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Definition of paradigm ‒ compendium of concepts and meanings
1. Definition of paradigmThe term paradigm means <> or <>. In wide scientific, religious or other epistemological context, the term paradigm can indicate the concept of formal organization scheme, and be used as a synonym for frame theory or set of theories. This concept was originally specific grammar; in 1992 the Merriam-Webster Dictionary defined its use only in such a context, or in rhetoric to refer to a parable or a fable. In Linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure used paradigm to refer to a class of elements with similarities. The term also has a meaning in the field of Psychology referring to acceptances of ideas, thoughts and beliefs generally incorporated during our first stage of life which are accepted as true or false without putting to test a new analysis.
The term paradigm comes from the Greek word παράδειγμα (paradeigma) which in turn is divided into two words "Pará" (together) and "deigma" (model), in general, etymologically means «model» or «example». At the same time it has the same roots that «show».
In general terms you can define the term paradigm as how to visualize and interpret the multiple concepts, schemes or models of the behavior in all stages of humanity in the psychological and philosophical, influencing the development of different societies as well as enterprises, integrated and influenced by economic, intellectual, technological, scientific, cultural, artistic, and religious to be applied can suffer modifications or developments according to the situations for the benefit of all.
The philosopher and scientist Thomas Kuhn gave paradigm its contemporary meaning when he adopted it to refer to the set of practices that define a scientific discipline during a particular period of time. The same Kuhn preferred the exemplary terms or normal science, which have more exact philosophical meaning. However, in his book the structure of scientific revolutions defines a paradigm in the following manner:
• What must be observed and scrutinized;
• the type of questions that are supposed to be formulation to find answers in relation to the objective;
• how these questions should be structured and
• how the results of scientific research should be interpreted.
"I think to the paradigms as universally recognized scientific achievements that provide models of problems and solutions to a scientific community for some time," Thomas Kuhn.
Paradigmatic models are models metaphysical and epistemological, providing "context" in which different theoretical models and theories of a lower level, are formed by presenting the General guidelines of grouping of the different theories.
Alternatively, the Oxford Dictionary defines paradigm as "a pattern or model, an example". Thus, an additional component of the Kuhn definition is:
How should lead an experiment and what equipment is available to do it.
Thus, within normal science, a paradigm is the set of exemplary experiments able to be copied or emulated; being the base for creating a scientific consensus. The paradigm prevalent in the prevailing consensus, often a more specific way of seeing reality, or the limitations of proposals for future research; more than a much more generic scientific method. This could lead us to a positivist paradigm.
2 Concept of paradigmThe term paradigm denotes those relevant aspects of a situation which can be taken as an example, even the etymology of the word tells us that this can be a synonym for example, however, paradigm is used in other contexts not as simple as those used with the word example. The curious thing about this term is its origin, because there is that it takes the idea that a paradigm is nothing more than a set of actions that follow or run to conclude with a common good or social strength. Derived from Greek philosophy, was Plato who gave the shape of "Role model" and not as simple example is believed to use it in a context without any suction.
This gives us to understand that the paradigm Word is used to denote those acts which are the best reference for a path to follow, a good education with genuine and worthy of the acceptance of teachers moral values, is not more than a social paradigm for the integration of someone notable. Comply with the paradigms imposed by a society usually indicates the overcoming of the expectations of the group, as consequence comes to promotions or chains of descent. Organizations active profit as a company, use paradigmatic examples for which their employees strengthen the value of the company and thus qualify for a spot of more rank and prestige in the placed order.
Science applies paradigms from another point of view more practical, aimed at the discovery of new paths of research, the constant pursuit of data that assist with the resolution of their problems, they pose a scientific paradigm, which with methods of investigation and deduction will be understood and resolved. Paradigms trace lines to pursue in any field that applies the term, because, despite not being a classic to be used in each case, continues to be generic, so it can be used in any situation in which deserves a good example to follow in any actions as they occur.
3 Meaning of paradigmA paradigm is a model or pattern sustained in a scientific or epistemological discipline or, on a different scale, in other contexts of a society.
The word 'paradigm' comes from the Greek and means "model" or "example". The concept of paradigm dates back to the late ' 60s and refers to a specific model of thought or interpretation of entities corresponding to a discipline and a sociohistorical context given. Anyway, the concept is broad and may also refer to a complex model as an explanation of certain scientific phenomenon and something so casual and variable as it is the interpretation of social relations.
In either case, a paradigm implies a certain understanding of the things that promotes a way of thinking in particular above other.
For science, the idea of paradigm is associated with which gave the scientist Thomas Kuhn in his book "The structure of the scientific revolutions". For him, a paradigm is defined as that which must be observed and scrutinized; the type of questions that need to be formulated to find answers in a target lathe; the structuring of these questions; and the interpretation of scientific results.
Since this type of interpretation, the paradigm is basically a model of how should carry out research and scientific experiments with the concept in mind that this model can be replicated. However, in scientific practice, a paradigm is much more than an experimental model, but it also responds to the way in which the scientific field agents understand, think and do science.
The same applies to social ladder. For example, in terms of how in a moment of history societies understand the world of one way or another.
