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Plankton: Compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of planktonPlankton to the set of mainly microscopic organisms that float in salt water or sweets, most abundant up to 200 meters of depth approximately is called. It is distinguished from the nekton, Word that called all the active swimmers and the neuston, those who live in interphase or limit with air, i.e., on the surface. the term plankton comes from plankton (from the Greek πλαγκτός, planktos, "wandering"). Plankton (the organisms that live in suspension in the water), bentos (from bottom of aquatic ecosystems) and soil life (of the community that inhabits the soils).
Although traditionally has been subdivided plankton in phytoplankton and zooplankton, according to the most recent classifications this distinction does not appear appropriate, since autotrophic organisms include plants, some protists and bacteria, and the heterotrophs include animals, other protists and bacteria. However, this classification still used widely.
A first division can be made between holoplancton, which are those organisms that spend all their life cycle belonging to plankton and meroplancton, formed by bodies constituting community respiration only during a part of his life.
Animal plankton, called zooplankton includes animal very different groups, like jellyfish (Cnidaria), ctenoforos, salps (tunicate) and especially larval stages of sponges, molluscs, Polychaeta annelids, crustaceans, etc...
Vegetable plankton, known as phytoplankton, Word that derives from the Greek φύτοπλαγκτον phytoplacton (φυτον phyton meaning plant), takes place in coastal waters of the sea with sunlight and abundant mineral salts (up to 30 m deep waters), given that they elaborate their food by photosynthesis.
They constitute the zooplankton food and produce 50% of the molecular oxygen needed for life on Earth. Organisms that are more abundant in the phytoplankton are cyanobacteria and diatoms, a few single-celled Golden algae. We also find the dinoflagellates responsible for red tides.
Basis of the marine food chain, phytoplankton has experienced a significant decline due to the increase of ultraviolet radiation. It has observed that under the Antarctic ozone hole of the phytoplankton productivity decreased from 6% to 12%.
Concept of planktonPlankton. Heterogeneous set of organisms that live in suspension in the waters of the oceans, lakes, ponds and rivers. As they are unable to move, or at least make erratic movements, they are at the mercy of currents and waves.
The tiny organisms that live freely in marine or terrestrial water is known as plankton. Their movements are produced vertically and when moved horizontally do dragged by the movements of the water.
The presence of a high mass of plankton may colour the water, producing phenomena as well known as red tides, such as those that occur in the East of Australia or Southern California. These tides are due to the excessive development of tiny algae (dinoflagellates) caused by too favourable conditions that produce their uncontrolled growth. In red tides, in addition to the increase of temperature, too much light, or lack of movement of water, has a fundamental role the contribution of too many nutrients into the water, usually obtained from human waste.
Red tides, aside from their potential for destroying the fauna and flora in the middle where they develop, constitute a danger to health and a detriment to the economy based on aquaculture crops, because the algae that produce them develop toxins which are incorporated into the food chain through certain organisms that filter the water, many of these animals are common in human consumption such as mussels, oysters or clams.
Vegetable compound, whose components are all microscopic. Both sea and freshwater comprises bacteria like organisms thereto and plants green algae, in the form of isolated cells or small colonies. The density of marine phytoplankton is determinable due to its pigmentation. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight and carbon dioxide atmospheric, synthesizing organic food. The light reflected by the chlorophyll of the microscopic marine plants allows that some satellites detectors can measure it with reasonable accuracy. Scientists can learn to measure the concentration of phytoplankton of the oceans and seas, as well as the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by those. The result is a true x-ray of the respiratory system of the planet. Plankton grows dramatically in spring in the North Atlantic.
The largest populations are found at high latitudes and in remote coastal waters or on the high seas. The so-called red tides are caused by large quantities of protozoa. There are hardly any living organisms below 200 metres of depth. Maximum populations appear between the months of April and October. The winter is usually below 20 per cent of the maximum of summer. Some crustaceans set vertical migratory cycles every 24 hours. They begin to descend at dawn and rise at sunset. Digestive waste and the corpses are converted by bacteria in the phytoplankton, zooplankton staple food.
Definition of planktonThe word plankton originated in the Greek word "planktos" and means Wanderer. Today, from 1837, when the Christian Hensen zoologist of German origin, chose that name, it passed to designate the Group of small and diverse beings without own or almost zero mobility, whose movements are dependent on bodies of water in which they live, especially, to a depth of 200 meters. Animals that move in the waters with proper motions are referred to as nekton. Which are deep Navy Blue, fixed or not, are called benthos.
Are vegetable nature forming phytoplankton, like microscopic algae, which form the first link in the marine food chain, and living at one depth no greater than 30 meters because they need to receive solar energy to perform photosynthesis and thus manufacture their food, they are producers of oxygen; While the animal Kingdom, also mostly microscopic, integrate the zooplankton, which feed on phytoplankton, among which we can name to crustaceans, worms, protozoa, larvae of molluscs, fish and marine arthropods and echinoderms.
There are some organisms that form part of the plankton as transient as eggs and larvae, because when they are developed they will have proper motions. This temporary plankton is called meroplancton. Permanent plankton u holoplancton is composed of those microorganisms that may never be moved by themselves.
Krill, which means small fish in Norwegian measures between 35 to 43 mms. and it abounds in Antarctic seas. It is a crustacean with many nutritional qualities, with which flour is manufactured. Radiolarians, shaped like stars that can reach a few centimeters are a little bigger.