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Defining relationships work ‒ compendium of concepts and meanings
1. Definition of industrial relationsTheir employment or labour relations are those that are established between labour and capital in the productive process. In that relationship, the person who brings the work is called worker, insofar as that provides the capital is called the employer, employer or entrepreneur. The worker is always a physical person, while the employer can be both a natural person and a legal person. In modern societies the employment relationship is regulated by a contract of employment in which both parties are formally free. However an isolated worker is in a situation in fact of weakness against the employer that prevents you establish a free relationship, by what means that an employment relationship to be truly free should be collectively, between the workers organized trade unions and the employer.
The contract of employment are the rules governing the employment relationship. The contract of employment has a compulsory minimum content laid down in all the above, among them the labor law and labor law.
Individual labour relations are that establishes a worker isolated directly with your employer or its representative. Collective labour relations are that establishes a Union or group of unions with a company or employer organization, or a group of a few.
In the individual employment relationship, the worker is in a situation of dependency or subordination of the employer. This legal inequality hinders the possibility of a privity between the parties, since the will of the worker is affected. In addition, workers often find themselves in a situation of economic weakness against the employer. For this reason Alain Suppiot has argued that the civil law fails when it tries to be applied to the individual employment relationship and that the only working world can be civilized if the worker organized trade unions and collectively negotiate with the employer.
2 Concept of labour relationsThe expression labour relations is commonly used to refer to the practices and rules that structure relations between employees, the em¬presarios and the State in different fields: within a company, a branch of activity, a particular territory or the economy in general. These relacio¬nes can be individual or collective, so the actors can be directly involved either can be related through their repre¬sentantes (such as groups, trade unions of employees, the business orga¬nizaciones or even the institutions of the State). In addition, these relationships can be informal and formal (agreements, collective agreements, re¬glamentos, laws, etc.).
This broad definition of industrial relations allows you to delimit a scientific research cam¬po within which specialists can opt for certain research topics, such as the study of the sin¬dical movement, business associations, labour disputes, collective bargaining, and others.
Labour relations have been developed together with the process of indus¬trializacion in Western countries since the second half of the century xvm. The expression labour relations has as antecedent the expression anglosajo¬na Industrial Relations, that appears towards the end of the 19th century, as we have already indicated above. This term appears for the first time in 1885 and is enshrined as an expression by 1924, with the creation of a Department of industrial relations in the British Ministry of labour. Twelve years more tar¬de, also in the United States, was created a Committee on industrial relations commissioned by President William Howard Taft to analyze the causes of a conflict arising from a fatal accident, as well as to propose means to remedy the situation.
In other words, the collective action organized, public recognition of unions and the creation of bodies of mediation in the conflict have been fundamental to the development of this discipline. In England and United States, the development of trade unions and the social upheaval generated at the beginning of the 20th century led to a political and academic interest in research, often sponsored by employers, Governments and institutes specialized in issues studies labor. Therefore, the labor relacio¬nes become not only an object of study, but also a University discipli¬na recognized, what contributes to the generation of specialized publications and the establishment of professional associations, such as the IRRA - In¬dustrial Relations Research Association, founded in 1948-(Lallement, 1996).
3 Meaning of labour relationsReferred to as labour relations to the link established between two or more persons in the workplace or work. Labour relations are those that are generated between one who offered their labour force (either physical or mental) and one that offers capital or the media production the first person to perform the task (an example of this would be an Office employee and owner or boss that gives the work space plus all the necessary resources to carry out the task).
One of the most distinctive features of labour relations is that they tend to be unbalanced in the sense that there always are someone who has the power to start them or finish them at their convenience, and that person is that hires the employee or that it gives you the means of production so that it can work. In many cases, labour relations become problematic when the employer uses that power to your favor overreact to practical conduct of labour abuse.
Labour relations have various elements that organize them universally. One of the most important elements of any employment relationship on the one hand, is the salary or payment that the person will receive for their work. The amount of the salary may be universally imposed (e.g., for a specific activity know that the agreed minimum must be so much money) or may vary depending on specific circumstances (if the worker is autonomous, if the work is temporary, if it is for hours, if they are paid hours overtime, etc.). In general, the State is responsible for establishing policies that respect the rights of workers both in the public sphere and the private and even though it knows that the public sphere is more stable in this regard, private can also be controlled by the State.
