Monday, January 14, 2013

What is the meaning of Human genome? Concept, Definition of Human genome


Definitions and concepts of human genome

Definition of human genome

The human genome is the genome of Homo sapiens, i.e. the sequence of DNA contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of every human cell diploid.
Of the 23 pairs, 22 are autosomal chromosomes and a crucial couple of sex (two X chromosomes in women and one X and one in men). The haploid genome (i.e. with a single representation of each pair) has a total length of approximately 3200 million base pairs of DNA (3200 Mb) containing about 20,000-25,000 genes (the most recent estimates point to about 20,500). The 3200 Mb approximately 2950 Mb correspond to euchromatin and approximately 250 Mb to heterochromatin. The human genome project produced a sequence of reference human genome euchromatic, used worldwide in biomedical sciences.
DNA sequence that makes up the human genome contains encoded information necessary for expression, highly coordinated and adaptable to environment, the proteome of human, i.e., the set of human proteins. Proteins, and not DNA, are the main effector biomolecules; they have structural, enzymatic, metabolic, regulatory, indicator functions..., organizing on huge functional networks of interactions. In short, the proteome based the particular morphology and functionality of each cell. Furthermore, the structural and functional organization of the different cells complies each tissue and each organ, and, finally, the living organism as a whole. Thus, the human genome contains the basic information needed for the physical development of a complete human being.
The human genome has a gene density much lower than that initially had predicted, with only around 1.5% of its length composed by coding exons of proteins. 70% Is composed of extragenico DNA and 30% by sequences related to genes. Of the total of extragenico DNA, approximately 70% corresponds to scattered repetitions, so that, more or less, half of the human genome is repetitive sequences of DNA. For its part, the total DNA related genes is estimated that 95% corresponds to non-coding DNA: pseudogenes, fragments of genes, introns or UTR sequences, among others.

Concept of human genome

The human genome is, in other words, the information contained in the chromosomes, making that the human being is as it is and that you can differentiate from other living beings. The human genome is what gives identity to each of us and has to do with our genetic history as well as physical and psychological traits that can be determined before hand. Obviously, knowledge of the human genome is a fundamental step to finish know exactly how a human being is constituted from the biological and genetic point of view.
To better understand the importance of the human genome, we can say that each of us has genes that are transmitted by our predecessors. This information is stored in our chromosomes. They are responsible for storing this information and thus determine issues such as sex, eye color, hair type, skin type, the composition of our bodies, possible diseases or hereditary complications, our adaptaci+on to the environment, etc. This genetic information is also known as DNA. While it allows us to differentiate ourselves from each other, also lets us establish basic rules of human beings that they differ from the rest of human beings.
This information shows a relevance magnificent in regard to the work of science. As well, following the discovery or the power finally completed the sequencing of the human genome, scientists can begin to develop numerous works and investigacioens that have to do with the formation of that genome, the way which conforms the human being as being unique, possible solutions or treatments to diseases or complications, etc.

Definition of human genome

The human genome is the genetic coding in which all the hereditary information is contained and behavior of human beings. Being this structure genetic of greater complexity in the animal world, it has the necessary information so that one generation with the same human genome has the same features or at least accept a few in a single composition. The human genome is set in a generic way, observing in the 23 pairs of chromosomes. A chromosome study has revealed the complex composition of this structure, yielding the following data: consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, each with a different function, they provide the basic hereditary material DNA in total, 22 chromosomes are structural, and the last couple, they carry sexual information, however one of them predominates in the pair, thus determining the sexuality of the specimen.
The human genome has its own unit, the gene. The gene is the minimum expression of structure, in which a portion of the code is saved, the human genome is composed of millions of these genes and thus represent the slightest variable of the equation of human life. Human cells, eukaryotes by definition, have a movement accelerated, developing functions in the body from the moment is fertilized, the human genome begins to form mother's acquiring the necessary components that inherit from it, by the father, the spermatozoon is entered in the egg because takes charge of paternal DNA needed for breeding. This combination of different patterns, makes to create a new, similar but with different genomic structure, is for this reason that the human genome is unique in its style, since it has the quality of distance himself considerably from their origins, at the same time that maintains a common hereditary character.
The human genome as well as being a magnificent structure conceived with genetic characters, is also hereditary quintessential diseases Center, because the composition of chromosomes, there are no inverted, extra, or identical to his counterpart, are generated mutations and strange diseases usually associated with physical deformities or changes in behaviour relatively not acceptable.

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