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What is the meaning of Malaria? Concept, Definition of Malaria

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Concepts of malaria and derived words

Meaning of Malaria

Malaria (from the medieval Italian 'bad air') or malaria (latin palus, "swamp") is a disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, and probably that has been transmitted to humans through the western gorillas. It is the first disease in importance from debilitating diseases. Between 700,000 to 2.7 million people die a year because of malaria, of which more than 75% are children in endemic areas of Africa. It also causes about 400-900 million cases of acute fever a year in the child population (under 5 years) in these areas.
Africa stipulated on 25 April as African malaria day, since it is on this continent where this disease is more common.
The disease can be caused by one or by several different species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium knowlesi, the first three of which are those reported in the American continent. Vectors of this disease are various species of mosquito of the genus Anopheles. As it is known, only the females of this mosquito are that feed on blood to be able to mature the eggs; males do not bite and can not transmit diseases, since they only feed on Nectars and vegetable juices.
The only possible way of direct transmission between humans is a pregnant person transmit it via placenta to the fetus. Either by direct transmission through the bite of a mosquito. Transmission through blood transfusions from donors who have suffered from the disease is also possible.
In regions where malaria is highly endemic, people are infected so often that they develop acquired immunity, i.e., are more or less asymptomatic carriers of the parasite.
A total of approximately 1.3 million people die each year from malaria; of these, 90 percent are children under five years old.
396 Million cases of malaria occur each year. The greater part of the burden of disease occurs in Africa South of the Sahara.
The first vaccine was developed by the Group of scientists led by Dr. Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, and had an effectiveness of between 40 and 60 percent in adults, and a 77 percent in children.


Definition of malaria

Malaria malaria is a debilitating infectious disease caused by a Protozoan parasite of the genus plasmodium. It is a devastating disease in developing countries causing one death every 30 seconds.

Symptoms

After infection the most characteristic symptom is shivering, which may last from 15 minutes to an hour. Then come nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, loss of strength, cough or headache. And soon a fever which may reach 40 degrees. After a few days, there are moments that seems to the sick have been cured, but it can have a relapse in the future. The parasite produces certain highly variable proteins, and our immune system cannot recognize them effectively, since when it develops one sufficient number of antibodies, two weeks, they are useless since the Antigen has changed. Necessary to pay attention during the trip we have had the symptoms stated above, whether two or three months of returning from the trip appears fever. A late diagnosis of malaria is very common which is very damaging. Malaria has an incubation period of at least 7 days. So if we have fever a week after when we have been exposed before, it won't be malaria.

Transmission

It is only transmitted to humans by the mosquito of the Anopheles genus, in particular by the female, since the male does not itch to humans by feeding only on juices vegetables, while the female is hematofaga, feeds on blood.
It is also transmitted by direct infection of a woman pregnant your baby. Female anopheles carries the parasite in their glands salivary. If bites the infects a person. And if this mosquito is not infected, but bites an infected person, carrier and then infects.
It is very difficult to put an end to the transmission of this disease since in endemic places many people are carriers of the disease, develop a sort of "acquired immunity" with barely recognizable symptoms.
The most feared malaria is cerebral malaria infected red blood cells stick to the capillaries of the brain. Death can occur within 24 hours of the first symptoms and the patient recovers may be if you brain sequels. Another well-known is that destroys red blood cells causing anemia that can endanger the life of the person.
The most feared malaria is cerebral malaria infected red blood cells stick to the capillaries of the brain. Death can occur within 24 hours of the first symptoms and the patient recovers may be if you brain sequels. Another well-known is that destroys red blood cells causing anemia that can endanger the life of the person.
Life cycle of the parasite (Plasmodium)

Detection

To detect disease blood test are made several times until you are sure that there is no parasite. Catch it early can save life.

Treatment

There are many drugs to treat malaria and depending on what type of malaria is are you will use one or the other. Chloroquine is also used as a prophylaxis is well known.

Prevention

No method of prevention is effective 100%. The quimiprofilaxis recommended for malaria creates much controversy, because some physicians recommend it because they say that aid to that disease is not deadly, and other doctors not recommended it in case of infection because they say that their effectiveness is minimal and very harmful side effects. The best thing is that each is reported well and ask at several sites. They say the majority of travelers is to take you those pills so strong with so many contraindications every day during the entire trip, especially if it is several months, is madness. They say that it serves little purpose, and is best dealt with by a good mosquito repellent (repellents, adequate clothing, mosquito nets).
There is hope of a vaccine developed by Dr. Elkin Patarroyo, but it does not have yet sufficient effectiveness. It has been tested the use of the insecticide DDT with some very good to tackle this disease results, but considered very negative to health in general as well as for flora and fauna. The most malaria-affected continent is Africa celebrating on April 25 of each year "Africa Malaria Day".

Concept of malaria

It is estimated that malaria is one of the most important diseases and that produces more deaths worldwide since even in today is very present in impoverished Africa regions. Malaria is also known as malaria and is an infectious disease that is transmitted by a type of mosquito. This mosquito leaves parasites in the blood that are reproduced and generate a State of weakening that is increasing and worsens as time goes on, and can easily cause death if the person is not treated properly and time.
Scientists have found thanks to different biological studies that malaria is a disease that the human being has acquired once it existed only in gorillas. This is to say that probably the first men who have been infected with malaria have come into contact with these animals in the wild, so it is considered that, similarly what happened with HIV, human malaria virus is may have originated in the African continent. In this sense, it is understandable to think so because this disease today mainly affects these populations and is one of the leading causes of death due to the presence of the mosquito Anopheles in that space. On the other hand, although found the existence of the bug in other places, the possibility of medical care to counteract the effects of the parasite has been one of the determining effects in preventing this disease from becoming an epidemic outside the African continent.
Malaria is evident through symptoms such as fever, excessive sweating, high temperature, chills and a deep headache. Since the parasite is installed in the person's blood system, it begins to show a clear weakness that does not allow you to carry out their activities normally and that forces her to stay at rest. In some cases, if the situation becomes more complicated, the person can present vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, disorders in the nervous system and possibly fall into a coma if it is not treated in time.

