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Definition of Federal ‒ compendium of concepts and meanings
1. Definition of FederalA form of organization of the State where this is divided into smaller, autonomous, administrative political units as enArgentina, where the power of the provincial States is not fully sovereign, but it must respect the hierarchically superior norms, as for example, the provincial constitutions cannot be in opposition to the provisions of the national, and at the same time the national State is known as federalin situations serious, can intervene the provinces. Members of the federal State are never fully sovereign because in that case it would be a Confederation.
These smaller units can be called States, in United States; cantons in Switzerland; or provinces as happens in Argentina, where the Government national, through its Executive Branch, headed by the President and the National Congress takes general decisions, but at the same time, local through Governors and legislatures provincial bodies, apply its power in the territories within its jurisdiction, and have their own courts, except cases subject to federal jurisdiction. Also the powers that are reserved municipalities are respected.
In United States the States retain all power not given to the federal Government. The American Constitution of 1787, has become a model of federalism.
In Argentina the federal form is enshrined and article 2 of the Constitution after long struggles internal faced by the proponents of these ideas (Federal) men of the interior provinces; and the unitary porteños eager Governor across the country from the economically most powerful Centre which was Buenos Aires.
Other federal organization countries are: Germany, India, Belgium, Brazil, Mexico yVenezuela.
This form of organization with decentralized powers can be applied to other institutions other than the State, as for example, trade unions.
2 Concept of federalismFederalism is a political doctrine that seeks a political entity or organization is formed by different agencies (States, associations, groupings, trade unions) that are associated with delegating some freedoms or powers of its own to other body superior to sovereignty (federal State or Federation) who belongs and who retain a measure of autonomy, since some powers belong exclusively to them. In other words, is a political system in which the Government functions are divided between a central authority and a group of associated States.
Main features of federalism or federal State
There are four essential characteristics, as well as principles and operational processes that are common in a federal system to better understand federalism:
(a) written Constitution. Also known as magna carta, a necessity of the democracies that are federations to regulate the principles which the Government will govern as if they had to act without a specific body of laws it would lead to clashes.
(b) territorial division of the 1870. Federalism is constituted by the division of powers on the geographical basis of each territory.
(c) decentralization. In a federal system, there is both a central Government as less than the central government units, taking decisions each one with respect to the provision of certain public services in their respective geographical jurisdictions.
d) Supreme Court of justice. The court action required to counteract the stiffness of the written Constitution, so interpret the Constitution and necessary changes can be made.
Confederation and Federation differ mainly in that a Confederation has a more limited central power. It can also be a series of organisms that, temporarily, to share their sovereignty in specific aspects, and can secede or establish jurisprudence.
3 Meaning of FederationA Federation (Latin federare, "union") is an institutionalized group of relatively autonomous social entities. Usually associated directly with the formation of States formed in turn by the meeting of various political and territorial entities. Also commonly referred to as federal State or federal Republic and, generally, has a Republican and exceptionally monarchical political system.
In the flat macro-politico federations are composed of territorial divisions that is autogobiernan, to which comes to frequently give name States, cantons, regions, provinces or other, which enjoy a greater or lesser degree of autonomy but, in any case, have powers of Government or legislation on certain substances, other than those applicable to the federal administration (Government of the Federation). The self-governing status of the regions that compose it is established by its Constitution and, usually, may not be altered unilaterally by the decision of the Government of the Federation.
The federal model can reach even to the right of self-determination of the Federated territories, that was precisely what happened during the breakup of the Union of Socialist Republics Soviet. The term is in contrast to the unitary or centralized State.
Federations may be multi-ethnic or spread over large territories, although not necessarily has to give some of these situations. Federations often are on an original agreement between sovereign States. States forming the Federation does not usually have the right to secede unilaterally from the same. The most significant federations of our day include Germany, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, United States, India, Mexico, Russia and Venezuela.
The political organization or constitutional structure that characterizes a Federation is known as federalism.
4. What is FederationThe notion of Federation has its origin in the latin foederatĭo and refers to the Act of federating (i.e. generate union through alliances, leagues, mergers or compacts between various parties involved). By extension, referred to as Federation to that entity, agency or State formed from such action.
The federal State (also called federal Republic) is the one that brings together multiple entities territorial, as provinces or departments. Generally speaking, these territorial divisions were autogobiernan with greater or lesser degree of autonomy. The federal administration, in contrast, is the highest authority and has interference on national affairs.
In some historical moments, the Federated territories may require independence, as occurred after the separation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
United States, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, Venezuela and Argentina are examples of federations (States or federal republics).
The notion of federalism, is also used to identify the political doctrine that seeks to achieve an entity or organization composed of different divisions, which are delegated them certain freedoms and powers of its own.
In sports, it is very common to use the term to refer to all Federation and each one of the entities in this field are created and which bring together teams and athletes of different disciplines. Thus, for example, is it Royal Spanish Football Federation which has a series of governing bodies such as the General Assembly, the delegate Committee, the President and the corresponding Board.
In this sport, at the international level should be talk of FIFA which is the International Federation of association football. It began in the year 1904, has headquarters in Zurich and comprises a total of 209 federations of football.
Among the main features of that body should underscore the fact that is responsible for organizing various tournaments around the world both in male and female category. Thus, for example, celebrate the the World Cup, the FIFA federations Cup or the FIFA Club World Cup.
In addition to the aforementioned, there are worldwide multitude of sports federations such as the FIBA (international basketball Federation), FIM (International Motorcycling Federation) and the ITF (International Tennis Federation).
However, we can not overlook the fact that many other fields of society also have their own federations. Thus, for example, in the area of the heart we talk about World Heart Association which is the global Federation of Cardiology dedicated to research and to publicize the various medical advances that occur in that area.
