of human beings has been significant.
Modern science discovered a compound in cells called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in the all the genetic information necessary to determine the composition of the genome. Each DNA structure is conformed by a certain amount of chromosomes, which contain physical data of being alive (gestural, physical traits, body, sex, among other shapes) which are divided according to sex XY and XX. Humans have 46 chromosomes, 23 XY and 23 20th, each containing an average of 2000 genes each with small data, relevant hereditary formation of the living being. Today, after having desentrañado the mysteries of the origin of man scientifically, genetics is focused on the study of the genome of the species in order to find cures for diseases that do not have failed to be controlled at all, such as Cancer, AIDS and many other.