X-ray: compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of X-rayX rays are invisible electromagnetic energy, which is used as a way to obtain or take internal images of tissues, bones, and organs of our body or agency.
It is through this process that a specialist determines if a patient bones are intact or broken, after an accident. In the same way, one can learn from internal injuries on the bodies. In addition, x-rays, are used to discover whether a person possesses or not, any cancerous tumor.
The history of the x-ray begins with scientist William Crookes experiments, in the 19th century, who investigated the effects of certain gases, in conjunction with downloads of energy. These experiments were developed in a tube containing vacuum, and electrodes that generate high voltage currents. He called it a Crookes tube. As well, this tube to be near photographic plates, generated therein some certainly blurry images. But this English physicist, continued not investigating mostly this effect.
So, as Nikola Telsa in 1887, he began to study this effect created by Crookes tubes. Clear that after his investigation, realized the dangers to biological organisms of these radiations and alert the scientific community.
But it was not until 1895 that Wilhelm Conrado Röntgen, which is considered the rays who invented x, documenting these experiments with vacuum tubes was the first to call the radiation emitted by be of unknown type x-ray. For this reason, this scientist was awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics. Later in his experiments he casually noticed that this radiation could pass through material objects and leave impressions of their passage through these and of course, passing through the human body with their bones; be realized from this to hold objects for experimentation with your hand. In 1896 he published his discovery and gave the first demonstration.
Henceforth, the development of x-rays, as an important part in medical diagnostics, was quite fast. Noting that with them, areas hard or denser body, appeared sharper way in photographs, the traumatological field, mainly, he saw unlimited possibilities to improve their daily work, as also related to medical emergencies. Later, was given a use in the detection of tumors in the human body. Similarly, x-rays are used to visualize pulmonary edema,
In terms of rays X in your application medical as such, they work in the following way. The body's tissues are exposed to this radiation. Every tissue of the body, allows more or less, that x-rays crosses it. In that way, less dense tissues, such as blood, veins, muscles, let greater amount of rays. It is the same as x-rays or plates where the radiation that has crossed the Agency, remains registered these tissues are grey. On the other hand, bones or in the case of tumors, these are white, they do not allow to pass large quantities of x-rays. So, as they are achieved perceived anomalies, such as broken bones or tumours, already either malignant or benign (cancerous or not).
Regarding the taking of x-rays, these are carried out by means of tests, ordered by doctors or in patients who are being treated in a hospital or clinic. With regard to the procedure itself, this occurs in a unit specially enabled for these effects. The person is and will be asked to remove all clothing, watches, jewelry, etc. Anything that might interfere with the outlet of the x-ray. At the moment in that person of naked, be provided him a gown so that it covers (in certain cases, is not necessary to remove all the clothes).
The patient, depending on the zone should x-ray, must remain seated or lying down on the x-ray table x. Likewise, even, in many cases must remain standing during the procedure, always immobile for a good image. Whatever where is, after the objective area is placed a cassette containing the x-ray film.
In areas that do not need to receive radiation, these are often protected with lead vests.
And now talking about contraindications, x rays and pregnancy certainly not go together, so pregnant women should inform as soon as possible to the treating doctor from his condition.
X-ray conceptThe x-rays were the work of the German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen, who discovered them in 1895, when he was devoted to the investigation of the passage of electrical current within a tube without oxygen. In these circumstances he observed brightness that originated in some chemicals that were in his lab, which induced to think that the electrons that moved within the glass tube produced light. Concluding that shadows should occur if there was light, he overlaid with a screen with fluorescent chemical unasustancia, and placed his hand between the screen and the glass tube. What happened was that the bones of his hand appeared reflected on the screen. Ignorance of the nature of those rays, propelled him to be called them X (unknown) but not patented his invention.
X rays are invisible waves of energy (electromagnetic radiation) concapacidad to pass through the skin and muscles, but that are absorbed by more dense as metal or bone substances. However, exposure to X rays for a long time, can damage the organic cells.
The Sun is a great producer of X rays but to be absorbed by the atmosferaterrestre has no impact on the planet.
In addition to be used for medical purposes, how to get x-rays, angiography or CT scans, they are also used to recognize if a painting is authentic or if it is painted over another. In the industrial field can detect faults that produce the rupture or the early deterioration of materials.