It should be noted that Federation is also a city which is located in the Argentine Province of Entre Ríos, on the right bank of the Uruguay River. With some 14,000 inhabitants, the city is a major tourist attraction thanks to its spas and its thermal water sources.
Finally, it should be noted that the Federal League (also known as Union of free peoples) was an organization driven by José Gervasio Artigas with the intention of establishing a federal Government in the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
5. Definition of FederationHe is designated by the term of Federation to the State formed by the meeting of several territorial units, a Federation, also tends to be named as a federal State or federal Republic and mostly tends to hold as a system of Government the Republican and in very few exceptions system the monarchical.
The outgoing Federation and most characteristic trait is that these multiple units or entities that comprise it are auto govern, i.e., enjoy a greater or lesser degree of autonomy, but anyway legislate and govern with respect to certain issues or matters that concern them. The status of this self-government is stipulated and laid down in the own constitutions, which although usually it happens that they are subject to the Constitution mother, unilaterally not may be unknown by the Government of the Federation.
Moreover, the federations may be multi-ethnic, i.e. to summon multiple breeds and also extend through extensive territories, meanwhile, the political organization that characterized them will be federalism.
The parts that comprise a Federation in general are called Federated States, to differentiate them from the national States, but of course, there are some variations according to the place in the world in which den, for example, in Argentina, the Federated States are referred to as provinces, in Switzerland, cantons and in Canada also provinces as happens in Argentina.
In matters of international type is where mostly the Länder have no competence to understand, leaving these in the orbit of the Federal Government.
On the other hand, he is designated with the Federation that city term appointment at the right margin of the River Uruguay and which belongs to the province of Entre Ríos, argentina.
6 Concept of FederationThe term Federation is the one who designates a type of political union between several sovereign regions that decide to join to form a federal State. The word Federation has to do with the Latin word foedus, which means 'compact' or 'agreement', which means that a Federation is born from the agreement of its different parts to become a single region with greater or lesser freedoms.
Because always existing a type of central and authoritarian power threat, the existence of federal pacts is that seeks to divide power in various parts in equal measure to avoid precisely that it resides in the hands of a single person or institution. The Federation, therefore, is a very complex compound of regions which may vary in terms of size, amount of population, economic resources or identities, but that, to join in a Federation, become equally sovereign than others.
The Federation is the way of existing in many countries of the present Government, such is the case of United States, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Canada, Russia, Germany, India and some others. These countries established that they are composed of a different number of States or regions federal United among themselves for the Supreme good of the sovereignty, equality and the glory or the fatherland depending on each case. Federal Government can be plunged to a common power but which never can ignore the image of each of its parts.
In federal States, unlike what happens with the centralist States, each region can take certain kinds of decisions on their own. This means that in legislative, judicial, educational or economic, matters between different regions, provinces, States or autonomous communities, they can decide what is best for themselves, despite being subject to a common power.
7 Meaning of ConfederationThe term Confederation can be understood primarily at political level but also at the geographical or territorial level. When we talk of Confederation, we are referring to a complex punteros unit involved in the union of several sovereign parties in pursuit of a common good. Unlike what happens with the Federation, in which parties maintain fully their autonomy, in the Confederation, part of that sovereignty or autonomy, is ceded to consecrate a central Government that respects the different parties but exceeds them.
The Confederation is built from the common agreement of all the parts that compose it. In that sense, any Confederation can establish with regions or territories forced to be part of it. Normally, the confederations have been established historically from pacts and treaties that not only give legal and political if not that also define freedoms, autonomies and duties of each region. At the same time, these covenants and treaties are useful to determine the privileges and capabilities of the central Government which is established and that is greater than the parts.
In many cases, confederations have arisen from the need of Defense, political or economic union of regions, administrative organization, etc. This gives to understand that all its parts are in accordance with the points that define its creation just to be able to thus organize, become stronger and make progress not only economic but also political and administratively.
It is important to remember that confederations joined politically and for this reason, the parts that compose it are subject to the figure of a central Government that will have the ability to decide and act on behalf of all of them. Thus, the Confederation differs from those groups or common markets that unite several countries but not imposed by a Government central to each of them if not that remain independent.
8. What is Federal RepublicThe Republic is a form of organization of the State, in which maximum authority performs functions during a given time and it is elected by the citizens who live in the State in question, either directly or through the Parliament, whose members should be noted, they are also elected by the people.
Meanwhile, the Federal Republic, also known as Federation or Federal State, is an institutionalized grouping of relatively autonomous social institutions which is composed of territorial divisions that is autogobiernan and is attributed to which the designation of cantons, States, provinces, regions, between the appellants. While enjoy a greater or less autonomy, they have powers of Government or legislation on certain topics and which are different from those applicable to the Government of the Federal Republic; normally, it boasts a Republican political system, although some exceptions have been observed monarchical forms.
The self-governing status of the provinces or regions that compose it is established by the Constitution and in the majority of cases may not be altered unilaterally by the decision of the Government of the Republic.
The main road of participation within the Republic is the vote or suffrage, in both, elections must be free while the vote should be secret, in this way, citizens are effectively putting the said stakeholding unless medien pressures or constraints.
But there are also other items that prove to be fundamental for the functioning of a Republic, such is the case of: the division of powers, justice and the pursuit of the common good.
The concept of Federal Republic directly opposes the State unitary or centralized, which is the one in which there is a single center of political power, which extends its actions throughout the territory comprising the State, from agents or local authorities, representatives of the central power. Account with a unique legislature that decides statewide and in its midst also establishes a Supreme Court of Justice which holds jurisdiction at the national level.