When speaking of "paradigm shift", then, refers to the evolution of thought that occurs in the disciplines and societies throughout history and which promotes the emergence of a new prevailing model of thought.
4. What is paradigmBefore entering full exposure of the meaning and different meanings that has the term paradigm, we must determine the etymological origin of the same. In particular it is in the Latin word paradigm, although it is true that this in turn comes from the Greek. More precisely it comes from παράδειϒμα, formed from the union of the prefix "para", which means together, and the word "deigma" which translates as sample or model.
The concept of paradigm (a word derived from the Greek paradeigma) is used in everyday life as a synonym for "example" or to refer to something that is taken as a 'model'. In principle, he had in mind at the grammatical level (to define their use in a certain context) and valued from the rhetoric (to make mention of a parable or Fable). From the Decade of the 1960s, expanded the scope of the notion and 'paradigm' became a common term in the scientific vocabulary and epistemological expressions when it was necessary to talk about models or patterns.
In this sense, in its meaning as a "model", could establish an example like the following: the work of Valentino is a paradigm for many young designers.
One of the first figures of the history that addressed the concept that concerns us now was the great Greek philosopher Plato who performed his own definition of what he considered that it was a paradigm. In this sense, the aforementioned exposed thinker that this word was coming to determine what are the ideas or the types of example of a thing in question.
The American Thomas Kuhn, an expert in philosophy and a prominent figure in the world of science, was who was in charge of renewing the theoretical definition of this term to give one meaning according to the current times, adapt it to describe with a series of practices that trace the guidelines of a scientific discipline over a certain period of time.
In this way, a scientific paradigm establishes what must be observed; the kind of questions that must be developed to get answers about the purpose pursued; what structure must possess such questions and brand guidelines indicating the path of interpretation for the results of a scientific investigation.
When a paradigm can not already meet the requirements of a science (e.g. to new findings that invalidate previous knowledge), is succeeded by another. It says that a paradigm shift is something dramatic to science, since these appear how stable and mature.
However, it is also necessary to make it very clear that paradigm is a term that we can use it in other fields outside of the scientific area. In this sense, it is also very used, and frequently, in the area of Linguistics where is used to refer to a whole set of words which, within the same context, can be used interchangeably.
Thus, if we had this expression, of__ was blind, we could complete it in that hole using a series of nouns such as man, child, elderly person, cat or bird.
In the social sciences, the paradigm is related to the concept of worldview. The concept is used to mention all those experiences, beliefs, experiences and values that affect and influence the way a person sees the reality and acts accordingly. This means that a paradigm is also the way in which the world is understood.
5. Definition of paradigmA paradigm can mean following its etymology derived from the Greek word 'paradeigma', model or example.
According to Saussure (1916) the linguistic paradigms are associative relations, making for example perceive a certain linguistic connection between all the poems, which have something in common or the families of words. The language constitutes a system or structure consisting of articulated formal elements. Each sign is worth in their opposition to other signs.
In the field of science paradigms are experimental models, which are used to perform others. In 1905, Albert Einstein, published his theory of special relativity, which changed the paradigm that Isaac Newton had imposed.
Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) dealt with the study of scientific revolutions which are changes in paradigms old new irreconcilable with the previous ones, which produce the scientific advance, since always a paradigm will be replaced with a new one when the old can not cope with the difficulties that arise in its application. Paradigm called the agreements shared by a community of scientists. In his later years he abandoned this concept of paradigm, to talk about scientific progress as an increasingly strict specialization object of Sciences, who fenced his field, to differentiate from other sciences. The paradigm limited the scope of application to issues that fall under its object.
Paradigm in social science is a way of understanding a reality that is perceived by the individual, and whose answers are modifying it. I.e. the paradigm affect the individual, and the sum of individual behaviours vary model or paradigm. Why societies change their values, their beliefs, their customs.
The Economist Adam Smith defined the paradigms as a set of shared assumptions that explain the reality and predict future behaviors.
6. Definition of paradigmConcept of platonic philosophy that designates the exemplary world of ideas, in which participates the sensitive world. In Linguistics is a model of forms of nominal and verbal inflection applicable to a same class of words; for example, the paradigna of a verbal conjunction. The meaning of the term is also extensible to the lexicon and semantics.
A paradigna is the theoretical framework on which are inscribed the scientific doctrines. According to Kuhn, the paradigms they evolve, being revealed by new paradigms more in line with the manifestations of reality.
It is important to note that each time it constitutes essentially in relation to how man is thought at the time, how raises the value of the present, the value of past and future value.
How how raises the sense of man at the time undergoes variations from different paradigms that govern the thinking at every stage and at the same time, the influence that the authors of these exercises (eg. The Greeks, the Jewish people, Christian people, modernity, the Renaissance, etc.).
From the enlightenment thinking, man acquires a free conscience: the idea that man and nature, are territories open to this new experience. A new opportunity for change of the old paradigms, begin to assess the philosophers of this period stressing the opportunity that man has radically modify the historical, social, cultural conditions who founded his own experience.
Man acquires a new "universality" where the concept of equality is discussed as an important element within the new enlightened thinking. No longer seek differences and pluralities that generate conflict among men, but it is postulated a conception of common universality, i.e., a definition of humanity that runs through the set of men.