Definition of X-rayX rays. It is the radiation electromagnetic, invisible, capable of traversing opaque bodies and impress the photographic films. The wavelength is between 10 to 0.1 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range of 30 to 3000 PHz (from 50 to 5,000 times the frequency of visible light).
X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of the same nature as the radio waves, microwave waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays and gamma rays. The fundamental difference with the gamma rays is their origin: gamma rays are radiation of nuclear origin produced by the de-excitation of a Nucleon from a level excited to another lower energy and in the disintegration of radioactive isotopes, while X rays arise from extranuclear phenomena at the level of the electronics orbit, mainly caused by deceleration of electrons. The energy of the x-rays generally found between UV radiation and gamma rays produced naturally. X-rays are ionizing radiation because when interacting with matter produces ionization of atoms of the same, i.e. originating charged (ions) particles.
X-rays are products of the des rapid acceleration of very energetic electrons (of order 1000eV) collide with a metal target. According to classical mechanics, an accelerating charge emits electromagnetic radiation, in this way, the shock produces a continuous spectrum of x-ray (from certain minimum wavelength). However experimentally, in addition to this continuous spectrum, are characteristic lines for each material. These Spectra - continuous and characteristic - will be explored more in detail below.
The production of x-rays is given in an x-ray tube that can vary depending on the source of electrons and can be of two kinds: filament tubes or pipes with gas.
With filament tube is a glass tube vacuum in which two electrodes are at their ends. The cathode is a hot tungsten filament and anode is a copper block in which this immersed white. The anode is continually cooled by circulating water, because the energy of the electrons to be struck with the white, is transformed into heat energy in a large percentage. Electrons generated at the cathode are focused toward a point blank (which usually has an inclination of 45 °) and product of the collision the X rays are generated. Finally the x-ray tube has a window which is transparent to this radiation produced in beryllium, aluminum or mica type.
Is the tube with gas at a pressure of approximately 0.01 MmHg and is controlled by a valve; It has a cathode of concave aluminum, which allows to focus the electrons and an anode. Ionized nitrogen and oxygen, present in the tube, particles are attracted towards the cathode and anode. Positive ions are attracted towards the cathode and inject electrons to it. Subsequently the electrons are accelerated towards the anode (which contains the target) at higher energies to then produce x-rays. The cooling mechanism and window are those who are in the tube filament.
The more usual detection systems are photographic films and ionization devices.
The photographic film emulsion varies depending on wavelength to which you want to expose. The sensitivity of the film is determined by the mass absorption coefficient and is restricted to a range of spectral lines. The disadvantage that presented these films is, by its nature HailStorm, the impossibility of a detailed analysis allowing not a large resolution.
Ionisation devices measure the amount of ionization of a gas product of interaction with x-rays. In an ionization chamber, the negative ions are attracted to the anode and the positive ions toward the cathode, generating current in an external circuit. The relationship between the intensity of the radiation and the amount of current produced is proportional, so it can be an estimate of the amount of photons of x-ray per unit time. Counters that use this principle are the Geiger counter, the proportional counter and the counter of flashes. The difference between them is the amplification of the signal and the sensitivity of the detector.
X-ray conceptThey are a form of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light.
An x-ray machine sends particles of these rays through the body. The images are recorded on a computer or in a movie.
• Structures that are dense, such as bones, blocked most of the particles of x-rays and appear white.
• Metal and means of contrast (special dyes used to highlight areas of the body) will also appear white.
• Structures containing air will be black, and muscles, fat, and fluid will appear as shades of gray.
The test is performed in a hospital Radiology Department or in a doctor's Office. The way in which you need to position itself depends on the type of x-ray that is being done. Several x-ray shots may be needed.
It is necessary that you remain still when an x-ray is taking the movement can cause blurred images. You may be required to hold the breath or that it will not move during one or two seconds when taking the picture.
Before the x-ray, tell the medical team if you are or may be pregnant or if you have an IUD.
Metal can cause blurred images. You will need to remove all jewelry and possibly need to wear a hospital gown.
The way in which the test is done depends on the specific type of x-ray.
X-rays are painless. However, some necessary body positions during an x-ray may cause temporary discomfort.
X-rays are monitored and regulated to ensure that one receives the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image.
For the majority of conventional x-rays, the risk of cancer or of defects is very low. The majority of scholars believe that the benefits of appropriate radiographic images greatly outweigh any risks.
Young children and fetuses are more sensitive to the risks of the x-ray tell the doctor if you think you might be pregnant.