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Concepts and meanings of marketing
Meaning of marketing
Definition of marketing, according to experts in the field:• For the American Marketing Association (A.M.A): "marketing is a function of the Organization and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers, and manage relations with the latter, so that they benefit the entire organization...".
• To Philip Kotler, author of the book "Marketing management": "marketing is a social and administrative process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through generate, deliver and exchange products of value with their peers".
• For Jerome McCarthy, Trailblazer Award from the American Marketing Association: "marketing is the realization of those activities that are intended to meet the goals of an organization, to anticipate the consumer or customer requirements and to manage a flow of goods suitable to the needs and services provided by the producer to the consumer or client".
• For Stanton, Etzel and Walker, authors of the book "Foundations of Marketing": "marketing is a total system of business activities devised for planning products needs satisfiers, assigning prices, promote and distribute them to markets goal, in order to achieve the objectives of the Organization".
• For John A. Howard, of Columbia University: marketing is the process of:
1. Identify the needs of the consumer.
2 To conceptualize such needs depending on the company's ability to produce.
3 Communicate such conceptualization to those who have decision-making capacity in the company.
4 Conceptualize the production obtained based on the previously identified needs of the consumer.
5 Communicate such conceptualization to the consumer '. "
• For consultants to the Ries and Jack Trout, authors of the book "The war of marketing": the marketing term means "war". Both consultants, considered that a company should be directed to the competitor; i.e., devote much more time to the analysis of each "participant" in the market, exposing a list of weaknesses and competitive forces, as well as an action plan to exploit them and defend them.
In synthesis, and complementing the previous definitions, consider the following definition of marketing:
Marketing is a total system of activities that includes a set of processes through which existing in the market desires or needs are identified to satisfy them in the best possible way to promote the exchange of products and/or services of value to customers, in exchange for a utility or benefit.
Structural analysis of the definition of marketing:Taking into account the previous definitions, you can identify a set of "critical elements" that make up the basic structure of the marketing, which reveal its true scope, as detailed below:
1. Marketing is a social and administrative process: is considered a social process because it involved groups of people with needs, desires and demands. According to Kotler, the starting point of the discipline of marketing lies in needs and desires humans.
In addition, is considered an administrative process, because the marketing needs of its basic elements, such as: planning, organization, implementation and control, for the development of their activities.
Both basic features and forming part of the "definition of marketing", help us to remember two very important points:
1. The marketing is done by people and directed towards people (social process): this aspect is fundamental to not lose sight of the "humanization" of their various activities.
2. The marketing needs to be administered: today it is not enough to have brilliant ideas, need to schedule them, organize them, implement them and control them, for in that way, increase the chances of success and that the company is more competitive.
2 Marketing promotes the exchange of value products with peers: Exchange is the Act in which someone gets something (p. ex. a product or service) giving something in return (p. ex. money).
According to Philip Kotler, so that the Exchange takes place must meet five conditions: 1) that there are at least two parts, 2) that each party owns something that might have value to the other party, 3) that each party is able to communicate and make delivery, 4) that each party is free to accept or reject the offer, 5) that each party considers that it is appropriate or desirable to negotiate with the other party. With this in mind, it can be concluded that marketing promotes Exchange processes to achieve the satisfaction of all the parties involved in it.
3. The marketing is a function of the company: in a broad sense, a company is composed of different departments (e.g.. Finance, human resources, Marketing, etc.); which perform different functions but in a manner coordinated among themselves.
Marketing, on the other hand, is a function because it comprises a series of activities (identifying opportunities, market research, formulation of strategies and tactics, etc...) with own objectives, but which are closely interrelated with other departments, to thus serve overall objectives of the company.
4. The marketing is aimed at the identification and satisfaction of needs and desires: needs are related to the basic goods (food, shelter, housing, security), on the other hand, wishes have to do with the specific satisfiers (for example: a hamburger Mc Donald´s to satiate the hunger). Therefore, one of the most important tasks of marketing is to identify needs and desires that exist in the market, then, to satisfy them in the best possible way with a product or service, logically, in exchange for a utility or benefit.
5. The marketing evaluates the productive capacity of the enterprise: according to John a. Howard, one of the functions of marketing consists of conceptualizing the needs or desires of the market goal in products or services according to the productive capacity of the company.
To fulfill this role, marketers need to evaluate actual productive capacities of the company on three fundamental reasons: ensure quality, meet "bump" of its productive capacity and determine the balance points.
6. Marketing uses a total system of commercial activities: A system is a set of elements which act and interact with each other to achieve goals determined in a specific period of time.
Then, the marketing is a system because it has a set of elements which act and interact with each other to contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the company.
