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Concepts and meanings of International Marketing
Meaning of International MarketingInternational marketing or global marketing refers to marketing executed by transatlantic companies or across national borders. This strategy uses an extension of the techniques used in the main country of the company. According to the American Marketing Association the "international marketing is a multinational process of planning and executing the conception, put price, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives." In contrast to the definition of marketing only the multinational Word added. In simple words the international marketing is the application of the principles of marketing across national borders. However there is a transition between which is usually expressed by the international marketing and global marketing which are equal words.
The crossing is the result of the process of internationalization. Many American and European authors see international marketing by a trivial extension of export when the marketing mix is adapted simply in one certain way to track differences in consumers and segments. It follows that global marketing takes a more standardized approach to world markets and focused towards equality, in other words to the similarities in consumers and segments.
Similar to other elements of marketing there is no a single definition for international marketing. Additionally some authors define international marketing and global marketing differently:
• "At a very simple level international marketing implies the company by making one or more of the marketing mix across national borders. "To a very complex level company implies it in established production to overseas plants and coordinating marketing strategies across the world."
• "International Marketing is the provision of commercial activities that directs the flow of goods and services of the company to consumers or users in more than one nation by the gain."
• "International Marketing is the orientation and implementation capabilities of marketing to international business."
• "The international market exceeds the export merchant and involves more in the environment of marketing in the countries in which it does business."
• "Global/multinational Marketing jib to effectively employ investments, products to the experience of a company at a global level and also adapt it to what is really unique and different in each country."
• "Global Marketing refers to the marketing activities that are coordinated and integrated across multiple markets of those countries."
International marketing is often not the same as selling the product simply to several countries. Companies need to take care of the language barrier, the ideals and habits in the markets in which approaching. Adapting marketing strategies to attract a specific group that is trying to sell is very important and can be the cause number one a failure or a success.
Differences between domestic marketing and international marketing
There are many differences between domestic marketing and international marketing as a cultural, political, religious, customary, ideological differences and more. Because of language barriers, it is more difficult to obtain and interpret information from research in international marketing. Advertising messages has to care for many cultural differences between the countries. That includes differences in languages, habits, expressions, gestures, ideological and more. For example, in the United States the round "or" made by the thumb and index finger sign means "okay" while the same Mediterranean countries sign represents "zero" or "worst". In Tunisia it is understood it to "I will kill you" as soon as a Japanese consumer gesture means 'money'.
International Marketing definitionInternational Marketing definition
Every day, the marketing is gaining greater importance, both to how micro macro level. In this context of globalisation, companies are subject to a lot of competition from other companies even coming from foreign markets. In this sense, there are many companies that do not to lose market share, are forced to go outside.
A first approximation to what is the International Marketing would be the strategy that allows you to take better advantage of the opportunities offered by foreign markets and cope with international competition.
But this approach falls a little short. In its beginnings, the company responds to foreign clients but does not seek them, i.e. have a passive attitude (call it passive exports). However, according to progresses into internalizing, the company seeks those orders, commits, invests, i.e. carries out international marketing activities.
We can expand the definition and say that it is a business management technique through which the company intends to earn a profit taking advantage of the opportunity offered by foreign markets and dealing with international competition.
But the company finds that manages a series of variables of which some can control and others escape to his hand. The enterprise controls everything that falls on his domestic side (its productive capacity, financial resources and the degree of training of staff and managers, logistics capability...) and escape their control that exceeds its domestic scope, i.e., the characteristics of the environment and competition (legal regulations, language, cultural differences, the competitiveness...). Although the company does not control them, you must study them and adapt to them.
On the basis of all this, the definition can be expanded: strategy that is developed with the purpose of achieving targets in foreign markets having as a base the capabilities of the company (strengths and weaknesses), the situation of the environment and international competition (threats and opportunities).
Differences between national Marketing and international Marketing
When drawing up the National Marketing we must take into account various aspects. But when we talk about international markets, some of these aspects acquire more complexity, there are certain aspects of the International Marketing and are not addressed in the National Marketing.
The international environment is quite more complex than the domestic environment. Obviously in international markets we will find different laws and legal regulations, languages and different tastes, as well as various infrastructures... Therefore, the study of the environment is quite more complex.
Will also be much more complex because in international markets there will be a greater number of competitors and the offer of products and services will be much more extensive and in many cases unknown to the company.
Selection of markets
It is exclusive to the International Marketing.
