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Definitions and concepts of Palenque
Definition of PalenquePalenque is a Mayan city, located in what is now the municipality of Palenque, located in the Mexican State of Chiapas, near the Usumacinta River. It is one of the most impressive sites of this culture. In comparison with other Maya cities, is considered medium-sized: smaller Tikal or Copán, noted for its architectural and sculptural heritage.
The area discovered until 2005 covers 2.5 km², but estimated that only we have explored less than 10% of the total area that reached the city, remaining even more than thousand structures covered by jungle. In 1981, Palenque was designated national park. Unesco declared it a heritage in 1987.
The city was abandoned when it took place the conquest of Mexico in the 16th century. The first visit by a European to Palenque was Fray Pedro Lorenzo de la Nada in 1567. Then the region was known by the Ch'ol people like Otolum, or "Land of houses strong"; so it's nothing translated it as "Palenque" (from "palenc" catalan Word) meaning "fortification" (among other things).
It is believed that the Maya founded Lakam has during the formative period (2500 BC - 300 dC), around 100 BC, as a village predominantly farmer, and favoured by the numerous springs and streams in the region.
The population grew during the early classic period (200-600), to be a city, becoming the capital of the region of B'akaal (bone), including in the area of Chiapas and Tabasco, during the late classic (600-900). The oldest of the structures that have been discovered was built around the year 600.
B'akaal was an important center of the Mayan civilization between the centuries V and IX, during which alternated periods of glory and catastrophe, alliances and wars. On more than one occasion he made alliances with Tikal, the other great Mayan city of the era; especially to contain the expansion of the bellicose Calakmul, also called the "Kingdom of the serpent". Calakmul was victorious on two occasions, in 599 and 611.
The rulers of B'akaal proclaiming that the origin of his lineage came from the distant past, some even boasting come from prehistoric times, reaching the creation of today's world, which, in maya mythology, was in the year 3114 to. C. Modern archaeological theories speculate that the first dynasty of its aldermen was probably Olmec.
Concept of PalenqueThe real name of the ancient city of Palenque is Lakamha´, which means "The place of the great waters,". But, finally, the archaeological zone takes its name from the neighbouring community founded in the late 16th century, Santo Domingo of Palenque. The Palenque meaning, means "Lurch" or "Pale" which refers to a ring of wood to protect a site.
Palenque, heritage of humanity since 1987, was the most important city in the Western lowlands during the late classic, and reached its apogee between 600 and 800 A.d.
In early A.d. 900, it went into decline and it was devoured by the jungle, until in 1784 José Antonio Calderón conducted the first official exploration of the site and a year later, Antonio Bernasconi made a more detailed study of the buildings.
Palenque was one of the most powerful cities of the Classic Maya, headquarters of one of the most remarkable dynasties that Pakal belongs along with Tikal and Calakmul.
Very well preserved, the abundance of archaeological, architectural, painterly remains, texts writings, among others, have made of Palenque an essential place for archaeologists deciphering the maya script lines and their cosmological stories.
Also from the monumental point of view it is a milestone of this culture, both by the quality of its architecture and for the originality of its buildings. They are characteristic of Palenque, for example, the good conservation of buildings with facades angled at the top and panels with reliefs in stucco. It was one of the most important Mayan cities of the classic and today, is a famous archaeological site for its architecture, sculpture and the large group of hieroglyphic inscriptions that tell you about his long and fruitful history.
The Temple of the inscriptions, erected opposite the Grand Palace, at the top of a step pyramid, has five entrances, something quite unusual in maya architecture. In reality, it's a church funeral, full of inscriptions that do honor to his name, with a slab horadada inside that leads to a ladder and this, in turn, to a funeral, camera located in the depths of the building. Inside the mortuary Chamber, seven meters high, contains a rich decoration and a large, richly carved sarcophagus with the remains of Pakal II or K'inich Janahb' Pakal II (resplendent shield Ave-Janahb'), who lived between 603 and 683 A.d., and reigned for 67 years.
The Palace, opposite the Temple of inscriptions, more than a building, is a magnificent set of interconnected buildings, which were constructed, remodeled and modified over four hundred years, on an artificial terrace. It is one of the most beautiful and complex structures of the Mayan world, by the variety elements that comprise it: corridors, stepped bases, underground galleries, patios, boards with hieroglyphs and others sculptural, as the Oval, showing the enthronement of Pakal alongside his mother Zac Kuk.
Rise adjacent to the Temple of the inscriptions, the Temple of the skull and the Temple of the Red Queen, desplantados on a very broad platform; the two buildings left to see atop the remains of temples, which served as tombs of important characters from the dynasty of the site.
The Group of las Cruces, is constituted by the temples of the cross, the Sun and the foliated cross, three terraced pyramids topped with temples that commemorate the ascent to the throne, after the death of Pakal the great, of the Lord Chan Bahlum II, showing the new Lord receiving the greatness of hands of his predecessor.The Temple of the Sun is distinguished by its cresting with more than 4 meters in height and in its interior is Board's sunlight, carved in limestone. The Temple of the cross, is the highest of the whole. The entrance is flanked by two carved tombstones which represent two man richly attired: the first assumes that the ruler is Jaguar serpent, and the second a deity of the underworld. At the top of a small hill, erected the Temple of the foliated cross, whose front facade and crestaría it collapsed completely.
Leaving the square, heading to the North, is the North group. It is comprised of five buildings aligned on a same basement. To the West, is observed the Earl Temple, a basamneto of five bodies. In the cuspidese is a small temple which retains its original arquitecture, except the cresting great. In this place several graves were found with their almost complete offerings. The most recent findings, among nineteenth Temple, a throne decorated with two carved panels.
During his visit, the site museum which bears the name of the illustrious archaeologist Alberto Ruz Lhuillier, discoverer of the tomb of Pakal II is must-see. Carved tombstones can appreciate, figures of stucco and ceramic, portaincensarios as well as jewels of jade, obsidian and shell, all these pieces belong to the archaeological zone of Palenque rescued material.
Definition of PalenquePalenque is a term with different uses. From the Catalan language (palenc), it is a fence or barrier that is used to delimit a surface or defensive purposes. The palenque, therefore, is a demarcated area in which different activities.
River Plate countries, the palenques are studs, nailed to the surface, allow tie ahorses or other animals. These piles must be resistant to be able to withstand the eventual animal free.
A palenque can also be a type of housing or shelter. This meaning is used in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Cuba to refer to different kinds of residences or dwellings.
In Mexico, Palenque is the name given to a city of Chiapas. It was founded in 1567y has more than 42,000 inhabitants. Within that municipality, there is an ancient maya city, framed in a National Park, it is part of the heritage of the UNESCO.
The archaeological zone of Palenque still must explore, as structures are hidden by jungle. The detected ruins can appreciate the remains of temples, a Palace, an aqueduct and other pre-Hispanic structures.
In Panama, Palenque is a city that is part of the province of Colón while that in Ecuador, there is a town with the same name within the rivers.
San Luis de Palenque, at last, is a municipality in Colombia forming part deCasanare, an Eastern Department. There live nearly 7,000 people who are mostly engaged in animal husbandry.