7. The marketing must meet the goals of the company to keep it in effect: the marketing activities to contribute to the achievement of those objectives (short, medium and long term) that the company has been proposed. To do this, you must participate synergistically with all other activities (financial, administrative, production, etc...).
8 Marketing is responsible for relationships with customers for the benefit of the Organization: "does not have a marketing department: we have a Department of clients ' affirms Director General de Southwest Airlines, Hell Kellner.
This statement shows the conviction of a company oriented to maintain long-term relationships with their clients, which is without a doubt, one of the most important activities of the marketing. In any case, establishing permanent links between the company and customers in order to generate (if possible) "clients of lifetime", is one of the most important objectives of modern marketing.
9. Marketing is a tool to compete with other companies: according to the Ries and Jack Trout, all companies have a segment that conquer and competitors who beat or those who defend themselves. This definition, recalls the basic principle that any company is an "island"; Therefore, you need to internalize characteristics of its clients and the weaknesses and strengths of its competitors; then, establish a plan of action that allows you to position themselves, defend and attack.
Definition of marketingThe concept of marketing has a philosophical background which leads to companies or organizations - that they practice it - towards the identification and satisfaction of the needs or desires of their markets goal in exchange for obtaining a particular utility or benefit.
It is therefore of vital importance that both marketers and all persons who are related to the area of marketing, to know what is the concept of marketing and how to apply it...
The concept of marketing, according to experts in the field:• To Philip Kotler, author of the book "Marketing management", the concept of markets leads us directly to the concept of marketing, and at the discretion of the aforementioned author, "this is a human activity that is related to the markets, means working with them to update potential exchanges in order to meet needs and human desires".
In another of his books (Marketing Management, essential concepts), Philip Kotler argues that the concept of marketing (marketing) rests on four pillars: 1) market goal, 2) needs of the customer, 3) integrated marketing and 4) profitability; Therefore, (the concept of marketing) adopts a perspective from outside inward; i.e., begins with a well defined market, focuses on the needs of clients, coordinates all activities that affect customers and produces utilities to meet them.
• For Laura Fischer and Jorge Espejo, authors of the book "Marketing", commercial premises on which rests the guidance to the consumer or marketing concept, are:
1. Consumers can be grouped into segments according to their needs and demographics. Change at anytime to the product that best meets your needs and determine which products and services should provide organizations.
2. The Organization considers that its mission is to meet a defined set of needs and expectations of a specific group of customers.
3. The Organization recognizes that fully meet expectations requires a good programme of market research that starts with identifying them.
4. The organization establishes that the activities of the company that tend to affect customers should be submitted to an integrated control of marketing.
5. The organization knows that to fully satisfy its customers will earn loyalty, preference and good opinion of them; which, allows you to reach your goals.
In synthesis, the concept of marketing focuses on the latter as a human activity that works in markets to achieve Exchange processes that meet needs and/or desires to change a utility or benefit to the company or organization that practiced it.
Application of the marketing concept:Some basic ideas that you can use to apply the concept of marketing are as follows:
1 Recognize that consumers are grouped into well-defined segments (target markets) and it all begins when you identify them.
2. Accept that the main mission of a company or organization is the meet goal that identifies the needs or wishes of the markets.
3 Coordinate all marketing activities (from market to control activities research and monitoring activities are carried out), considering that each of them directly affect customers, therefore, have an impact on the decisions that they make.
4. Do not forget to obtain a particular utility or benefit for the company or organization is the end result of properly meeting the needs and/or's customers wishes.
Definition of marketingMarketing, best known in some regions as marketing (from the English language term) Spanish-speaking, is the activity that consists in bringing together different individuals or social groups through the exchange of products and services. This Exchange, usually involves obtaining profits since that provides the service receives in return monetary assets.
Marketing can also be defined as the 'technique of market', understanding the market as the space in which all economic exchanges are made. To carry out such exchanges and both parties involved to obtain the best results, the marketing or marketing develops sales strategies including advertising is one of the most important and most widely used techniques to ensure the sale of certain products.
In addition, marketing develops various types of studies such as surveys, analysis of product testing in selected populations, positioning of products to sell in certain spaces, statistics and others.
Marketing can be carried out, is essential for the existence of two parts: one that provides the service and one that needs to meet certain needs. In this sense, the role of the provider of the service or product is much more active since he depends on the purchaser to select your particular product and not one that can be competition. Advertising strategies then have as a main objective attract the attention of the consumer potential through persuasion and to submit to the product as the most ideal item for your particular case.