Another important issue in the field of labour relations is the contract although it exists universally nor nor historically because longtime labour relations were established (and still establishing) based on the word of the people involved. The contract is the document which contains the conditions of work, the type of task to develop, the type of payment and other aggregate arrangements that can be made (for example, setting the salary for periods of inflation or increase of tasks). The contract is the most important legal part of labour relations and must be respected by both parties.
4. What is labour relationsLabour relations can be defined as: "the way in which decisions are made to distribute the fruits of production between producers and those who provide the means to cause the same..." Vega Ruiz (1994).
"... analyzed approaches revolve around of the explanation of the power and decision-making... by the importance conferred all the approaches to the conflict and to the consensus... This does more than recognize that labour relations are relations of force, where what matters is to determine who makes the decisions and that way... "." Cedrola.
Its object of analysis lies in "the study of the rules governing labour relations, together with the means by which are made, changed, interpreted and administered..., in turn, the study of unions, companies and public organizations linked with labour relations. These sectors represent the interests of classes and certain groups of a concrete society. The relations of power between them will be affected by the economic and political structure of the society where they operate, overall to be considered in the analysis of the parties... framework "." Lucena.
"... the set of social and economic, that are born on the occasion of the production of economic goods and relationships that are both individual and collective." Such set of social and economic relationships, presents one important enough in every society, to be of academic concern." G. Dion (1994) "lensemble des rapports économiques et sociaux, individuels et collectifs, formels e informels, structures et non structures, qui naissent et stablissent to locassion travail, aussi comme lensemble du de connaissances faisant appel a divers disciplines qui permettent de comprendre, dexpliquer, prevoir et de amenager les rapports économiques et sociaux mentionnes". Gérard Dion (2004) "an interdisciplinary field that encompasses the study of all facets of the man at work, including the study of individuals, groups of workers who may or may not be organized, the behaviour of the employer or trade union organizations, public policy or legal framework that dictates the conditions of employment, the economy of labour problems and even the comparative analysis of the different systems of industrial relations in different countries in" different periods of time." Thomas Kochan (1980).
5. Definition of industrial relationsLabour relations are links that are established in the field of labour. They usually refer to relations between labour and capital in the framework of the production process.
In modern societies, labour relations are regulated by a contract of employment, which stipulates the rights and obligations of both parties. For example, the employment contract States a worker access to compensation if he is fired without just cause.
On the other hand, must be taken into account that labour relations can be individual or collective. Individual labour relations are an isolated worker sets with your employer or your direct representative. On the other hand, collective labour relations are that establishes a trade union representing the workers with a company or employer's organization.
Collective relations arise to minimize the situation of dependence and subordination between the worker and the employer. The Union has more power to impose its conditions and achieve a fair and equitable employment relationship.
Relations between employers and workers organizations, among if or with the State as an intermediary, are known as social dialogue. These relations are based on the principle of tripartism, which means that the most important issues related to employment should be resolved between the three main parties involved: the State, capital and labour.
As in all types of interpersonal relationships, there are various points of conflict that hamper the functioning of companies. Without a doubt, pay represents one of the most delicate to deal between an employer and its employees. It is important that the compensation is fair compensation for the work done, and this is something that normally happens.
On the one hand, many workers hide behind the lack of job opportunities to not require that their rights be complied for fear of being fired. On the other hand, many employers take advantage of this situation to exploit their employees. While, at first glance, this box heads seem unjust and reckless beings, to get a change it is necessary to modify the behavior of the people who accepted a lower salary to which you deserve.
The right to holidays and free days by own affairs is often the center of many discussions in the companies, and its breach causes a deep discontent and a lack of attachment to the work, resulting in a silent war that, as in any war, does not benefit anyone. If in the absence of respect is answered in the same way, the image of a company fogging of situations such as the reluctance when it comes to the public, theft of materials by employees and poorly finished tasks.
In recent years, some companies have adopted a model of work known as "horizontal hierarchy". Basically, it consists in giving employees the feeling of not being below their heads, which is what happens in traditional organizations. He is not a question of altering the organizational structure, nor give the same amount to all members, but take advantage of tools such as the dialogue to improve the overall experience and, therefore, the performance of the company. Other common resources are to enable each view to your liking, locate all offices at the same level and use translucent walls to eliminate the idea that employers are beings higher and inaccessible.
International labour relations, on the other hand, arise in 1919, when the International Labour Organization (ILO) is formed. Its function is to channel the relations between States, the organizations of workers and employers.