Selection of the input form
It is also exclusive. To penetrate the markets, there are several ways: alone or with support from a partner, and each one of them implies a level of different investment, greater or lesser commitment to the market, more or less risk and greater or lesser approach to the final customer.
Coordination of the Marketing-Mix
Working in international markets, will have to coordinate the policies of marketing-mix of all markets (this does not mean that they are the same).
International Marketing conceptThe purpose of the International Marketing is to publicize the importance that have differences between the national and international environment and the way in which they influence the formulation and implementation of Marketing strategies in foreign markets. A correct identification of these in the international context will allow the company to take advantage of the huge business opportunities offered by these markets. While this for, will have to deal with a more complex, unknown environment and generally hostile to their own national where, the company must also be able to develop any competitive advantage that enables it to achieve success.
International Marketing develops together with the Marketing experiencing their same philosophical and organisational developments with its specific peculiarities. These peculiarities will lead to the development of their own organizational strategies and techniques as well as the resurgence of a double philosophy of International Marketing that revolves around the controversy of globalization versus adaptation. Thus, corresponding to the previous both philosophical and organizational evolutions of Marketing, you can set the following three phases (the latter can be subdivided into two) in international Marketing:
-Orientation to foreign trade
-Guidance to sales in foreign markets
-Orientation to international Marketing
Just as in Marketing the philosophical evolution corresponds to an organizational evolution growing and expanding the available techniques. Likewise, as regards the time horizon, unable to speak of fixed dates but that they will depend on changes in the environment (economic, political, competitive, technological, etc.) of different countries and industry sectors. Dates and features that will be present are approximate and will refer primarily to the more developed countries and the more advanced sectors (consumer goods, technological, etc.). Today, these countries and sectors, are located in the last phase and can be found yet (least developed) countries and sectors (where the philosophy of Marketing not stalled long enough and the techniques employed are few) that are located in the first phases of orientation.
The first phase of "orientation to foreign trade" would encompass the period that goes from before the industrial revolution to the 1930s where the main objective of the commercial activity consisted in an approach to placement of the productive surplus or guarantee of raw material sourcing, as it is the case of export or import. It is, primarily, a trade of products of agriculture, fishing and mining being carried out, largely between the metropolis and its colonies. Commerce craft and more elaborate products was minority. In addition, the objective pursued by the Governments of the countries was the obtaining of foreign currency - mainly gold-that enriqueciesen the Treasury coffers as well as favouring national production which distorting the market with a subsidized export supply and a series of legal obstacles to the importation. During this phase the International Marketing activities carried out by the company are marginal, have mainly logistical, transport and security of collection character.
In the second phase of "guidance for sale in foreign markets" that would run from the 1930s in the early 1970s (in the majority of countries and markets) start with a basic fact, the crisis of the international financial system of fixed exchange rates, which seriously affected trade. International trade suffers a severe fall and countries consisting of competitive devaluations steps taken to promote its exports and impede imports or, are decided by the way of autarky. It will only be from the second world war with the establishment of a new system of fixed exchange rates (Bretton Woods) and the Agency for the promotion of international trade, GATT, when it will begin to recover international trade culminating an important development towards the end of this era. Organizationally creates or develops in the exporting companies (big dimension in general) an international sales department within the sales which is separated from the national to respond to the particularities of foreign markets including within itself more related with the function of Sales Marketing activities abroad such as logistics and international transportthe customs administration, collections and payments in foreign currency, etc.). The main objective is to achieve greater coverage on the outside that allows the company to increased production and sales, as a result, obtaining economies of scale. Products that are exported as they are not mostly raw materials and agricultural (commodities) as in the previous case but that more elaborate products are traded. These products will require a greater adaptability than the commodity itself that did not need to be homogeneous products. However, there is still not a majority philosophy of products adapted to the tastes of customers in different countries but that, if done, is more by imperative legal (to be able to sell) which per entrepreneurial desire. On the other hand, the market is characterized by relative abundant demand (if it is able to reach geographically) being the biggest problems companies logistico-distributivo type and collection.
