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Percussion instruments: compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of percussion instrumentsA percussion instrument is a type of musical instrument whose sound is originated to be struck or shaken. It is, perhaps, the oldest form of musical instrument.
The percussion is distinguished by the variety of stamps that is capable of producing and its ease of adaptation with other musical instruments. It should be noted that a wide variety of sounds according to the sticks or mallets used to hit some of the percussion instruments can be obtained.
A percussion instrument can be used to create patterns of rhythms (drums, tam-tam among others) either to broadcast musical notes (xylophone). It often accompanies others in order to create and maintain the pace.
Percussion instruments can be classified into two categories according to the tuning:
• Defined height: those who produce identifiable notes. I.e., those whose height of sound is determined.
Some are: timpani, xylophone, vibraphone, the campaign, the tubular Bell, metal drums of Trinidad.
• Indefinite height: those whose notes are not identifiable, i.e. produce notes of an indeterminate height.
Among them are: drum, box, crate, the afuche, castanets, keys, the cowbell, the Cimbalom, güiro, the ratchet, the zambomba, the vibraslap, jaw, battery, the tuntaina.
Orchestras usually differentiate between:
• Patch percussion
• Percussion of blades
• Small percussion
According to other criteria, they can be classified into four categories which are:
• Membranophones, which used a membrane tensioned or a little loose.
• Microphones, which added ring to the sound of the coup.
• Idiophones, that sound for themselves, as the triangle.
It has many key as the asofeifa estronoma and ructurica are divided with different lines the first celimbrosa is coladosa second.
• Placofono, metal plates that collide.
This classification is not strict, for example, the tambourine is a membranophone and an idiophone because it has both the skin and the bells.
Concept of percussion instrumentsAmong the main percussion instruments, Word from the latin "percutere" (tap) whose sound originates to the paste or colliding with things, or shake something, we can mention timpani, cymbals, triangle, drum, the tamboril, xylophone, the celesta, tambourine, gong, campaigns, castanets, cymbals and bass drum.
They were used from the first men, since it is an easy way of generating sounds, either through the clash of palms or with blows envelopes hollow logs or stones, which later was added to them the metal. Thus primitive castanets were allegedly two pieces of wood hitting each other, or knocks on a hollow trunk, the ancestors of the drum, or between two metals, cymbals, etc.
Currently the percussion instruments give you colorful and rhythmic force to symphony orchestras. They are particularly used by jazz and rock bands.
The drums are usually used in series, at least two, where the bass drum presents very tensioned leather which is placed by wrapping the cuerpocilindrico; and one or more other smaller secondary character, called snare because they give the sound of rattling possess tensioned straps (calls are strings of gut) through its leather which is lowest.
The timbales, are concave, generally constructed in copper cauldrons with a mouth made with calf skin tensioned, fastened with a metal ring which in turn conforms using nuts, that to open or kinking, allow to vary the musical tone, because the pressure of the skin changes. Timpani provide a fixed tone, identifiable sounds with defined height, as also happens with xylophone or campaign.
Definition of percussion instrumentsPercussion instruments are the first sound elements that man, created in their daily work and on their different parties, to produce sounds and rhythms. Its origin goes back to African and Asian, primitive societies marked by its magical role and its pronounced social function.
The percussion is inherent to man. The child, since he was born, used his own percussion, either by organic noise, either by onomatopoeia of the first words, either by the experimentation of his own body. The importance of percussion is still very notable in much of traditional musical civilizations, from the Orchestra of the theatre of shadows of Malaysia until the Arab popular music groups. The term percussion applies to a set of instruments, rich in number and variety, that do not belong neither to the "rope" or to "wind". One of the early classifications of percussion instruments distinguish between sound instruments determinado(como por ejemplo el xilófono) and instruments of indeterminate sound (as for example the castanets). Other classifications refer to the percussion material, be it metal, wood or leather.
But the more usual today is to classify the instruments of percussion idiophones and membranophones, and is the classification we will develop later.
Among the instruments idiophones will quote here as follows:
Glass harmonica - Celesta - cymbals - Cabasa - Crotalus - rattles - Chinese boxes - Glockenspiel - Templeblocks - tubular bells Guiro - triangle - rattles - Maracas - vibraphone - castanets - Marimba - xylophone.
Among the instruments membranophones we quote as follows:
Bombo - Congas - Timbales - Bongos - tambourine - Timbaletas - box - military drum - Toms.
Concept of percussion instrumentsPercussion instrument. It is the one that produces sound when it is excited by percussion directly or indirectly; String instruments unfired which actually belong to this category, are not studied within it, therefore its characteristics and musical possibilities are very different.
• Family of instruments that produce sound by hitting them or shaking them. Throughout the world there is a great variety of such instruments. The oldest are considered and they have regained a very important role in the Orchestra of the 20th century.
• Percussion is performed in very different ways by metal rods, using drumsticks, hitting one sound body against another, indirectly via a keyboard, etc.
• In general terms, can say that the musical function of percussion instruments is rhythm.
