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Prejudice: Compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of prejudiceA bias (from lat. praejudicium, 'judged in advance') is the process of formation of a concept or judgement about something in advance, i.e. before time; 1 involves the preparation of a judgment or opinion about a person or situation before determining the preponderance of the evidence, or the preparation of a trial without previously having no direct experience or real. It consists of positively or negatively criticize a situation or a person without sufficient previous elements. It is an attitude that can be observed in all areas and activities of the society, in any social group and in any age group, and implies a way of thinking closely related to behaviors or attitudes of discrimination.
In the field of psychology, a cognitive bias is a distortion (cognitive distortion) in the way in which humans perceive reality. Some of these processes have been empirically verified in the field of psychology, others are being considered as general categories of prejudices.
Scientific activity in general, a bias is an error that appears in the results of a study due to factors that are dependent on pickup or analysis or interpretation or publication or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth or incorrect about the objectives of a research. This error can be systematic or not, and is different from the random error.
In the scope of any scientific discipline, bias to the fact that the scientist as possible, either deliberately or due to an inadvertent error is called the, to match data from her experiments with what they expected...
Gordon Allport, psychologist at Harvard University, who devoted much of his work to the theme, in his book "The Nature of Prejudice" published in 1954, defined as prejudice: "an attitude suspicious or hostile towards a person who belongs to a group, by the mere fact of belonging to that group, and which, from this membership", boast you the same negative qualities that ascribe to the entire group" (Allport 1979: 7). In this definition, refers mainly to the tagging we do negatively, on the basis of a way of thinking that we adopted from a young age. This way of thinking arises as a result of the need for human take firm and concrete decisions quickly, taking generalized information that has so far to pass judgement, and without verifying its veracity. Prejudice refers to unfounded judgment and affective tone. Allport noted that the phrase "think badly of other people" should be understood as "an elliptical expression, which includes feelings of contempt or disgust, of fear and aversion, as well as various forms of hostile behavior, such as speaking out against certain people, practicing some sort of discrimination against them or attack them with violence". In the everyday practices of subjects, prejudice operates from evaluative budgets based on customs, traditions, myths and other learning acquired throughout the processes of formation of identities. Allport does not include the possibility of positive rating in its definition. His essay was written with the purpose to serve as a teaching material for university students and public in general concerning the issue of ethnic discrimination, particularly that the Jews and American blacks suffered for which is considered an important text in social psychology, since it raises that racism is produced by "imaginary fears"which leads us to a positive vision that it is possible to eradicate prejudice in order to live in a more harmonious society.
The prejudice arises for convenience, to discriminate, dismiss or dominate others, or accept them preferably, without remorse and without thinking if that is good or bad, or if an opinion is objective or subjective. Commonly is an attitude hostile or, less frequently, favourable toward a person who belongs to a particular group (social, ethnic, sexual, political, socio-economic, occupational, religious, sports, age, health or disease, or of any nature, including territorial or geographical) simply by the fact of belonging (voluntarily or involuntarily, either consciously or unconsciously) to that group, in the presumption that it has negative or positive qualities attributed by many people at the same. The opinion first occurs with respect to the biased group and then incorporates the individual.
Prejudice is a preconceived assessment of persons, a preconceived idea we have about each other.
Prejudice is to have an opinion or idea about a member of a group without really knowing the individual. The antipathy is often based on past information and experience with an individual in particular.
Concept of prejudiceHe is designated with the term of prejudice that judgment or opinion, almost always with a trend of negative type, no someone is formed without reason in advance and without that exists before a previous knowledge of the person or the question that prejudged. Because a bias will be when without having a thorough knowledge about an issue, or a lot before that has elapsed time that report adequate knowledge on the topic, we pour an opinion that has very few chances of being real or represent the reality of a fact or a person, since in reality still it is very, very little known as to say.
For example, believe that all Jews are greedy just because it has been made them such fame go one to know why and we only and without asking us if indeed so, of where arises such belief, if you have fundamentals or not, we believe it, we give it as valid, no more and no less. Or assume that the fact of not having a chronological age equated, convict a man of 50 years will never be entirely happy with a young woman of 25 by the number of years that separate them. Or it can happen that the couple may not be eventually, but probably age is not the factor triggering of the rupture, a bad cohabitation, a hoax can be, because few examples gives us the reality about well couples couples who do not endure over time while having the same age.
Generally, when stated a question whether having proper tests or documentation that testifies that it is really well will be before a bias, as we have said, and then reproducing a stereotype.
In the majority of cases the way of thinking in which fundamentally prevail prejudices is very linked to discrimination, because as mentioned above, in our first sketch on the topic prejudices tend to be very negative, is almost impossible to find with a bias which proposes a positive matter.
Prejudice, as can be seen from the preceding example that we pour about Jews, will tend always to promote the division, the separation between people, because if I argue that Jews are greedy people, then, what I do besides a capricious and arbitrary generalization is to help make them a bad reputation among the rest of the people who listen my comments and that capable until that time they didn't know the situation, but I warn them and put doubts, I carry enmities.