Marketing is clearly related to elements of Economics, mathematics and statistics, all scientific areas useful for its development since they provide methodologies, systems and theories that form the basis for the appropriate development of marketing or marketing activities.
Marketing conceptIt is the technique of managing markets, understood as the sale or exchange of products for the satisfaction of human needs.
What generates the appearance of marketing is the existence of unmet needs that require tangible and intangible assets to satisfy them. These products that satisfy needs, entering the market of purchase sale of goods in competition with others, which requires a strategic plan of action, object of study of marketing, to be able to position itself as a product chosen by the customer, either by its price, its quality, by susservicio of after sale, by attention to the public, or by all these caracteristicasen a whole.
Marketing tends to anticipate the requirements of society, to secure them a competitive price, to design advertising strategies, to orientate demand towards the product of the company, and finally, meet the demand effectively, in exchange for an adequate profitability.
Few successful companies. Hamel and Prahalad published a book called "Competing for the future" where were the similarities between the market and unacarretera. On this road there are companies of Vanguard (that change) that drive the market, and others that are left drivers, and which are most. They are also victims of the road, which are which could not adapt to the model. Marketing deals avoid being displaced from this road. Look at the weaknesses and strengths of the company, will help find the path to success.
Marketing conceptMarketing as a science, a social and administrative process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through generate, deliver and exchange products of value with their peers. The specialist in the area of marketing is called "Marketer".
The starting point of the marketing lies in needs and desires humans. Human need is the State in which the deprivation of some basic satisfiers feels. Wishes, consist of long for the specific satisfiers for these deep needs. Demand, on the other hand, consists of wish specific products that are backed by the ability and willingness of acquiring them.
Marketers, influenced by the wishes of the people, making products are attractive, accessible and available easily to consumers to which they are directed.
Product is anything that can be offered to satisfy a need or a desire, the importance of products is to enjoy the services offered.
Value is the estimate making the consumer of the total capacity of the product to meet your needs.
The Exchange is the Act of getting someone a product that you want to offer something in return.
A transaction comprises several dimensions: at least two valuables, agreement on the conditions, an agreed time and an agreed place. The transactions give rise to conflicts based on misunderstanding or bad faith. A transaction differs from a transfer. Marketing should be limited to the study of transactions and not the transfers; However, the behavior of the transfer may also extend through the concept of Exchange. The marketer seeks to provoke a response behaviour of the other party. Marketing consists of actions that are undertaken to provoke responses that are desired by a public goal, towards some goal. To make successful exchanges, the marketer discusses what each Party expects give and receive.
The process of trying to arrive at suitable terms for both parties is called negotiation. Negotiation leads, whether terms acceptable to both parties, or the decision not to make the transaction. Business marketers try to establish long-term, reliable, and secure relationships with customers, distributors, dealers and suppliers. This is accomplished by promising and giving to the other party, high quality, good service and fair prices all the time. He is achieved to strengthen economic, technical, social ties with other parties. Marketing relationships reduce transaction time and costs. The final result of the relationships of marketing is the structuring of a unique asset of the company, called network marketing. This is formed by the company and the companies with which it has established solid and reliable business relationships. Marketing is trying to replace the maximization of profits in each individual transaction by maximization of fruitful relations with other parties. The principle of operation is to establish good relations and profitable transactions, such as the following.
The market consists of all potential customers who share a need or specific desire and who might be willing to participate in an Exchange that meets this need or desire.
In ancient times, the market term referred to the place where buyers and sellers made the exchange of goods, although marketers believe that sellers are buyers and industry market. There are several types of market: product market, demographic market, the geographic market, market of voters, labour market and market of donors.
The concept of market refers to the concept of marketing, is a human activity that is related to the markets, means working in them to update potential exchanges in order to meet human needs. The marketer is one who searches for a resource from someone else and is willing to offer something of value in return, it can be a seller or a buyer, the marketer is a company that serves a market of end users to the competition, their relative effectiveness is influenced by its respective suppliers, in addition to environmental forces.
What is marketing
Marketing conceptFor Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (1994), the concept of marketing is based on the definition proposed by the Association of marketing of United States (American Marketing Association), which expresses that it is the process of planning and implementation of the concept, price, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services, to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. The key is the concept of Exchange, in which someone renounces something to receive something that you need or want, for what should happen as follows:
(a) have at least two parties involved.
(b) each party must have something of value to the other.
(c) each party must be able to communicate with each other and deliver the goods or services which that Party want.
(d) each party must be free to accept or reject the offers of the other.
(e) each party must believe that it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the other.