• Instruments of certain height (Afinados) and instruments of indeterminate height (not refined).
Classification of the percussion instruments
From the musical point of view
• Defined intonation instruments: their sound produces sensation of tone (for example: timpani, xylophone, bells,...)
• Indefinite intonation instruments: do not produce defined tones, but rather noise (for example: the bass drum, cymbals, drum...)
From the structural point of view
1. Barcode: marimba, xylophone, celesta, lira...
2. Of plates: cymbals, gong, castanets...
3. Of membrane: drum, timpani, bass drum, bongo...
Instruments musical bars and platesTo this group belong the idiophones, in which sound is produced by matter same instrument, thanks to its strength and elasticity, without having recourse to the tension of membranes or strings. To this group belong lira, marimba, xylophone, vibraphone, bells, triangles, dishes, etc.
• The lyre or glockenspiel, German word to designate the game of rings used in orchestras, is one of the instruments of bars easier, consists of small sheets of steel in a frame, and that instead of making sound by means of pedals, percuten with a martillito.
If it echoes a lyre, transversely vibrates at a frequency determined according to their dimensions, properties of the metal, and location of the suspension points, taking its ends free to vibrate.
• The Marimba is another instrument of bars, although different from the lira on several important points. In South and Central America, Mexico and Africa, primitive forms of marimbas, which consist of wood (rosewood) or plastic bars placed on resonance boxes and hit by various classes. Some of these resonance boxes are made with halves of different sizes coconut shells. These primitive marimbas were subsequently developed to obtain the current Latin America and xylophone in Europe.
The bars are supported by some drag them passing through two horizontal holes next to the nodes of the fundamental. Each bar has a bow trimmed in its end and a tubular resonator vertically located close to each bar. Each resonator is closed at one end and has a length to resonate at the fundamental of the corresponding bar.
The Resonators affect the sound in two ways, the first because bar vibration energy is effectively transferred to the air, the level is increased and the sound decreases more rapidly. In segundotabla of india place, the resonator reinforces the fundamental, but not other frequencies, which are not the tube resonance frequencies.
Many of the principles that apply to the marimba are useful in the xylophone consisting of more narrow than the marimba bars and are also thick.
• The vibraphone or vibraharp consists of a series of metal bars which are supported on tuned resonance boxes. The bars are struck with hammers hard or soft, depending on the nature of the music. Through an electronic device vibrate, so it resembles a violin vibrato. Its sound possesses a quality beauty and velvety, of campaigns and can be extremely bright or equally delicate.
• The chime this is a case that has one or two rows of metal bars on the inside. These rows that match the keys of the piano, in its order have an extension of up to two octaves.
The sound you describe is similar to the campaigns and drumsticks are used to run with different types maces.
Carillon music is written two octaves lower than it sounds, since if it wrote in its natural register, with as many additional lines it would create confusion.
The tubular bells form • approximately 18 brass or steel tubes that are hung from a metal bracket in vertical position. ordered according to its length, the tubes are placed in the same layout as the keys of the piano.
The tubes are usually knocked at the top with a wooden mallet. The reverb that occurs can be controlled through a mechanism that works with your foot. Copies of small tubular bells from the 6th century have been found in Eastern monasteries.
• Castanets derived its name from its format, similar to a chestnut. Most popular in countries of Hispanic origins, the saltmarsh is used in folk dances such as flamenco.
• Of all the percussion instruments of the Orchestra, the cymbals consist two circular disks of metal slightly concave, with bore Centre, so that it passes a leather strap.
Indefinite frequency cymbals sound, occurs when colliding with each other, although sometimes sounds a saucer only tapping it with one or two sticks. They produce a sound gimmicky and strident, needing a certain absorption acoustic treatment.
• Triangle is a cylindrical steel rod, folded in two points to form a triangle, and opened by one of the vertices. It is suspended from a cord, and the sound is produced by striking it with a steel or iron rod. The sound is very clear and penetrating indefinite frequency.
• TomTom are manufactured with forged metal so that its structure is dense, yentonces, its vibrations are transmitted mightily. But the metal densidaddel is frequently irregular, in such a way that it is difficult parael instrumentalist know exactly the force has in print every one of his punches and that part of the surface must hit, yaque density inequality gives rise to irregularities of volumeny rings in their loudness.
A good performer of percussion studying the surface of each gong and knows exactly at that point of them will get a certain class of rings, since usually there are three or four qualities sound, completely different, to extract a gong that is struck.
• The Group of pumpkins are Maracas of Latin American countries. A type is a pod whose seeds have dried up. To be shaken loose chips originate an irregular sound of treble frequencies.
• The Güiro is a long gourd, fluted throughout its length. It is held with one hand, and a piece of wood equipped with rigid wires, gently rub the pumpkin with the other hand, in a position of right angle with stretch marks. This instrument can achieve a powerful rhythm, and varying the speed of rub very high frequencies from the frequency can be obtained by slow rub casualties.
