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Definition of universalism
1 Meaning of universalismUniversalism, in a general sense, is an idea or belief in the existence of a universal, objective or eternal truth that it determines everything, therefore, is and must be equally present in all human beings. A universalist thinking ensures the accuracy of a way unique or specific view, explain, or organize the world.
Universalism is not in itself a common ideology, but a unique feature in the way of seeing the world, or human life.It is common to have different universalistic ideologies resulting very opposite each other. Throughout history, there have been universalist thoughts in all areas of human life. As examples, in the field of religion and theology, it is Christianity and islam, which are considered examples of religious universalism. On philosophical or ethical level, there are various examples of universalism, moral, with the latter being an opposition to moral relativism. Other universalistic concepts can lead to ethnic level, what is known as universalism ethnocentric. Universalism can also be a scientific level, as there are different theories in science that denote a universal character.
On the other hand, political universalism is understood as a doctrine that advocates the unification of all the powers and global institutions under a single head. Examples of political and/or cultural universalism are various medieval Empires, caliphates, and Governments with globalist tendencies.
The opposite of universalism would be nominalism (also called particularism, since this one, on the other hand, advocates an individualistic way of seeing things. It is noteworthy that universalist thoughts do not deny the existence of individual ways of seeing things, it is denied the veracity of these.
Moral universalismMoral universalism is the ethical stance that defends the existence of a universal moral truth about each particular moral issue.
The Platonic Socrates was an explicit advocate of moral universalism, to bellum "indestructible" link with the reason of man. This perspective of Socratic thought was opposed to the moral conventionality of the Sophists.
One of the defenses to moral universalism lies in the consideration that morality allows dictating responsibilities and obligations, which implies ethical duties, and therefore, allows to maintain a sense of order and universal values in society.
Moral universalism is a feature of universalistic religions, especially Christianity; Although there are multiple positions not-religious, as the Baron Holbach who advocate a moral universalism based on nature human, ensuring that it is suitable for the social order.
Philosophical universalismThe philosopher Immanuel Kant, in his formalist perspective, defended the universalist belief that moral norms should be univerzables, without admitting any restriction to the basis of moral principles.
2. Definition of universalismUniversalism is the philosophical doctrine that affirms the existence of certain principles that are universally indisputable, for being real, and which must therefore be admitted by all persons and cultural groups as a guide for their conduct and to distinguish the good deeds of the evil.
On the theological level, each religion tries to their beliefs to be recognized as the only true.
Politically, is cocentrar and States seeking to extend their power through imperialist policies.
The teleológicas universalist theories, argue that all behavior is aimed at purposes, which are for us goods. Some goods or purposes are in themselves, and others become in the middle to achieve other purposes or goods. There is only one well that becomes in the end of all human behaviour, and that marks the morality of the Act. Aristotle argued that it was good that was aimed towards the happiness which was the Supreme goal. The ultimate goal for Christianity for example, is carry out the divine plan, following the biblical precepts, which are undeniable truths. To utilitarians the good, is anything more positive to the greatest number of human beings.
Universalist ethical theories, which makes an act morally, is what is done by duty and what is due is discovered through reasoning; as the philosopher Immanuel Kant.
There are absolute truths, are very optimistic about the scope of human reason, to find the answers to the great questions of life, and if not, accept the principles by way of faith.