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Civil engineering concepts and related words
Definition of Civil EngineeringCivil engineering is the discipline of professional engineering that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of infrastructures located in the environment, including roads, railways, bridges, channels, dams, ports, airports, dams and other related buildings. Civil Engineering is the oldest engineering after military, hence its name to distinguish the non-military activities with the militares5. Traditionally it has been divided into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical, Geophysical Engineering, geodesy, engineering control, structural, mechanical engineering, transport engineering, Sciences of the Earth, forensic engineering, engineering urban planning, hydraulic engineering, engineering materials, engineering costs, surveying, and construction engineering. . Civil engineers in positions virtually all levels: in the public sector from the municipal level to the Government and in the private sphere from the small self-employed consultants who work at home until the contracted in large international companies.
Concept of Civil EngineeringEngineering, through the use of different models and techniques, try to solve various problems and meet various needs of human beings. Professionals in this science, which receive the name of engineers, combine the scientific method with its creativity to carry out their projects.
The specialty of engineering that is responsible for the creation of infrastructures, transport and Enterprise hydraulic works is called civil engineering. It usually occupies public works and large-scale developments.
In addition to the tasks of building, civil engineering is involved in inspection, examination and preservation of what was built. In this way, it seeks to collaborate in the protection of the environment and the prevention of accidents linked to the infrastructure that derives from the engineering works.
Contemporary civil engineering was developed from the 19th and 20th centuries through the improvement of instruments that measure magnitudes and the development of mathematical models of calculation.
Within civil engineering, it is possible to distinguish between hydraulic engineering, construction engineering, traffic engineering, transportation engineering, geotechnical engineering and structural engineering.
The diverse tasks that civil engineers may develop, include the design of airports, roads, the construction of a building or the construction of a bridge management. That is why your task is very important to achieve the urban growth of any country and improve its infrastructure.
That is commissioned to conceive, design, build and maintain the public good works (aqueducts, irrigation, buildings, roads, hydroelectric Central, etc.); they are necessary for the satisfaction of all human needs (health, food, transportation, housing, energy and recreation) for the Group of civilians of that community.
Fields of action of Civil Engineering
With the passing of the years the fields of action of Civil Engineering have grown; so much so that today not only is responsible for artificial works, but to solve problems having to do with natural materials from the environment, for example the consequences of rains, earthquakes, etc.
In what refers to the physical field of action, is considered that it includes civil works and the ground where they are built. To perform their functions, engineers must perform studies and keep track of the status of those buildings that perform as well also seek ways to understand the behavior of the space to avoid certain disasters.
With respect to the social field of action, it comprises the design and planning of infrastructure works. It should be noted that the responsibility of engineers is very high, since his work depends on welfare and the safety of citizens and any errors that may exist, either procedural or conceptual, will have repercussions on the economic sphere of society.
It is necessary to emphasize that within Civil Engineering, there are several branches; However, all based their studies on same Sciences: mathematics, physics and chemistry and working with materials of similar composition but in different proportions, given the type of specialty.
Included within the Civil Engineering branches are: environmental engineering (controlling pollution and works to improve the conditions of the natural environment), construction (studies and manages the way in which physical execution of works programmes should be implemented), structural (builds and maintains buildings such as bridges or structures of transmission), geotechnical (includes everything related to materials from the Earthsuch as soil and rocks), health (includes construction and control of sewerage systems and everything that refers to the cycle of water in society), hydraulic (is responsible for overseeing related to water resources), roads and transport (comprising media communication and mobilization in a society, both people and goods).
Meaning of Civil EngineeringCivil engineering is a specialized, and professional discipline responsible for the design, construction, improvement and maintenance of all infrastructures, bridges, roads and dams hydraulic up skyscrapers and mass transit systems.
Civil engineering has been a constant in mankind since they began to lift the first large structures in the ancient Egypt. Sedentary lifestyle and the need for permanent shelters created the need for more durable and more complex structures. Once seated, was also the civil engineering which allowed to develop the first aqueducts to supply clean water to the population, as well as ports for receiving ships and trade, bridges to connect places that otherwise would be inaccessible and roads to facilitate the transport of materials and merchandise.
At present, because demand for infrastructure has been increasing, civil engineers played widely in the public and private sectors, and their preparation usually require a college degree, with a length of three to five years. Civil engineering, as well as many other engineering, involves a solid knowledge of mathematics, algebra, calculus and physics, as well as specialized knowledge of hydrology, urban development, chemistry and geology. Due to the high responsibility that handles a civil engineer, engineers require special certification, attesting to its responsibility and knowledge in some countries.
Civil engineering, in turn, tends to be divided into several even more concrete and specialized branches. Materials engineering, for example, studied in detail the properties of matter and requires knowledge in chemistry and applied physics. Earthquake engineering studies and develops constructions that can be maintained in standing in the case of an earthquake, while studying environmental engineering construction of sewage plants or treatment of contaminated water.