Oil: Compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of petroleumOil (from the Greek: πετρέλαιον, "rock oil") is a homogeneous mixture of organic compounds, mainly water-insoluble hydrocarbons. It is also known as crude or simply crude oil.
It is of fossil origin, fruit of the transformation of organic matter from zooplankton and algae, deposited in large quantities in funds seas anoxic or lacustrine zones of the geological past, were subsequently buried under heavy layers of sediment. Originated from remains of plants and microorganisms buried for millions of years and are subject to various physical and chemical processes. The chemical transformation (natural cracking) due to heat and pressure during the diagenesis produces, in successive stages, from bitumen to increasingly lighter hydrocarbons (liquid and gaseous). These products amounted to the surface, because of its lower density, due to the porosity of the sedimentary rocks. When given the geologic circumstances that prevent the ascent (traps oil as impermeable rocks, anticlines structures, margins of salt diapirs, etc.) the oilfields are then formed.
Under normal conditions is a bituminous liquid that can present great variation on different parameters like color and viscosity (from yellowish and little viscous as gasoline to black so viscous liquids that they just flow), density (between 0.66 g/ml and 0.95 g/ml), heat capacity, etc. These variations are due to the diversity of concentrations of hydrocarbons that make up the mix.
It is a non-renewable natural resource and is also currently the main source of energy in developed countries. Liquid petroleum can occur associated with layers of natural gas in deposits that have been buried for millions of years, covered by the upper layers of the Earth's crust.
In the United States, it is common to measure volumes of liquid oil in barrels (of 42 US gallons, equivalent to 158,987294928 litres), and the volumes of gas in cubic feet (equivalent to 28,316846592 litres); in other regions, both volumes are measured in cubic metres.
Concept of petroleum"Rock oil" that... say in reality when we say "oil", which derives from Greek words also like almost everything of what we talk about. And oil we speak also because besides being a matter more than fundamental to our object of desire preferred, premium car; It is producing a global crisis that knows one when it will end.
"Black gold" (well deserved by these days has that nickname...) is, to put it in simplified terms, a heterogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons that do not dissolve in water. Vale remember that hydrocarbons are organic molecules of some complexity, which joins a string of carbon atoms form covalent bond with hydrogen atoms (in all cases) and proportions of oxygen variables and other elements.
Oil relationship with man is ancient, age-old could say.
About 6,000 years ago in Assyria and Babylon oil rose naturally and those places has been in use for gluing bricks and stones in different constructions, as well as also has been given medicinal uses and it has been used in the construction of old boats.
In ancient Egypt used it to lubricate skin, was in the Middle Ages used it exclusively for healing purposes and some pre-Columbian tribes have come to painted sculptures. As you can see, the "rock oil" was part of the most varied fields completely independent, and distant cultures almost as an advertisement for the importance that would arise for the use of oil in the modern global civilization.
It was only in the 18th century that the work carried out by G.A. Hirn related to petroleum with similar uses to which they can give you today. This was the germinal seed since Hirn, thanks to different types of refined, managed to obtain different derivatives that began to be used in the lubrication of machines. Remarkable heterogeneity in the composition of petroleum has indeed facilitated use in various fields related to the machinery.
In the 19th century also began to be used for lighting and was only in 1859 when Edwin Drake performed the first drilling of a well in the American State of Pennsylvania. Thereafter the known history that opened a new Vista for the use of oil, mainly with one of its derivatives with the appearance of the engine explosion: gasoline. From there began a race without end that, far from being limited to automobiles, gave rise to the fuel needed to mobilize the most versatile means of transport and machinery, as well as give way to the early stages of the plastics industry.
But... to all this, what is oil? Oil is the result of the transformation of organic matter that comes directly from zooplankton and algae (i.e., fossil material of organic origin) which, once deposited in funds of the seas or Lake areas, were literally buried (with the passage of thousands of years) by heavy layers of sediment. In successive stages then produces a transformation (which may occur by heat and pressure) from bitumen to oil rising to the surface (because they are lighter and less density by liquid or gaseous) thanks to the pores of sedimentary rocks. When some circumstances prevent that they froze to the surface, it is when they begin to generate the oilfields.
Not all oil is the same everywhere and in all fields where you locate it. It may vary in its color, density, viscosity, heat capacity, etc. etc. etc. depending on the different proportions of hydrocarbons containing. The nature of the organic material that has given origin is also a factor that generates differences in the final characteristics of the product, given that the proportion of animal or vegetable matter are associated with differences in the physical and chemical conditions of the oil.
Obviously it's a non-renewable natural resource and, others would say it, is the main source of energy in developed countries.
How is it removed? Well, requires a drilling on the site. If the pressure of fluids is sufficient, oil will flow naturally from the well and through connection to oil pipelines, is sent to plants for your primary treatment. If, on the contrary, the deposit pressure decreases, it will be necessary to use other methods for the extraction such as pumps, injection of water or gas. This necessity makes the final price of the product and its derivatives at a variable rate that changes depending on the quality of oil and of the magnitude of the reserve of the own site.
As more than interesting data we also say if global petroleum extraction is maintained as it has been doing since 2002, stocks around the world only reach to about 42 years, worth saying that there are still usable 143,000 tons of black gold. Black future... like petroleum. Therefore, the need for research is imposed on an accelerated basis of alternative forms of energy production, with special emphasis on renewable variants, as with the generation of electricity for the movement of motors via the consumption of other fuels or the forces of nature (wind power or hydrothermal). The crisis caused by the imminent exhaustion of petroleum will motivate undoubtedly the creation of an ingenious solution that will allow humanity to not stop their constant progress towards a better future.
