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Parapsychology: Compendium of definitions and concepts
Definition of parapsychologyParapsychology («for» the Greek παρά "next", «psycho» ψυχή, soul or mental activity, and «lodge»,-λογία, treated, study) is a pseudoscientific discipline that studies Paranormal phenomena such as extra-sensory perception, telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, extracorporeal experiences, spiritualism or the poltergeist. The parapsychologists refer to these events as psi phenomena.
Parapsychology is considered a pseudoscience by the scientific community, since the very existence of the paranormal is not scientifically provable. Since 1964, the James Randi Educational Foundation offers the sum of one million dollars who get under conditions controlled and supervised laboratory, to demonstrate a single paranormal phenomenon as previously mentioned. So far nobody has been able to a successful demonstration and prize remains unclaimed for forty-five years.
Currently, the parapsychological research uses methodologies of fieldwork and laboratory research, and is carried out in some universities and laboratories with private funds. Although some work on parapsychology have been published in scientific journals (Psychological Bulletin, Foundations of Physics and the British Journal of Psychology), the publications about parapsychology are concentrated in magazines of associations dedicated to the topic, such as the Journal of Parapsychology (published between 1959 and 1968, and then between 2000 and 2001) and the European Journal of Parapsychology (which ceased publication in 2010 due to the lack of articles).
The word parapsychology was coined for the first time by philosopher and German psychologist Max Dessoir in June 1889 in an article published in the German magazine Sphinx. This term replaced psychical research or metapsychology that came since decades ago to name investigation of psychic phenomena which could not decipher the science. In the successive decades that followed to this fact the term ended up being accepted by the various international agencies of scientific research.
If by analogy with terms such as for-Genesis, Para-gogo, Para-grafo, Paralogismo Paracusia, Paralogismo, Paranoia, Paragon, etc. note with the prefix to something that goes beyond the ordinary, or will, so to speak, next to normal, we can call (perhaps) "Parapsiquicos" phenomena that arise from the normal development of mental life, and therefore parapsychology to benchmark them science. The term is neither beautiful nor elegant but my view has the advantage of briefly characterizing a boundary area until now nameless, "between" the normal usual States and the pathological. And indeed such neoformaciones or neologisms do not have rather than the limited value, its utility practice. Sphinx, number 7, p. 42
The suffix (Logos) lodge is inherent in any discipline that uses part or all of the scientific method, as it seeks to parapsychology, which would especially use the field of statistics. Thus, the parapsychology term would refer to the study of psychological phenomena that transcend the ordinary, the study of the parapsiquica.
Concept of parapsychologyThe parapsychology term designates a scientific discipline dedicated to the study of phenomena linked to the psyche of human beings that do not fall within the field of study Psychology.
Parapsychology, from the last century, took in charge the investigation of those phenomena that had been avoided by other humanistic sciences. Still, fundamentally, and in its origins, a science of social behavior, psychology leaves aside the Paranormal (which are those who studies parapsychology).
Paranormal phenomena were considered in ancient times unexplained phenomena either "other worlds" phenomena. Only when the doctor Sigmund Freud incorporates the concept of unconscious psychology, parapsychology can make a correct valuation of parapsychological phenomena (which we will define later).
The idea of unconscious, achieves complete the picture of what really is the human being; everything that had been attributed to supernatural forces is incorporated into a totalizing vision of man.
Similarly, the interaction between mind and matter observed in some parapsychological phenomena, allowed to abandon the old duality between body and spirit approaching the science to the old conception of man as a microcosm.
We cannot advance in the field of parapsychology if not know, first, what we are and who, as human beings. And this definition arises from the basic scientific concept of psychology. Then, in compliance with us this, we can say that the human being is comprised of a conscious personality that has its roots in the depths of the unconscious. Initially was considered as pathology all manifestation of the unconscious, so that only the contents of the unconscious were interpreted for therapeutic purposes. It was Dr. Karl Gustav Jung - beloved disciple of Freud - who build on the work of his master, considered the unconscious more than a chaos of blind impulses. He asserted that the unconscious ours sits in YO more deep that he communicates with us through symbols and signals that are repeated in the course of time and in very different cultures.
Definition of parapsychologyParapsychology, it is a field of study that reveals the mysteries of the mind, but most still weird are your bowels, already that parapsychology it reveals a world of possibilities than a relative science, of complex and verifiable study that is not able to demonstrate. That is why that parapsychology is considered a "pseudoscience" because it lacks scientific evidence fully verifiable, the provenance of data that seek to justify events that happen around supernatural events always it is incomplete, lacking a rebuttable proof indicating that the phenomenon is true. Parapsychology in the world has a very trivial position, respected by those who based their belief in correspondence with some own event, however and very even though parapsychology is treated as a science by those who practice it, many pockets of society prefer to opt for not understanding the nature of such a study.
Parapsychology is named thanks to which the object of study submitted did not agree with the logic established by what is actually tested. Parallel, alternate, distant to the reality of "Psychology" regard "for" but entering a difficult and profound mystery in which the mind allows developments and visions and unnatural, inhuman, and ephemeral spectrum domain, which with gesture and form, take conscience of one who sees them and made a bridge between reality and what is not palpable as shown.
Most transcendental phenomena in the story which presents the parapsychology are worthy of science fiction, have however, been sufficient sources and theories regarding this, which make it possible to make a reference of this society. Telepathy, the most famous of the parapsychological phenomena that are known to the present, is the communication between minds, without pronouncing words or gestures, a Telepath would be able to make its voice heard in the mind of another. Interaction with objects without touching them or to move alone are substances of parapsychology, call it telekinesis. Parapsychology will also be pseudoscience charge synthesize theories of ghosts, ghosts of the more beyond, agents for the illusion, nothing completely true.