• The Celesta has a keyboard as the piano. Its sound is delicate and occurs through a few lightweight hammers hitting metal bars placed above resonance boxes.
• The keys are two strong, and cylindrical sticks made from rosewood which hit one against the other, produce a clear, penetrating and profound, sound sounding board making the hollow of a hand.
• The ratchet or Matraca belongs to the Group of instruments of percussion idiophones. in some places it is also known by the name of ratcheting.
It consists of a gear wheel of wood that turning flaps a fixed blade of flexible wood and produces a characteristic DIN. to make it sound is caught by the handle and rotate.
• The Cabasa is another instrument of percussion within the idiophones family. The cabasa was originally, a dry, hollow gourd which is held from the handle at its bottom.
It covers a network of small balls of plastic or metal. The cabasa, sustained by the handle while the other keeps network that touches the dry body producing its characteristic sound is turned with one hand for execution.
• THE Chekeré is an instrument for Africa developed the Cubans to be the form most popular today. It consists of a gourd and a fabric of beads. The chekeré produces a sound like a rattle.
• The Pandero belongs to instruments idiophones. It is an instrument that has some similarity with the tambourine. It consists of a ring of wooden or metal on which a patch of plastic or calf skin tightens.
The tambourine has no rattles as tambourine and hit with a stick or hand. In some places like galicia, the tambourines are square.
• The Cajita China, belongs to the Group of instruments of percussion idiophones. It is a rectangular block of wood with one or two openings or longitudinal grooves on each side in order to achieve greater and better sonority.
Placed on the Palm of the hand, cupping it enough to make it work as a resonance box, while struck with a wooden stick.
Instruments music of membranesIn this group are the mebrafonos in which the sound is produced by tightly tensioned membranes. Are divided into three subgroups: 11 percutidos membrafonos they belong to timpani, case, hype, military drums, etc.
• The timpani is percussion instruments that are tuned and can produce certain frequencies, which consists of a hemispherical or semiovalada, box made of copper or bronze, with a taut parchment membrane over it and secured with a metal ring, which is adjusted by means of screws. The timbalero may vary the tension of the membrane and therefore its tuning by tightening or loosening the screws.
In theory the skin is of equal thickness over its entire surface, but in reality there are great inequalities in the same. This makes it difficult to achieve the same degree of tension to the entire surface. What not only hinders the tuning, but it gives rise to, not harmonic overtones of his fundamental irregular and eccentric, making thus almost impossible to obtain a pure sonority and resonance, a good timbalero studied each patch and know every part of it where you can get best loudness.
When the mallet hits it you have the natural tendency to rebound. A good instrumentalist leverages this propensity, since the quick rebound on the patch, produces a sound better than the loose and heavy, there is less interference with the vibrations of the patch. Extension of the timbal was formerly, one octave, although today it has approximately two octaves. With the use of the pedals the tuning of each timbale may vary rapidly in the hands of a good scrub.
Almost never used an only timpani, but two together, one small for treble and one large for serious, producing a sound gimmicky and solemn, needing an acoustic treatment of reinforcement panels. A well tuned and properly percutido, timbal makes is perceived a strong fundamental tone and three harmonics at intervals of just removes, seventh largest and eighth on the base tone.
• Drum is a drum of large dimensions which produces a sound serious and indefinite, which originates to hit the patch with a mallet.
• Box (Musical instrument) or military drum or, it has two patches, superior is beaten with sticks, and the bottom has a number of ropes dividing it into two halves. When this instrument is played, the bottom patch vibrates, and these strings or straps are shaken strongly. This increases the brightness strength and duration of each blow.
When a roll is made, there is an interval of time between each blow sticks filled in by vibration of suspenders, thus ensuring that the beating sounds continued. The frequency of sound is indefinite. Indefinite frequency box is a small characteristics are similar to the military drum drum.
• The tambourine is a percussion instrument, which consists of a patch stretched over a wooden frame circular, which has a few small plates of metal. The performer hits the tambourine with the hand.
• Bongo are two bowls wooden, conical shape with its smaller end covered and the largest covered with a taut skin. Touched with your fingers near the edge, some of these instruments can be tuned.
• Tam-tams are two drums, as a few small timbales, which can refine and are played with sticks. Sometimes the sound of one of them absorbs by pressure in the wrist, thus elevating its tuning.
• The Tumbadora is an elongated conical drum, that is played with the fingers, has a deep and powerful sound.
• Table (Musical instrument) or table of India is currently up to couples not with a stick, but with fingers. The right hand touches the left and the smaller the larger, with different ways, striking it with fingers by pressing with the doll patch of the drum and then tapping it with your fingers, getting a sharper sound; hitting the patch and then sliding your wrist so the sound, beginning serious, can reach a sharper sound.
• The Bata Drums are drums very importlantes for the Yoruba religious celebrations, or most common name, the Lucumis. Playing in a group of three drums to what is called basis and each of them has a name, the largest is called iya, the medium is the itolete, and the boy is the okonkolo or the talking. In the 1950s, popular music of Cuba included the Bata in several musical groups.