Definition of petroleumFrom latin petrolĕum, which in turn derives from a Greek word that means "rock oil", oil is a liquid natural confectionary that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons. It is obtained from geological beds, whether continental or maritime.
Oil is flammable, and from different distillation and refining processes, allows us to produce naphtha, diesel oil, kerosene and other products that are used for energy purposes.
The first records on the use of petroleum go back about 6,000 years ago, when the Assyrians and the Babylonians used it to glue bricks and in medicine. The Egyptians appealed to oil for greasing skins, while the pre-Columbian Indians used it for painting sculptures.
The first distillation of petroleum would have made in the 9th century, when Arabic Al - Razi obtained kerosene and other spirits for use in medicine and in the military field. From the 19th century, became popular petroleum refining for more fluid oils that could be used in lighting.
Oil is a nonrenewable energy source: This means that, once runs, already not may be obtained under any circumstances. The statistics speak that, to maintain the current pace of extraction and without that new deposits are, global oil reserves will be depleted in less than fifty years.
Although this would be a serious problem for humanity, the truth is that oil is a polluting material (its combustion produces CO2, for example) and difficult to clean since it is insoluble in water.
Concept of petroleumThe word oil originated in the Greek word 'pertelaion. From there it went to latin as "petroleum", with the meaning of oil ("oleum") of stone ("petra") being taken by our language.
Petroleum was formed over millions of years, with animals and dead plants, which were deposited at the bottom of seas and lakes. There they were covered by mud and clay in several layers, to deprive them the contact with oxygen, which prevented its decomposition, transforming through a slow chemical process in oil and gas.
It is known since very ancient, being appointed by the Bible times when it counts to the stones of the Tower of Babel, three thousand years before Christ, were United with bitumen, which is a derivative of petroleum.
It was used in ancient Egypt to preserve their mummies, and by the Romans for lighting purposes.
The first oil well was drilled in the 1850s, in Pennsylvania by Edwin Drake, and was obtained by distillation, kerosene, starting massive use and exploitation. In Argentina, the first oil well discovered in Comodoro Rivadavia by chance in 1907, while they wanted water.
At present, this flammable liquid has very diverse applications, using for liquefied gas, kerosene, naphtha, oils, lubricants, heating oil, asphalt, fuel oil. Also originated several sub products: detergents, waxes, cosmetics, plastics, synthetic rubber, insecticides, medicines, fertilizers, and proteins that are used in animal feed.
The largest reserves of petroleum are found in Arabia. Acronym that means organization of petroleum exporting countries, with headquarters in Baghdad OPEC was formed in 1960.
It is a vital resource in the modern world, but developing low, since it is non-renewable.
Definition of petroleumIt is a complex of about 500, mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons mixture, naphthenic, aromatic, with varying fractions of unsaturated hydrocarbons, containing organic acids of sulfur and nitrogen, as well as substances found in natural deposits. It is a heavy, thick, flammable liquid, and can have different colors and often present a greenish fluorescence.
Oil was already known in antiquity in the middle and was used in the construction, in medicine, in the caulking of boats, etc. During the middle ages continued using only for healing purposes. In the 17TH century, and thanks to the work of g. a. Hirn, begin to refine crude refining methods, resulting in derivative products to be used mainly for machines gear.
starting from the 19th century starts to get fluid oils which will be used for lighting. The use of kerosene was for example, a component that was of great importance in oil applied to the lighting. However, the origin of the oil industry is linked by a famous drilling done in Pennsylvania, which resulted in the start of a new era of use of oil for lamps.
The large increase in the development of the oil industry and the multiple technical advances have led to take advantage all derivative products, such as liquefied gases (butane and propane), heavy fuel oil (mazut), oils gasoline, the dowtherm, etc.
In turn, the petrochemical industry takes advantage of the petroleum and its derivatives as raw materials for obtaining a wide variety of chemical products; among them, dyes, plastics, rubbers, artificial, etc.
Concept of petroleumThe word oil derives from the words petro (stone) and oleum (oil); i.e. 'oil stone'. Also known as "crude" or "crude oil", it is a complex mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, composed largely of carbon and hydrogen; small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, formed by decomposition and transformation of animal remains and plants that have been buried at great depths for several centuries.
The presence in different quantities of each of the chemical elements (organic and inorganic) that make up petroleum, determine its particular characteristics like color, density, viscosity among others.
By its chemical composition have that it can be classified in: paraffinic; whose main component is the chemical compound called paraffin, is very fluid and color clear. The Naphthenic, being its main components the naphthenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, is a very viscous and dark-colored oil. And the mixed, which presents both types of compounds.
The use of oil by humans goes back to almost 5000 years, most of all for limited purposes, such as the caulking of boats, the waterproofing of fabrics or torches, obtaining lubricants and medicinal products manufacturing, but the real exploitation of oil did not begin until the 19th century. By then, the Industrial Revolution had unleashed a search for new fuels and social changes made it necessary to an oil well and cheap for the lamps.
Today in the oil industry are carried out four major processes for the production thereof, which are: exploration (predominate studies on the surface as the field geology and topography of the terrain to find areas with oil), production (drilling of an oil well and its exploitation), refining (set of procedures and operations that can produce derivatives of higher economic value from the raw material)among them are distillation, alkylation, hydrotreating, thermal cracking, among others. And finally, trade and supply are.
Oil is the most important for society non-renewable natural resource since this requires him to solve many of their energy needs. Derivatives of petroleum (gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas) are today the main fuels employed both in transport and in the generation of electric power and heating. It is also used as raw material for the chemical industry.
However, in recent years it has declined the global availability of this matter, and their relative cost has increased. According to experts, they calculate the probability that the supply of crude oil reaches only until the first decades of the 21st century.