Mesoamerica - location of Mesoamerica in the continent


Mesoamerica (Greek: μέσος [mesos], 'intermediate') is the region of the Americas comprising the southern half of Mexico; the territories of Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize; as well as the western part of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It should not be confused with the Mesoamerican region, concept coined to denote a geoeconomic region by international organizations such as the OECD Mesoamerica is an area defined by culture. This region saw the development of an indigenous civilization in the context of a mosaic of great ethnic and linguistic diversity. The cultural unity of Mesoamerican peoples is reflected in several traits that Paul Kirchhoff defined as the Mesoamerican complex. The definition of what is acceptable as a Mesoamerican is the subject of discussion among the scholars of this civilization; However, it is frequently mentioned in inventory the agricultural base of the economy, the cultivation of corn, the use of two calendars (ritual of 260 days and 365 civil), human sacrifices as part of religious expressions, lithic technology and the absence of metallurgy, among others. In its time, the definition of the Mesoamerican complex served to distinguish the Mesoamerican peoples of their neighbors of the North and South.
Ubicación de Mesoamérica en el continente.Location of Mesoamerica in the continent.
The development of Mesoamerica was extended by several centuries. Specialists discuss the time that can be considered the "beginning" of the Mesoamerican civilization. According to some views, the initial milestone is the development of pottery. Others believe that the first Mesoamerican complex develops between the 15th and 12th centuries BC, contemporary period to the Olmec culture. Throughout its history, Mesoamerican peoples built a civilization whose expressions speak of elements shared by several villages and traits that distinguish them. To the extent that advanced the civilizing process, some features were homogenized by inter-ethnic contact and others acquired specificity in certain contexts. This process was continued and lasted until the Spanish colonization. Some authors employ the Nahua names interchangeably to describe objects and original concepts of Mesoamerica, and others highlighted the differences between the peoples of the region.
La sierra MixtecaThe sierra Mixteca
As this is an introductory article, the cultural elements shared by Mesoamerican peoples in accordance with the approach adopted in works of the general approach to the Mesoamerican reality take precedence. Although this article not stops referencing the particularities, these can be deepened in the respective articles.
El Acróbata, pieza de cerámica procedente de Tlatilco, Estado de MéxicoAcrobat, piece of pottery from Tlatilco, State of Mexico
The majority of the Mesoamerican peoples spoke languages belonging to the following linguistic families: otomangueana, Mayan, mixe-zoquean, totonacana and UTO-aztecan. Other languages are isolated or could not be classified because they disappeared in the process of castilianization that began with the Spanish colonization and continues to date. This mosaic of languages and ethnic groups was present during pre-Hispanic times and has its correlate in the numerous indigenous cultures that were developed in different areas and times of Mesoamerica, among which the most studied have been mexica, the maya, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Olmec or the tarascan. Despite the concentration of studies which have been given in the case of those important cultures, Mesoamerica was the scene of many peoples, some of whom have barely begun to be investigated from recent excavations.
Numeración maya. Los sistemas de numeración mesoamericanos se basaban en el número veinte. Cada número de la serie tenía una connotación mágica, que tenía repercusiones en el destino de los seres humanos.Mayan numbering. Mesoamerican numbering systems were based on the number 20. Each number in the series had a magical connotation, having an impact on the fate of human beings.

Source: Mesoamérica – Ubicación de Mesoamérica en el continente