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Suffrage: Compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of suffrageSuffrage is the political and constitutional right to vote for elected public office. In a broad sense, the suffrage covers the asset, which determines who is entitled to the exercise of the vote (most commonly used); and liabilities, which refers to whom and under what conditions have the right to be elected.
Historically, many groups have been excluded from the right to vote for varied reasons: sometimes because its members were "subjects" of feudal Kings and were not considered men "free"; other times because the exclusion of the vote depended on an explicit policy clearly set in the election laws. On a few occasions the right to vote excluded groups that did not meet certain conditions (exclusion of illiterate, taxes of capitation, etc.); on other occasions a group it has allowed to vote, but the electoral system or the Government institutions were designed on purpose to give them less influence than other more advantaged groups.
It is usually considered that the political legitimacy of a democratic Government derives mainly from suffrage.
• Universal suffrage: is the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief or social, economic, and vertical position.
• Restricted suffrage: also called censatario, only could vote people who appeared on a census or list, normally depending on their wealth, estate or level of taxation.
It is customary in most countries, that the vote only to exercise it who are considered national or citizens of the country. This entails that, depending on the conditions in which nationality - more or less easily, in a number of years of residence, restricted to the first generation, with affiliation, etc. can be obtained (see Ius sanguinis, jus soli as methods of acquisition of nationality)-broad sectors of the residents of a country can be deprived of the right to vote or have it restricted. The right of universal citizenship claimed overcoming of nationality as rights restricted space. However, in recent decades advances occurred in the recognition of the right to vote to resident aliens, such as the concept of European citizenship in the field of the European Union, or the signing of bilateral international treaties to reciprocally recognize the right to vote in local elections of the national resident in the other State.
Concept of suffrageSuffrage is considered today as one of the most important political and social elements of Western societies since it is the means through which the people elect their representatives and freely express their opinions and desires politicians. Suffrage is, in other words, the Act of casting his/her vote at the moment appropriate and specifically singled out for such activity.
According to the theories of political law, suffrage is one of the primordial rights from the scope of the policy for human beings. Suffrage is perhaps one of the unique moments in which people expressed their political preference and obtains direct consequences of this. To be considered valid, the suffrage airs at times previously elected for this purpose such as the election acts. It is there where voters gather to express your vote and do, generally speaking, so private and secret.
The use of suffrage is undoubtedly a new element if you consider that in most of the history of mankind Governments did not permit the people the choice of their representatives if not certainly authoritarian and private methodologies were used.
It would not be until the 19th century was popularized the idea of universal suffrage, which means access to all citizens of legal age to vote and to the free expression of their political preferences through him. In the case of women, such freedom should wait at the end of the same century and in many places until well into the 20th century. Some of the cases of exclusion from suffrage are currently minors, prisoners and foreigners who do not have one residence enough in place to be able to make decisions about their policy.
Suffrage is no doubt eternally linked with democracy, political system whereby the people actively participates in decision-making, this direct or indirect.
Definition of suffrageOriginating from the Latin word suffragĭum, the concept of suffrage encompasses the demonstration that can make public or keep secret related to an election which develops each subject in private. The notion is used as a synonym for vote and describes the medium, gesture or object that makes possible the dissemination of such preference.
It should be noted that this word is associated to the electoral system that governs when they must assign and occupy public positions. Suffrage is a right of constitutional and political nature which includes the so-called franchise of active type (which revolves around the right of every individual to participate with your vote for the choice of rulers or the approval or reject any referendum) and the suffrage of passive type (based on the right to run as a candidate during the election process and to be able to be elected).
Throughout history, the right to bear has undergone multiple transformations. Feudal lords and Kings of antiquity not considered freemen his subjects and, therefore, did not allow that they expressed through the vote.
Democratic Governments, anyway, suffrage is limited by certain legal conditions. According to each country, the subject must be of legal age, having the nationality of the country where you intend to vote or stand as representative or meet other requirements. In some Muslim Nations, for example, women still not enjoy the right of suffrage.
In this sense should note that there is also what is known with the name of women's suffrage. This can be defined as an international movement of reformist type at various levels (political, economic and social), carried out at various moments in history, which had as its clear objective the get and extend the right to vote for women.
In the case of Spain, for example, the first time that recognized this type of suffrage was in 1924. Date in which was established the right of feminists that they exercised as heads of household to not only be choosers but also eligible. However, the votes for women would not be achieved as such until year 1931 becoming the year 1933 the moment in which for the first time the female gender could access to the polls.
It is important to stress in this regard the role exercised by a series of women who fought for women's suffrage in that country. Among them is Clara Campoamor policy which, among other things, participated in the Constitutional Commission which was in charge of elaborating the Magna letter of the second Republic.
In the case of Latin America, it is important to recognize that first nation adopted cited women's suffrage was Uruguay, in particular did so in 1927. Meanwhile, other countries took a little more to accept it as it would be the case of Mexico who did not do so until the year 1953.
Universal suffrage is the right that allows you to vote the entire adult population of the State, beyond their gender, race, social status or beliefs. It's the evolution of a series of systems such as suffrage based (where only you voted the men with a certain level of education and income) or qualified suffrage (men who knew read and write enabled).
Concept of suffrageSuffrage, derived from the Latin "Suffragium" which say, voice assistance or help. It is the right or privilege of voting to elect political representatives either approve or reject legislation. Today, in many democracies, the right to vote is guaranteed as a right of birth, regardless of ethnicity, class, or gender. Without any disqualifying consideration (such as non-literacy), citizens above the minimum age required in a country may vote normally in elections. Universal suffrage is this called.
To reach universal suffrage, he had to go a long way during which, in the majority of countries, the exercise of political rights in favour of groups was limited. It is known that in past times there were various limitations to the right to vote, every time that the electoral rolls were excluded not who met certain requirements. Among these modalities to vote will mention, which have been configured by economic estimates, which conditioned the granting of the right to vote by the verification of income; and those who do not demonstrate a certain annual income, were not registered in voter, being therefore unable to vote.
In common language suffrage and voting are used as equivalent concepts, although in doctrine are marked differences between them. For some authors the vote represents the Act by which the exercise of the right of suffrage is concrete. In this sense only have suffrage the citizens who meet the requirements established by law; While the vote is used more broadly to make decisions in all kinds of collegiate bodies. For others, the right to vote in electoral matters concretizes itself through suffrage, in such a way that they can only cover those who are entitled to vote. However, we should point out that no inconvenient one exists to use both terms synonymously. In democratic States the laws that establish the right to suffrage are fundamental and so important, that in any representative democracy universal suffrage comes to mean as the ideal means for integration, conformation and legitimacy of all Government.