Even if all the above conditions occur, nothing guarantees that the exchange occurs within. However, they are necessary to make this possible, which means that marketing can exist even if the Exchange does not occur. Stanton, Etzel and Walter (2004) coincide with the previous authors to say that marketing is the set of activities designed to generate and facilitate the Exchange (by marketing) with the intention (of the company) needs, organizations, or human desires for what must intervene two or more people or organizations with wishes that require meet, there is no need to exchange for a self-sufficient person. They emphasize that the parties involved should do it voluntarily and that each one must possess something of value to contribute to such an Exchange, which implies a total system of business activities devised for planning needs satisfiers assigning prices, promote and distribute them to markets goal in order to achieve the objectives of the Organization, guiding the whole system towards the customer. For these authors, the objective of the efforts of marketing by the company, is the recovery of investment, determining the price and the achievement of the capitalization.
For his part, for Zirkmund and D'Amico (1993), the primary emphasis of this discipline involves an Exchange process that requires two or more parties are offered, each other, things of value, conceiving it as a set of business-oriented consumer (by the company), planned and implemented by a seller or merchant to facilitate the Exchange or transfer of assets, items, services or ideas in a way that both parties have a utility in some form, which coincides with what is mentioned by Stanton et to the. (2004). Reinforcing the foregoing, Kotler and Armstrong (2003) refer to the marketing as the satisfaction of the needs of the client, being this discipline a social and administrative process in which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and sharing value with other products. However Kotler (2001) focuses more on the Exchange to indicate that, for him, the sale is just the tip of the iceberg, that is, the result of Exchange processes based on the needs, wishes and demands of the customer in their search for value, which means that the sale is a result from the process of Exchange. This coincides with McDaniel (1986), who recognizes that the purpose of marketing, i.e., its reason to exist and to be used in enterprises, is meet the needs and desires through the Exchange process, which is its primary objective as a discipline.
Santesmases (1999) goes beyond the previous authors to conceive the marketing as a philosophy, that is, a way to seek satisfaction through voluntary exchange as standard life and attitude oriented to offer their products to the market, seeking to carry within the terms of trade by identifying, creating, developing and serving the demand. For the cited author, many companies say they are oriented to the client, which is not as well since all they do is advertising and sale without tying up meet the needs of its potential users, so it is regrettable that broad sectors sustained that the marketing does not seek the satisfaction of needs but creates them and manipulatesbeing false the claim that the customer is King. Lamb et to the. (1994) also identify the marketing as a philosophy in that it is an attitude, a perspective or a business orientation that emphasizes the satisfaction of customers, including also all activities to implement this philosophy. For Hernández (2001), the marketing is also a philosophy, which is based on the guidance to the establishment of fruitful relations with the various components of the market agents that complement the resources and capacities of the company for the generation of value to the market.
Meaning of marketingMarketing is the set of activities developed by the company and which are focused on satisfying customers, to achieve the objectives of the organization.
Marketing consists of satisfaction:
• Clients. It is obvious that our products and/or services seek to satisfy any need of the people, and are people willing to pay us for such satisfaction. Without customers there is no company. Without a product that meets a need, there is no company.
• People who work in the company. Most companies forget that marketing is also the needs of the people who work within them. Search for the satisfaction of staff is also essential.
• Shareholders. Obviously, those who take the risk must see rewarded their efforts. A good marketing strategy should achieve the company to generate utilities to its shareholders.
• Society. A company must be beneficial for society. Black as drug trafficking or prostitution turns satisfied customers, their people and investors, but do not help the social welfare.
The efforts of marcadotecnia of a company must focus to meet the needs of these 4 groups of people. Only then can we say that it has a good market strategy.
Meaning of marketingMarketing or marketing consists of a set of principles and practices that are carried out with the aim of increasing trade, particularly the demand. The concept also makes reference to the study procedures and resources pursuing this purpose.
Marketing involves the analysis of the commercial management of the companies. Its intention is to retain and gain the loyalty of current customers who has an organization, while you try to add new buyers.
Techniques and methodologies of marketing attempt to provide the tools needed to conquer a market. For that they must attend to matters known as the four p:producto, price, square (referring to the distribution) and advertising (or promotion).
Marketing aims to position a product or a brand in the minds of consumers. For this reason, part of the needs of the customer to design, execute and control the activities of a company marketing.
Marketing campaigns represent an investment in the company's relationship with its customers, suppliers and even its own employees. They may also include advertisements in the media. Therefore, the actions of marketing can be considered from a standpoint of short-term or long-term profitability.
Specialists claim that marketing can have different orientations: the market (to suit the needs of a product to the requirements of the consumer), sales (his intention is increase the participation of the company in the market) or product (in cases in which the company already monopolizes the market and your only focus is on the improvement of the production process).