According to psychology argues cognitive biases are distortions that will alter the way in which people perceive reality.
Therefore, prejudices are seriously harmful in promoting or developing social and ties of friendship between people, and even many times, to reject evidence we do is lock the true knowledge of things.
Definition of prejudicePrejudice is the action or effect of prejudging (judge things without full knowledge or before the right time). A bias, therefore, is a prior opinion about something that is known little or evil.
For example: "believe that all Arabs are fundamentalists without even having traveled to Asia is a bias", "leaving aside prejudices and encourage you to use colorful shirts", "I thought I could never love of a woman from a very different culture, but they were only prejudices".
Prejudice, therefore, drawn from views that arise before judging the determination of the evidence. In other words, a prejudice is a critique that is carried out without sufficient prior elements to substantiate it. If a person who never traveled to France asserts that the French are little affectionate and distant in the treatment, you will be incurring a prejudice and playing a stereotype.
This kind of thinking forms are linked to discrimination. Prejudices tend to be negative (rejecting someone or something before you have enough knowledge to judge with reasons) and encourage the division between people: If a subject believes that someone is bad, will not approach even to meet him and see for yourself.
For psychology, cognitive biases are distortions that alter the way in which people perceive reality. Several of these processes were verified empirically by scientists. Prejudice led the Catholic Church to reject, in its time, scientific evidence that checked that the earth revolved around the Sun, among many others.
Concept of prejudicePreconceived about any person, situation or thing, judgment or opinion relate, therefore, aspects of behavior of an irrational nature.
Although the concept has positive and negative value, since it refers both to the disposition in favor as against a person, thing, group or situation, its use implies, generally speaking, in the popular appearance in the scientist, the negative connotation.
Prejudice is more fraught with emotion and a reaction or feeling stronger than intolerance suggested. Although it is common to speak of personal prejudices and include such attitudes in the analysis of the personality, it seems more appropriate to highlight the collective aspects of prejudice.
Religion, race, nation and class prejudices are reflected in the behaviour of the individual as a result of the mutual relationship between the personality and culture. Ordinarily, the main interest that this phenomenon reverts about social situations that produce them and their functional role in relations between individuals and between groups.
As prejudice comes to be a kind of attitude, revealed in behavior, by whose manifestations, their role and situation that breeds it can be determined. The explanation of the genesis of prejudice in terms of natural disposition was yesteryear accepted.
The hypothesis, prior to onset of the psychology of instinct, came to be supported by this doctrine. Individual reactions to the objects and the exotic, as they testify at the first of individuals and groups provide some argument to such a theory.
Social, better documented, psychology has used more empirical character data to discredit the explanation of prejudice in such terms. The prejudice arises from the conflict posed to the groups with respect to maintenance or achievement of a specific situation, which can be of type economic, social, policy, or result from a combination of these factors, from this point of view, the prejudice comes to be a defense mechanism.
Although mention may be small differences in the functioning of the different kinds of prejudice, it can be said that the primary mechanism is the same religious, racial, nationalist demonstrations, etc.
Definition of prejudiceThe word bias, recognizes its etymological origins in the Latin word "praejudicium" referring to which leads to a conclusion or a statement about something without having gathered sufficient evidence that validate it.
The lack of arguments to sustain what it says or thinks is what characterizes a bias, which can be based or lead to a stereotype (where qualifies it to all those who are members of that group) or be the product of elaborations of individual level, although in general they have a deep social burden.
They are, with some exceptions, negative insights into a subject, fact or object. They are based on ignorance, on previous experiences, opinions of others, or the desire to feel superior, for example, in the first case, "abstract art is horrible" said it is because you don't understand it (not to be a bias must be known of art).
In terms of those who are directed to other human beings can be motivated for reasons of sex, religion, race, ideology, age, etc., to apply to the case, phrases without analyzing them, or if it does not thoroughly, you can be in order to downgrade to another in their self-esteem or in consideration of others. If it is a positive bias, it is not good, since enhance to something or someone without reason is not neither correct nor fair with respect to that subject or object, or to others.
Prejudices can lead to discriminatory attitudes, exclusion, and verbal and physical violence.
The psychologist John Dollard, studied in 1937 the situation of blacks in the southern United States, seeing that prejudice against them, was born of that whites did not want to abandon their position of privilege, because recognizing the equality of others would run counter to their own interests. This leads to find another reason for prejudice, the fear of losing the conquests, if overworked group ceases to be. This author sought the origin of prejudice from the psychological point of view, and found them in the children's frustrations of the individual that prejudice, which generates aggression, which channels the outside of their group, to be able to do so there.
For its part, Theodor Adorno, in 1950, the prejudice of racism based on a depersonalidad type, the authoritarian, forged by a too strict education, which does not accept anything to be different from what he conceives as a product of its process desocialisation, as well, or positive.