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Definition of Surplus Value
1. Concept of surplus valueSurplus or surplus value is the value that work unpaid to the employee creates above the value of its work force, and that the capitalist appropriates for free. It is the specific form that acquires the plusproducto under the capitalist mode of production and forms the basis of capitalist accumulation.
This concept and definition was developed by Karl Marx from the criticism to the preceding classical economists that had already enunciated it albeit in incomplete as Adam Smith and David Ricardo.
It is worth remembering that Marx says specifically, in articles he published, the concept "surplus" takes it's Ricardo, who develops to a certain extent the value theory, giving it that name. Ricardo takes as a starting point the concept of value discussed by Adam Smith. The latter is the first known economist, so define it, posed by the concept of "value" which is the basis of the added value or surplus-value and Ricardo criticized Smith is the first to develop it in a systematic way. But Marx introduces for the first time the distinction between labour force and labour, which lets you effectively explain the added value and complete theory of the value, previous economists had not achieved.
The surplus-value is a concept that is inextricably linked to the theory of the value and is central to the description what it does under capitalism exploitation. These concepts are defined and used mainly in the capital and in Books II and III of the Grundrisse.
According to the theory of the value, each merchandise contains a value corresponding to the time socially necessary work required for their produccion.2 in the case of a cabinet that includes the hours of labour required to produce it and working hours that were required to produce each of the goods involved in the process of production (nails, wood, tools, etc). The distinction mentioned above between workforce and work allows reveal that working hours are in fact hours of employment of the workforce and salary value to produce the workforce, not the "value of work" done by the trabajador.3 being a commodity strength work, its value can also be measured as necessary for replacementi.e., necessary so that worker - its future replacements - exist - and can reproduce itself - as well as for each new day to return to work.
2. Definition of surplus valueThe added value is a word that is used in our language to indicate the growth has experienced in its value a thing and at the same external causes. The House of my parents suffered a capital gain since the Palermo district became a very profitable also commercial and gastronomic pole and then this came up the valuation of the properties in the area.
Then, the succession of events, one thing outside events, either make them suffer from an increase in its value and therefore the intention of the people for wanting to possess them. The newly offered property example is one of the best graphic concept which are often called also as surplus-value.
She is noteworthy, that the origin of this word dates back to two centuries ago, in the 19th century and more precisely has been the philosopher German, creator of Marxism, Karl Marx, who has coined and diffused.
According to the ideology held by Marx surplus value consisted of the accumulation of money perpetrated by the capitalist class thanks to the effort appropriately the worker. Because the worker receives a certain salary as payment for the activity that develops, but of course, there is an additional value, above, that the employee works is not paid and that ends it perceiving is the owner of the means of production, the capitalist, in terms of Marxist ideology.
Marx considered that each product corresponds to a value that will be in close association with a time of work necessary to be able to be produced. Meanwhile, the labour force is understood by Marx as a product whose price will be linked to the worker's need to live with dignity.
Now, if an employee only working five hours a day get to meet own needs and those of your environment, but your employer does work ten hours, then, there will be five hours that make up the goodwill of the employer, who exactly owns them is, uses them for his own benefit and thus continues to increase its capital.
To put it more clearly, the appreciation is smooth and simply a holding in the eyes of Marxism.
Two synonyms more we use instead of this concept which is worth mentioning does not use so frequent in the language are the increase and valuation.
3. Definition of surplus valueThe dictionary of the Real Academia Española (RAE) presents the added value as the increase in the value of an object or thing for reasons extrinsic to them. The concept, also known by the name of surplus-value, was developed by the German Karl Marx (1818-1883).
Marx believed that the added value consists of the value generated by the worker who perceives a salary for his work above the money that represents your work effort. This value, which could be defined as work not paid to the worker, is in the hands of the capitalist. The added value, therefore, the basis of capitalist accumulation.
To understand the notion of surplus value, should understand that each merchandise corresponds to a price that relates to time socially necessary work for their production. The labour force is also considered by Marxism as a commodity whose value is linked to what is necessary so that the worker can survive and reproduce.
For example: If the worker needs to work four hours a day to satisfy basic needs and their family, and their working day is nine hours a day, the capitalist will be taking over the capital gains generated in five hours. This value is a new and additional (a surplus), since it was not part of any other component of the production process.
This appropriation of the surplus value is the exploitation of capitalism. For Marx, the capitalist can increase the level of exploitation by means of the absolute surplus value maximization (starting from extending the workday) or of surplus value relative to (cut the value of the labour force).