Finally, in the third stage which would start from the mid-1970s well is could speak of the emergence a guidance to international Marketing itself. This orientation to international Marketing arises simultaneously to the general orientation to Marketing. You are at a stage where demand is already objectively inferior to bid both nationally and abroad and ways to encourage it through the discovery and covert needs of consumers will look for. This era begins, like the previous one, with an economic crisis caused by the breakdown of the Bretton Woods fixed changes system but that will not affect both foreign as the 29 trade since they develop measures economic monetary stabilization individually or collectively (EEC) countries, as well as the development of security of cobro-pago insurance Exchange (futures markets and instruments(, forward, options, etc.). A primary fact of this phase, is the extension of the homogeneity between the markets in a phenomenon that has come to be called "globalization". This phenomenon has given rise to a new type of so-called global Marketing International Marketing that comes in contrast to the also known by multi-domestic Marketing International Marketing. Both types of Marketing conception is diametrically opposed talking multi-domestic or global companies respectively as they follow one or another type of strategy whose distinction is going to explain below. The multidomestica strategy understands that different international markets are different so it calls for an adaptation of each one of the strategies of the mix of Marketing (product, price, communication and distribution) to the particular circumstances of each market. Thus you get a better adaptation to the needs of each market and, therefore, sales are usually higher.
On the other hand, the global strategy understands that world markets are homogeneous (tastes, media, etc.), moreover, believes that more than a market there is 'the world' and, therefore, establishes a unique strategy of standardization of the Marketing mix for all. The benefits that are derived from this strategy are enormous, from greater economies of scale or scope to synergies by the use of unique brands and consistent image of the company around the world. The employment of a type of strategy or another will be result both of a strategic choice the company as well as the level of standardisation of the market. If the market is homogenised as occurs in sectors such as luxury, technology products, young fashion, sports, music, fast food, etc. the most appropriate strategy will be global. However, if the markets are not as it is the case of hygiene products, personal and home care a multidomestica strategy is more convenient.
The question is, therefore, determine the level of homogeneity of the target market of the company with respect to a product / sector-specific. This requires the analysis of different external environments (economic, farmlands, technological, cultural-social, etc.) and study the different degree of homogeneity in them. At the end, you will discover there are no markets or totally global or totally multidomesticos, so the choice of one type or another of International Marketing strategy depends on the level of homogenization.
In any case, it's a type of analysis that is not easy to determine, although Professor Theodore Levitt contributed a very interesting solution, already in 1983 in his famous article about the "globalization of markets". This article Levitt raises the fact that carried out an analysis of identification of what he called commonalities or issues in common that occur in different markets that we enlist internationally. This analysis can be somewhat difficult, but once initiated discovers are, generally, that there are many more than initially thought and that may give rise to the design of a product with a high level of standardization while in what you can not, must adapt. This thought is summed up in the famous phrase, Think global, act local that represents a strategic mainstream in current international Marketing. Failure to follow this procedure and be carried out, for example, contrast consistent start by thinking about all the peculiarities and differences and each market and try to give them response would lead to a strategic folly (there will be countless) which will then be impossible to treat.
What is International Marketing"International marketing", which is a set of strategies by which the marketer makes to get the good or service to overseas markets and which is aimed at a population specific.
On many occasions, this is a gradual process, which has to do with the abilities of the company and the performance that you purchased within its market of reference, to subsequently embark on the conquest of new markets, new cultures, both in the way of doing business and features that consumers in other locations have to face. That is why, requires a comprehensive plan that could exploit the advantages offered by the external market, and in any event minimize the risks of an investment.
It is the marketing applied to other cultures or different realities alien to our environment, and should therefore take into account multiple factors in development and introduction of products. The producer should try to design and produce consumer goods that meet the needs of the consumer. In order to discover what these are used knowledge of marketing. Marketing has many more functions that must comply with before starting the process of production; among these, it market research, design, development and testing of the final product.
Meaning of International MarketingMarketing, also known as marketing or marketing, is the discipline dedicated to elaborate strategies for the commercial management of the companies, seeking to stimulate demand. The tasks of marketing include the analysis of the behavior of consumers and the market.
International, for its part, is an adjective that refers to belonging or relating to two or more Nations. The term can also appoint to countries other than their own and that which has transcended national borders.
What is, therefore, the international marketing? It is of theapplication of marketing strategies in an environment different from their own. The specialist must interact with cultures and realities that are alien to their usual environment and force it to pay special attention to certain factors that keys to the introduction of products will result in the market.
One of the responsibilities of the marketing is loyalty to the consumer, for which the product in question should meet your needs. In international marketing, it is important that the expert has clear what these needs are and how the product that aims to commercialize can satisfy them.
To meet this objective, it is necessary to work within the scope of the investigation into the foreign market. International marketing has to know the characteristics of this environment to perform the corresponding recommendations on the design and development of the product. Once the product was introduced in the market, it will be the moment of trying to gain the loyalty of the consumer and to develop expansion strategies.