What is malaria

Malaria is an infectious disease (parasitic), given by a Protozoan.
Known four species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. You are known to exist in some parts of Mexico, Haiti, Central and South America, Middle East, Turkey, Southeast Asia, Malay Archipelago, China and Oceania. Finding the most common parasites are the "Plasmodiun falciparum", ' Plasmodium vivax "" Plasmodium malariae "and the"Plasmodium ovale"which is the most rare.

What causes it or how collapses?

Malaria is transmitted from one man to another man by mosquito bites females infected Anopheles. Although known cases of transmission by blood transfusion and congenital or the use of contaminated needles.
Mosquitoes are infected by sucking blood containing sexual forms of the parasite (micro and macrogametositos). After a phase of development in the mosquito, they transform into sporozoites, which are inoculated to men when the mosquito feeds.
The condition presents several stages of development, being the first which is carried out in the liver or experitrocitica. Later escape the parasites from the liver into the bloodstream and invade erythrocytes, they multiply and 48 hrs. then (or 72 at p. Malariae) erythrocytes by releasing a new group of parasites are broken. There are no symptoms until several of these red blood cell cycles have been completed.
Liver infection ceases spontaneously in less than four weeks; then the multiplication is limited to erythrocytes.

Symptoms

It is characterized by chills, which last from 15 minutes to an hour, beginning when a new generation of parasites breaks the host erythrocyte and they escape into the blood. At this time it is common there is nausea, vomiting, and headache. The next hot stage, which lasts several hours, is accompanied by fevers in needle which sometimes reaches 40 ° C or more. During this phase it is possible that the parasites from invading other erythrocytes. With the third stage or sweating it ends the episode. In infections with p. vivax malaria (benign tertiary malaria), p. Ovale or Falciparum (malignant malaria tertiary) erythrocytes are broken and there are paroxysms every 48hrs.
P. Malariae (malaria cuartano) infections, cycles takes 72hrs. As it progresses the disease presents esplenomegalea and to a lesser extent hepatomegalea.
Infection with p. Falciparum has greater importance because unlike other infections, this most frequently have serious or fatal complications. It is also the most difficult to identify clinically that frequently occurs as a disease influenza-like, with nonspecific symptoms of fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, diarrhea or pain and abdominal discomfort. Fever can be of type febricula, continuous, or with needles daily and occur without chills or shakes. It is sometimes difficult to identify parasites in blood smear.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of malaria is set to find parasites in thick blood smear and thin dyed with Giensa. The thin film is mainly used for the differentiation of species after discovering the infection in a thick film. In all infections the number of erythrocytes infected rarely exceeds 2% with the exception of infection with p. Falciparum which, since a serious infection by falciparum q: is 10%, but can reach 20-30% or more of paracitadas cells.

Treatments and recommendations

CHLOROQUINE phosphate: The drug of choice is chloroquine, for acute attacks of malaria, but healing is only achieved in p. Falciparun and p. Malariae infections. To cure infections by p. oval and p. Vivax Primaquine is required in order to eliminate the liver stage of the parasite. This medicine should not be used in children, which can cause hypotension and sudden death.
Chloroquine is used in prophylaxis to prevent all forms of malaria attacks, but does not prevent infection. Infection with p. Falciparum and p. Malarie are terminated if weekly chloroquine is taken by six weeks because they do not have a persistent exoeritricitica phase. However, in infections by p. Vivax and p. Ovale have a persistent liver phase, there may be initial attacks late or relapse after discontinuation of chloroquine.
PRIMAQUINE phosphate: Used to prevent relapses of the disease eliminated persistent hepatic forms of p. Ovale and p. Vivax in patients who have suffered an acute attack. Also used for prophylaxis in people returning to an endemic area and who may have been exposed to malaria.
QUININE: Oral quinine sulfate is used to treat malaria by chloroquine-resistant p. Falciparum strains. It should be used with caution because of their toxic effects, desirable quinine in plasma concentrations are 5 to 10 micrograms/ml.
MEFLOQUINE: Is a new derivative of the methanol quinoline. It has minimal side effects, and is effective against the equizontes blood of all forms of malaria, including almost all strains of p. Falciparum chloroquine or multi-drug-resistant.
Adults and children of all ages require prophylaxis, but no method is 100% effective


Meaning of malaria

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that affects human beings through the bites of certain mosquitoes. This disease, which is also known as malaria produces fever, headache, cough, muscle weakness, vomiting, liver and kidney problems, abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS) and other disorders that can lead to death.
The most pessimistic figures indicate that nearly two million people die each year from malaria. The majority of deaths corresponds to children living on the African continent.
A Protozoan known comoPlasmodium species are responsible for producing malaria. The vector which is contagious to humans is the female mosquito that belongs to the genus Anopheles. Other possible forms of contagion, besides this insect stings are transfusions of blood and transmission mother-infant through the placenta.
One of the most effective mechanisms to reduce the spread of malaria, therefore, is to combat this mosquito (through spraying, the Elimination of standing water that constitutes its habitat for development, etc.). There are, moreover, variasvacunas in development, already still not been found none that is completely effective.
Once diagnosed malaria, the doctor will tell what the treatment indicated for the patient according to the way acquired by disease. Is likely that the professional order supply, whether oral or intravenous, of various drugs, such as chloroquine or laquinidina.

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